Psychology - SOCIAL SCIENCES
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TARGETSAspirationalTarget Grade:________Component 3Psychology: Implicationsin the real worldA Level Psychology – EduqasHaving learnt about the various psychological approaches in Component 1, learners are expected to apply this knowledge and understanding to human/animal behaviours. Learners should be able to explain and draw conclusions about the possible causes of these behaviours and understand that psychology has the potential to impact on society as a whole by developing methods of modifying behaviour. In addition, learners should explore five controversies that continue to pose challenges for psychology. These controversies can be considered synoptically and draw on the content from the whole of the specification.Learners must choose to study three from six nominated behaviours. For each behaviour it will be necessary for learners to:know the characteristics of the behaviourknow and understand biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations of the behaviours evaluate the biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations of the behavioursknow and understand the methods of modifying the behavioursapply the explanations to methods of modifying the behavioursevaluate the methods of modifying the behaviours (including their effectiveness, ethical implications and social implications).For each of the five controversies it will be necessary for learners to:understand the issue and why it is controversialapply knowledge and understanding to controversies in psychologymake judgements and come to conclusions about the controversies from a psychological perspective.Name: ______________________191135-184150Name:Target Grade:Use this section to record general strengths and targets in Psychology.These can be set by you, your teacher, or your study buddyTargetsStrengths1234541636952012315017526015621066820233051636Grade18923001270Assessment over timeCreate a graph on the space below to track your progress over time.Grades are placed on the y-axis (A-E). The name of the assessment will be placed on the x-axis.710166-287079AssignmentTitleWhat you/your teacher/peer said you did wellWhat your you/your teacher/peer said you needed to improveYour mark/out ofGradeOver/on/ under target grade1/2/3/4/5/638175-219075AssignmentTitleWhat you/your teacher/peer said you did wellWhat your you/your teacher/peer said you needed to improveYour mark/out ofGradeOver/on/ under target grade6/7/8/9/10/625106-138223AssignmentTitleWhat you/your teacher/peer said you did wellWhat your you/your teacher/peer said you needed to improveYour mark/out ofGradeOver/on/ under target grade11/12/13/14/15/How is this component assessed?A LevelWritten examination: 2 hours 15 minutes33?% of the total A Level qualification100 marksLearners must answer three from six nominated behaviours (applications section), and answer one controversy question.IntroductionWe will be working through this booklet in lesson time; it can also be used as a revision aid nearer to the exam. Inside this booklet are resources that have been designed to help you to understand and revise Component 3 – Psychology: Implications in the Real World. There are six different applications, the three chosen to study are: Criminal behavioursSchizophreniaStressThe booklet also contains a list of the specification requirements which you can use as a checklist to monitor your progress. Exam questions have also been included so you know what to expect, some of these will be completed during lesson time. These are useful sites which may help you with your revision; some of them have been used within the booklet. preparing resources, the following textbook has been used:Flanagan, C., Hartnoll, L., & Murray, R. (2016) Psychology A Level Book 2 The Complete Companion Student Book. OUP Oxford. Aims and ObjectivesThis WJEC Eduqas A level specification in Psychology is stimulating, distinctive and attractive, providing exciting opportunities for the learners to: study a variety of historical and current psychological approachesstudy classic and contemporary psychological research covering a variety of perspectives and topics study principles of investigating human and animal behaviour apply psychological information to everyday situationsexplore contemporary issues raised in psychological research work scientifically through their own psychological research demonstrate greater emphasis on the skills of psychology. This specification encourages learners to: develop essential knowledge and understanding of different areas of psychology and how they relate to each otherdevelop and demonstrate a deep appreciation of the skills, knowledge and understanding of scientific methods in psychology develop competence and confidence in a variety of practical, mathematical and problem solving skills develop their interest in and enthusiasm for psychology, including developing an interest in further study and careers associated with the subject understand how society makes decisions about psychological issues and how psychology contributes to the success of the economy and society. How is your work assessed?Below are the assessment objectives for this specification. Learners must:AO1 – Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and proceduresAO2 – Apply knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and procedures: in a theoretical contextin a practical contextwhen handling qualitative datawhen handling quantitative dataAO3 – Analyse, interpret and evaluate a range of scientific information, ideas and evidence, including in relation to issues, to: make judgements and reach conclusionsdevelop and refine practical design and proceduresThe table below shows the weighting of each assessment objective (at A Level) for each component and for the A Level qualification as a whole:WeightingAO1AO2AO3Component 133?%13?%6?%13?%Component 233?%6?%16?%10%Component 333?%10%8?%15%100%30%31?%38?%The assessment for learning cycleTeacher sets taskThe systematised feedback will:Relate to how your work will be marked in the external examinationsBe a system that you can understandProvide feedback that is developmentalStudent performs taskTeacher / student / peer marks taskSystematised feedback on taskFollow-up workA key to feedback terms and icons in your booklet and on your work362648561595493585511430227498448067Whole SchoolSp- Spelling Homework StrengthsVerbal feedback givenGr- Grammar490728056515362902593980Pn- Punctuation2274985-166Cp- Capital letter^- Word omitted/incomplete answer Flipped TargetsA response is required NP//- New paragraph learningby you (in purple pen)Sample exam questions for this section:Describe the characteristics of criminal behaviour. Describe one biological and one psychological explanation for criminal behaviour. Describe one biological and one individual differences explanation for criminal behaviour. Describe one psychological and one individual differences explanation for criminal behaviour. Describe two psychological explanations of criminal behaviour. Describe two individual differences explanations of criminal behaviour. Describe two biological explanations of criminal behaviour. Evaluate two individual differences explanations of criminal behaviour. Evaluate two biological explanations of criminal behaviour. Evaluate two psychological explanations of criminal behaviour. Analyse and evaluate two explanations for criminal behaviour. Discuss the ethical and social implications of two different methods of modifying criminal behaviour. Discuss the view that anger management is more effective at modifying criminal behaviour than restorative justice. Outline how one method of modifying behaviour can be applied to the characteristics of criminal behaviour. Describe one method of modifying criminal behaviour. Applications: Criminal Behaviour4644213214641843442863624344-553785530415Make sure that you:know the characteristics of the criminal behavioursknow and understand biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations of criminal behavioursevaluate the biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations of criminal behavioursknow and understand the methods of modifying criminal behavioursapply the explanations to methods of modifying criminal behavioursevaluate the methods of modifying criminal behaviours (including their effectiveness, ethical implications and social implications).4344286-1359Characteristics of Criminal BehaviourCrime is defined as: an action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law.For example not paying your car tax, or stealing from a supermarket.Crime isn’t just doing something wrong, but it is identified as being wrong by the law too. If no law is broken then it is simply a ‘wrongdoing’.center1981835Farr and Gibbons (1990) suggested that there are seven categories for different types of crime. Make a note of them in the spaces below:The Office of National Statistics (ONS) collects and publishes information about different types and amounts of criminal behaviour in the UK. There are two categories of criminal behaviour in ‘primary offence groups’:Victim based crimesCrimes against societyCan you think of examples for each of the categories of crime above?1.2.Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1 Trends in overall crime for England and Wales, CSEW and police recorded crime, year ending December 1981 to year ending December 2015What does the graph above show about the pattern of crime?The ‘normality’ of criminal behaviourMuncie and McLaughlin (1996) suggest that while the majority of us might consider ourselves to be law abiding citizens, actually we are not. The average person in the UK, if convicted once only for each type of crime they had recently committed would have spent six years in jail and be fined up to ?61000! This obviously causes some problems for psychologists investigating criminal behaviour.Who is a criminal?There is a problem with the definition of crime. Crime is when someone breaks the law of the state, but these laws change over time. For example, homosexuality was illegal until 1969, and still is illegal in places such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Additionally, in the 17th century individuals could be punished by hanging for stealing a sheep or even a handkerchief. This definition impacts psychologists and what they study – should psychologists restrict their sample to only people who have committed, been caught and charged, and been punished for their criminal behaviour?Is criminal behaviour always wrong?Problems for researchright90170left90170Here are two FBI profiles of famous criminals they’ve caught. Using your knowledge of the different approaches, can you explain their behaviour?Biological Explanations of Criminal Behaviour: Inherited CriminalityNature Nurture2286097790Do you think people are born criminals? Or do you think they are criminals due to their life experience? In the 19th century Cesare Lombroso believed that individuals were born criminals. Modern day research has provided some insight into the theory that criminals have inherited traits.508063543180Genetic factorsTwin studies are used to find out whether genes predispose us to criminal behaviour. MZ (identical) and DZ (non-identical) twins are compared. Raine (1993) reviewed research into delinquent twins and found a 52% concordance rate for MZ twins and 21% for DZ twins.What is a concordance rate?Why are twins studied?Why can’t twins give us definitive evidence of inherited criminality?Searching for a genetic gene2286015240Two genes have been linked to criminal behaviour:Monoamine oxidase ACadherin 13 (CDH13)Han Brummer et al. (1993) analysed the DNA of 28 male members of a Dutch family who had histories of impulsive and violent behaviour (e.g. rape and attempted murder). The researchers found...A Finnish study by Tiihonen et al. (2015) with 900 offenders found...Diathesis-stressA current view is that there is not one gene that determines behaviour, but in fact there is a series of genes which turn ‘on’ or ‘off’ by epigenomes which in turn have been affected by environmental factors – a diathesis-stress. Caspi et al. (2002) used data from a longitudinal study in Dunedin that followed 1000 people from babies in the 1970s. They assessed antisocial behaviour at age 26 and found that 12% of those men with the low MAOA gene had experienced maltreatment in childhood (environmental factor) but were responsible for 44% of violent convictions.Differences in the brain6252358130956857054751307465 Evaluating the Biological Explanation of Criminal Behaviour: Inherited Criminality Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanation6526176126424Describe one biological and one social psychological explanation of criminal behaviour. Compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two explanations of criminal behaviours. Biological Explanations of Criminal Behaviour: Role of the AmygdalaWhat is the structure and function of the amygdala?Amygdala and aggressionCoccaro et al. (2007) investigated the effects of the amygdala on aggression by studying people with intermittent explosive disorder (IED). What is IED?What was the key difference found?Amygdala and fear conditioningGao et al. (2010) investigated why the amygdala leads to aggression and ultimately criminal behaviour. As children we learn aggression and antisocial behaviour through fear conditioning. We learnt that aggressive behaviour leads to punishment (or other negative outcomes, e.g. loss of friendships). The amygdala is involved in processing fear and fear conditioning. A dysfunction in the amygdala means the child cannot identify the social cues that indicate a threat (e.g. angry faces) and therefore do not associate the punishment to their own aggressive behaviour. Fear conditioning is disrupted – the outcome for the child with amygdala dysfunction is fearlessness, and overly aggressive and antisocial behaviour.TASK: Outline the research in the space below:What role does the amygdala play in psychopathy? Use the textbook to make some notes about the research by Glenn et al. (2009) Evaluating the Biological Explanation of Criminal Behaviour: Role of the Amygdala Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanationIndividual Differences Explanations of Criminal Behaviour: Eysenck’s Criminal PersonalityTake the EPQ in the textbook and score your answers.My Extraversion score is: _____My Neuroticism score is: _____My Psychoticism score is: _____How truthful were you in your answers using the lie scale? Should you discard your answers due to lacking validity?Eysenck’s theory of personalityHans Eysenck developed a theory of personality based on the idea that character traits, like those in the diagram above, tend to cluster around three dimensions. Two of the dimensions are shown in the diagram are most important, he added Psychoticism later. The personality test was devised to test individual’s personality.The dimensions are:Extraversion - intraversionNeuroticism - stabilityPsychoticism - normalityBiological basisEysenck (1982) suggested that your personality is innate (biological). He claimed that 64% of the variance is due to genetic factors.ExtraversionNeuroticismPsychoticismHow does personality link to criminal behaviour? Evaluating the Individual Differences Explanation of Criminal Behaviour: Eysenck’s Criminal Personality Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanationIndividual Differences Explanations of Criminal Behaviour: Cognitive FactorsCognitive explanations focus on the way our thinking causes abnormal behaviour. A different form of the cognitive approach is moral reasoning – this is how people think about right or wrong.Cognitive distortionsCognitive distortion is a form of irrational thinking. Distortions are ways that the thought processes are twisted so that they no longer perceive what is actually true. This means that something others think of as wrong will be perceived as right, therefore breaking the law. This means that an offender will have these distortions and allow them to deny or rationalise their crime.Two examples of cognitive distortions which are relevant to crime are:Hostile attribution biasMinimalisationLevel of moral reasoningIn Component 1 you learned about Kohlberg’s levels of moral reasoning. Without repeating what you already know, make some notes about how the theory links to criminal behaviour: Evaluating the Individual Differences Explanation of Criminal Behaviour: Cognitive Factors Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanation6494278128580Describe one biological and one individual differences explanation of criminal behaviour. Compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two explanations of criminal behaviours. Can you apply your knowledge of the biological and individual differences explanations to modifying criminal behaviour?Social Psychological Explanations of Criminal Behaviour: Differential Association Theory The explanations we have looked at so far have contained elements of nature and nurture (i.e. criminal behaviour is both genetic predisposition and elements of experience). This theory will look at how criminal behaviour is entirely due to learning and how people around you influence your acquired behaviours. This entirely social theory can explain why criminal fathers can pass behaviour to their sons – not through genes but through observation and reinforcement.Differential association theorycenter2008505Sutherland proposed nine key principles that explain differential association:What is social learning?What is differential association?Sutherland believed that it might be possible to develop a mathematical formula which predicts whether or not someone would turn to crime based on frequency, duration and intensity of social contacts.What is learned?A child learns attitudes to crime, such as whether it is desirable or not. A potential criminal is someone with pro-criminal attitudes. Children will also learn which types of crime are desirable (e.g. burglary is acceptable but murder is not). A child will also learn about methods for committing crimes, where some are complicated, others are simpler (e.g. robbing a corner shop vs. a bank).Who is it learned from?How is it learned? Evaluating the Social Psychological Explanation of Criminal Behaviour: Differential Association Theory Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanationSocial Psychological Explanations of Criminal Behaviour: Gender SocialisationIn 2015 95% of the prison population was male. You could then consider that gender must play a role in criminal behaviour. Patterns of socialisationSocialisation is the process which we learn our norms, customs and skills necessary to participate in society. Gender is considered to be a major factor in criminal behaviour. Label the diagram below to show how girls and boys are socialised differently according to Sutherland (1949).Role modelsSocial learning theory suggests that gender behaviour is learned from our parents through observation and imitation. Girls observe the mother and boys the father. Cohen (1955) suggested that this is more difficult for boys, why? What is the result?Differences in social controlPatriarchal societies are those where men and fathers dominate. Such societies impose greater control over women and this reduces the opportunity for women to commit crimes. Heidensohn (1985) suggested that women are ‘controlled’ at home, work and in public. Girls in the home are not allowed as much freedom as sons, they are relied on for child care of siblings, they are not allowed to stay out as late, are required to do more housework – as a result socialising often occurs in the home, e.g. sleepovers. As adults, females have fewer opportunities to commit crime due to their domestic roles within the home, e.g. caring for young children. There is a ‘glass ceiling’ where women often don’t reach the high managerial positions at work in order to commit white collar crime. In public, crimes such as rape impose fear in women going out, so therefore they stay at home reducing crime risks. Finally, the media reports female crime as risking ‘double jeopardy’; not only rejecting society’s norms and values, but also their femininity. Evaluating the Social Psychological Explanation of Criminal Behaviour: Gender Socialisation Weaknesses of the explanationDescribe one biological and one social psychological explanation of criminal behaviour. Outline two social psychological explanations of criminal behaviour. Compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two explanations of criminal behaviours. Can you apply your knowledge of the social psychological and individual differences explanations to modifying criminal behaviour?511175066040This article provides information to suggest that prison doesn’t work for women: of Modifying Criminal Behaviour: Anger ManagementWhen treating criminal behaviour most people would suggest punishment – this is taken from the behaviourist approach. Yet statistically, 46% of adults imprisoned will reoffend within a year, and over 67% of under-18s are reconvicted within a year. One alternative form of treatment is CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) and anger management is a form of CBT. The aim is to reduce an emotional response (anger) by reconceptualising the emotion using cognitive behavioural skills. Anger management is one of the most common rehabilitation programmes used in prisons and in after care.The two aims of anger management are: Anger in prisonersCriminals often had irrational thinking, such as having hostile attribution bias. ‘Attribution’ refers to what we think when we observe others and drawing a conclusion from their actions. For example, when someone smiles you might conclude that they are communicating with you. If someone has a hostile attribution bias it means that they often think the worst, for example, if someone smiles then they are thinking the worst of you. These negative interpretations lead to anger.30532553857297Key aimsThe aim is to change the way a person handles aggression and anger, the situation can’t change, but the way a person deals with it can. Novaco (2011) identified three key aims of anger managementStress inoculation modelMost anger management training is based on the model by Novaco,he developed his techniques based on stress inoculation training, which is a form of CBT. This technique aims to provide a kind of vaccination against future stress events. The therapy tends to beconducted with groups of offenders either inside or outside prison, e.g. during probation. The three key stages are:Conceptualisation Skill acquisition (and rehearsal) Application (and follow through) Evaluating the Methods of Modifying Criminal Behaviour: Anger Management EffectivenessEthical implicationsSocial implications632523572390Discuss the view that anger management is more effective at modifying criminal behaviour than restorative justice. Methods of Modifying Criminal Behaviour: Restorative JusticeRestorative justice is the view that offenders should in some way restore the situation to what it was like before a crime was committed, i.e. they put right their wrongs. Can you think of a technique used in our school that uses restorative justice? Officially restorative justice is a new approach, considering that custodial sentencing (prisons) are not effective at reducing crime an alternative is required.30060901605280What are the five aims of custodial sentencing?Restorative justiceRestorative justice often (but not always)involves communication with the victim. Sometimes the offender gives payment, a letter or face-to-face interaction. If the victim agrees, the offender may be offered restorative justice instead of prison time.There are two key aims to restorative justice:Rehabilitation of offendersAtonement for wrongdoingWhy does restorative justice work from the victim’s perspective?A theory of restorative justiceWachtel and McCold (2003) have provided an explanation for why restorative justice works. Their starting point is on relationships rather than punishment, as crime damages people and their relationships, justice tries to heal it. Recent efforts of restorative justice focus on the wider community, not just offender and victim. In order for successful restorative justice they propose three stakeholders – the victim (seeks compensation), the offender (take responsibility) and the community (aims to achieve reconciliation). If one stakeholder is involved the process is only partly restorative (e.g. if the government offers compensation); if two stakeholders are involved it is partly restorative (e.g. if the offender has therapy); but if all three are involved the process is fully completed.TASK: Copy the image of the three stakeholders from the textbook onto a flashcard. Evaluating the Methods of Modifying Criminal Behaviour: Restorative Justice EffectivenessEthical implicationsSocial implications6277960214520Discuss the view that restorative justice is more effective at modifying criminal behaviour than anger management. End-of-topic self reviewHow am I progressing?My target grade: _____The grade I am working at now is: _____What do I do, or where do I look, to find out how well I am progressing?Two targets to improve my work are:I want to have achieved these targets by:I will know if I have achieved these targets because:Two words to describe how I feel about my learning are:Sample exam questions for this section:Describe the characteristics of stress. Describe one biological and one psychological explanation of stress. Describe one biological and one individual differences explanation of stress. Describe one psychological and one individual differences explanation of stress. Describe two psychological explanations of stress. Describe two individual differences explanations of stress. Describe two biological explanations of stress. Evaluate two individual differences explanations of stress. Evaluate two biological explanations of stress. Evaluate two psychological explanations of stress. Analyse and evaluate two explanations of stress. Discuss the ethical and social implications of two different methods of modifying stress. Discuss the view that beta blockers are more effective at modifying stress than stress inoculation training. Outline how one method of modifying behaviour can be applied to the characteristics of stress. Describe one method of modifying stress. Applications: Stress417638029438604038157485772029549754850414283513190027Make sure that you:know the characteristics of stressknow and understand biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations of stressevaluate the biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations of stressknow and understand the methods of modifying stressapply the explanations to methods of modifying stressevaluate the methods of modifying stress (including their effectiveness, ethical implications and social implications).Characteristics of StressStress is something some experience more than others. Stress can have long- and short-term effects on the body if you are unable to cope with the stressor. Experiencing stressful events leads to both psychological and physical responses to prepare for the stressor. When we experience stress we need to be ready to act and know if we can cope with it.Stress is defined as...2302690970How does the Yerkes Dodson Law illustrate that stress can be beneficial to performance?There are two main elements to stress:Stress as a physical response:Selye (1936) conducted research on rats and described a general physical response which activates the nervous system to release hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline. These help us to deal with stress. Adrenaline gives the body resources to prepare for fight or flight. Cortisol gives us glucose for energy.Stress as a psychological response:Lazarus and Folkman (1984) proposed a transactional model of stress. Stress is seen as an interaction between the individual and the environment. When a person perceives a stressor they make a judgement about whether or not they can cope with the situation. The primary appraisal considers whether the threat is harmful or challenging; the secondary appraisal considers if there are resources available to deal with the threat. Weighing up the two appraisals determines the stress response made.Different types of stressIn the space below sketch an image to show the three types of stress.Acute stressEpisodic acute stressChronic stressThe effects of stressLabel the diagram below with the physical, psychological and lifestyle effects of stress.Using the positive approach, can you explain how to make stress your friend?5803624117895352415105410Task: Answer the following question: Describe the characteristics of stress. Watch the video from this link: 5816009180753Biological Explanations of Stress: Adrenaline and Acute Stress535659493714Watch this video before the lesson: Can you give some examples of acute stressors?What is a fight or flight response?When the body responds to acute stress there are a number of changes that occur. The body responds by activating the sympathomedullary pathway (SAM) which releases adrenaline for fight or flight. TASKS: Label the diagram below with the changes that occur within the body when SAM is activated.Sympathomedullary PathwayCreate a flow chart for the sympathomedullary pathway.5080033655Fight or flight responses are thought to be an evolutionary adaption in order for our ancestors to deal with threats during the EEA (environment of evolutionary adaptiveness). During this time the types of responses required would have been energetic (e.g. escaping a sabre toothed tiger). In the modern day the stressor is rarely similar, but our bodies still respond in the same way, leaving us in a state of arousal, and this can cause problems for us.What are the effects of adrenaline on the heart? Evaluating the Biological Explanation of Stress: Adrenaline and Acute Stress Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanation5977890147320TASK: Choose a question and create a plan...Using your own knowledge, analyse and evaluate two explanations of stress. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of two explanations of stress. 5577639168442Biological Explanations of Stress: Cortisol and Chronic StressWatch this video before the lesson: second biological explanation explains chronic stress and the hypothalamic-51009553810pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. This is slower than the SAM system.Can you give some examples of chronic stress?When a stressor is encountered the SAM is triggered. At the same time the HPA also responds, but is slower. Create a flowchart of the chronic stress system:Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systemWhat is general adaptation syndrome?Cortisol is a hormone which plays a role in the central nervous system. It is involved in memory and learning and regulates glucose storage. When released due to stress, Cortisol lower sensitivity to pain and releases glucose for energy over time. This helps us to deal with the ongoing stressor. In the long term however, cortisol impairs memory and lowers the immune response.Research has been conducted into the effects cortisol has on the body. The first effect is on memory. Kuhlmann et al. (2005) gave cortisol to women who were asked to learn a list of 30 words. Those who were given cortisol showed a significant reduction in the amount of words recalled, particularly when the words were negative. What conclusions can you draw from this research?Another piece of research was conducted to find the effects of stress on health. Outline the research below: Evaluating the Biological Explanation of Stress: Cortisol and Chronic Stress Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanation582041059690TASK: Choose a question and create a plan...Using your own knowledge, analyse and evaluate two explanations of stress. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of two explanations of stress.  Individual Differences Explanations of Stress: HardinessAlthough many of us experience the same stressful experience, we often respond quite differently. People with a hardy personality could be compared to hardy plants – they survive in difficult conditions and stop the stressor from having a negative effect on their plete the grid to show the differences between hardy and non-hardy individuals:-3378200165100People who are high hardiness...People who are low hardiness...Hardy copingHardy social interactionHardy self-careWhy does having the three characteristics of a hardy personality buffer against stress?Summarise some research into the hardy personality in the space below: Evaluating the Individual Differences Explanation of Stress: Hardiness Weaknesses of the explanation536321017145TASK: Find out whether you have the hardy personality or not. This isn’t the most reliable source but it will give you a snapshot of your personality and a graph. We don’t recommend that you purchase the full results! Individual Differences Explanations of Stress: Type A and B Personalitiesleft292735right676275Type A personality is a famous personality type. Can you give some of the characteristics of Type A and B personality?left154305In the 1950s Friedman and Rosenman noticed that in a Doctor’s waiting room there were different individuals; those who seemed tense and were not able to sit still for long periods of time, and those who were more relaxed. Based on these observations, they concluded that there were two types of personality - Type A and Type B.It was suggested that those with Type A personality were more likely to activate the fight or flight response. This means that they are more likely to have high levels of stress hormones such as adrenaline, increasing blood pressure and heart rate. On a regular basis this leads to wear and tear in the blood vessels, increasing the likelihood of coronary heart disease and stroke.The Western Collaborative Group Study5505450-1418894505325-323850This is an interesting podcast to help you revise personality and stress – Evaluating the Individual Differences Explanation of Stress: Type A and B Personalities Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanation54984657112096456541275What personality type do you have? Take the test here: Psychological Explanations of Stress: Life EventsOne of the major sources of stress in our lives is our life events. They require a level of adjustment in order to cope and this incurs a ‘psychic cost’. Researchers have developed scales which measure life events and look at the impact the events have on stress-related illness.3377105929734764471187566Life events are often called life changes. They require a significant transition. They can be both positive and negative, but all require change in the individual’s life. Take the SRRS here: Dr Holmes became interested in the link between stressand illness when he noticed that TB patients often hadexperienced an increase in stressful life events in the two years prior to their illness. Along with Dr Rahe, Holmes worked to develop a measuring tool for stressful life events. Outline the research in the space below:-285755080A number of research studies have then used the SRRS to measure life events and compare to outcomes. One example is the study by Rahe et al. (1970) who looked at the relationship between stress and illness of naval personnel. Make some notes about the study in the space below: Evaluating the Social Psychological Explanation of Stress: Life Events Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanation531495088265TASK: Describe and evaluate two social psychological explanations of stress. You will find an interesting article here about gender differences in the way men and women cope with life changes.487060380813Social Psychological Explanations of Stress: Daily HasslesA problem with the first Social Psychological explanation is that life events are rare (thankfully). Some psychologists have suggested that daily hassles are a more significant source of stress.Daily hassles are...Below is an example of daily hassles. These hassles are commonly found to be irritating by students. You may find that some of them have no relevance to your lifestyle. Nevertheless, try to assess yourself by indicating how often each item irritates you. Enter in the box in front of it one of 3 numbers:0 = almost never2 = sometimes3 = frequentlyTraffic jams around schoolLibrary too noisy Other students unfriendly Too few dates How I look Physical safety after darkNot having my ironing done on timeHousehold choresConflicts with brother/sisterTransport problems Constant pressures of studyingDeciding what to wear Quality of food I eat Shopping Teacher difficult to understandPlans for my future Taking testsNot enough close friends Doing examsToo little sleep My weight Problems with a petTensions in love relationshipsNoisy neighbours Untidy bedroomTeacher absentNo emails/text messagesKanner et al. (1981) carried out research into the impact of stress on illness. The relationship appears to be stronger than that of life events and illness. Outline the procedure and findings of the study.Procedure:Findings:You need to know why daily hassles might have an effect. Explain each of the explanations below:Accumulation effectAmplificationLack of social support Evaluating the Social Psychological Explanation of Stress: Daily Hassles Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanation5836318157655Methods of Modifying Stress Behaviours: Beta Blockers5458153168253There are many stress management techniques. Listen to the podcast here prior to the lesson: will now study two techniques used to manage stress and anxiety. Beta blockers are primarily used for heart conditions, for example to reduce blood pressure.In the space below draw a diagram to illustrate how beta blockers work:There are different types of beta blockers. Non-selective beta blockers (e.g. propranolol) block noradrenaline and adrenaline in other areas of the body, as well as the heart. They block beta1 (β1) and beta2 (β2) receptors and therefore affect the heart, kidneys, liver and other areas. Selective beta blockers (e.g. atenolol) affect mostly the heart and have less of an effect on the rest of the body. The block the β1 receptors and cause a reduced cardiac output.How are beta blockers used in sport?How are beta blockers used by musicians?What does off-label use mean? Evaluating the Methods of Modifying Stress Behaviour: Beta Blockers EffectivenessEthical implicationsSocial implications4401820130810TASK: Describe and evaluate two methods of modifying stress.  Methods of Modifying Stress Behaviours: Stress Inoculation TrainingA second method to treat stress is a psychological approach – stress inoculation training. This approach tries to change thought processes rather than targeting the biological process itself. Stress inoculation training is a form of CBT and the main aims is to inoculate people against future stress by teaching them to be more resilient. Meichenbaum (1985, 2007) first described the process of SIT, suggesting that an individual should develop a form of coping with stress before it arises so that they are protected. SIT tries to give individuals mild stressors in order to make them more resilient and cope better in the future – in order to do this the stressor has to be strong enough to activate the individual’s defences, but not so strong that they have negative psychological effects. Make notes on the three phases of SIT:center107315SIT is flexible and customised to the individual. The therapy is tailored to the individual’s stressor and their existing coping strategies. 8-15 sessions are normally required and there are often follow-up sessions. There are a number of applications, e.g. patients waiting for surgery, people with anxiety, those about to have a career change, or professionals such as nurses and military service people.The two theoretical background areas of this stress management treatment are:Transactional model – this theory identifies the importance of how the individual perceives the stressor and how much they feel they have the ability to cope. SIT gives the tools to cope more effectively.Constructive narrative perspectives (CNP) – in this theory, individuals are storytellers and construct tales of themselves and others. The nature of the stories identifies how they cope with stress. SIT makes individuals more aware of their behaviours, rather than hindering, they learn to cope with stress. Evaluating the Methods of Modifying Stress Behaviour: Stress Inoculation Training EffectivenessEthical implicationsSocial implicationsCarry out some research in order to create a factsheet for the NHS on SIT and beta blockers. You need to give advice to patients to help them decide which is best for them. You should include details of how they work, research about how effective they are, and ethical/social implications.End-of-topic self reviewHow am I progressing?My target grade: _____The grade I am working at now is: _____What do I do, or where do I look, to find out how well I am progressing?Two targets to improve my work are:I want to have achieved these targets by:I will know if I have achieved these targets because:Two words to describe how I feel about my learning are:Sample exam questions for this section:Describe the characteristics of schizophrenia. Describe one biological and one psychological explanation of schizophrenia. Describe one biological and one individual differences explanation of schizophrenia. Describe one psychological and one individual differences explanation of schizophrenia. Describe two psychological explanations of schizophrenia. Describe two individual differences explanations of schizophrenia. Describe two biological explanations of schizophrenia. Evaluate two individual differences explanations of schizophrenia. Evaluate two biological explanations of schizophrenia. Evaluate two psychological explanations of schizophrenia. Analyse and evaluate two explanations of schizophrenia. Discuss the ethical and social implications of two different methods of modifying schizophrenia. Discuss the view that antipsychotic drugs are more effective at modifying schizophrenia than cognitive behavioural therapy. Outline how one method of modifying behaviour can be applied to the characteristics of schizophrenia. Describe one method of modifying schizophrenia. Applications: Schizophrenia426144134861214431562328250828455485041Make sure that you:know the characteristics of schizophreniaknow and understand biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations of schizophreniaevaluate the biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations of schizophreniaknow and understand the methods of modifying schizophreniaapply the explanations to methods of modifying schizophreniaevaluate the methods of modifying schizophrenia (including their effectiveness, ethical implications and social implications).Characteristics of SchizophreniaSchizophrenia is a major psychotic disorder. There are a variety of symptoms, but is typified by a lack of contact with reality. Approximately 220,000 people in England and Wales are diagnosed each year (The Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2012). This means roughly 1 in 100 people will experience schizophrenia over their lifetime, with most people being diagnosed between 15 and 35. According to the NHS, men and women are equally likely to suffer. Schizophrenia is a long-term condition, but individual may have differing symptoms.Schneider (1959) suggested that there are two categories of symptoms for schizophrenia:Positive symptoms – these are behaviours in addition to ‘normal’ behaviours. If they didn’t have schizophrenia they wouldn’t have this symptom.Negative symptoms – these are behaviours or symptoms which inhibit people from demonstrating ‘normal’ behaviour, such as being able to hold a normal conversation.The diagram was created in Canada shows some of the symptoms of schizophrenia. On the next page you will need to make notes in the table about the symptoms.;5631180-57155185410257810This video may be of interest to you: Positive SymptomsHallucinationsDelusionsDisordered thinkingNegative symptomsAlogiaAvolitionAnhedoniaFlatness of affectCatatonic behaviourThere are problems with researching schizophrenia:In the UK and Europe we use the ICD-10 to diagnose schizophrenia. There are subtle differences in the diagnostic criteria worldwide, this affects the rate of diagnosis.The diagnostic criteria change over time causing issues of validity.People with schizophrenia will often have difficulty accepting the diagnosis, they believe their hallucinations are real and cannot see that the illness is affecting their psychological functioning.Schizophrenia is misunderstood. Time to Change is an organisation set up to challenge the stigma.Many schizophrenia symptoms, particularly the negative ones, are also characteristic of depression.Some psychologists challenge whether schizophrenia even exists as the symptoms are so dissimilar between patients. Instead we need to focus and treat each patient as an individual.Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia: Dopamine HypothesisResearch in the 1950s looked at the neurotransmitter dopamine. Individuals with Parkinson’s disease have tremors and imprecise movements. A drug was developed to reduce these symptoms by increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain. However, when individuals were given this drug they experienced schizophrenic symptoms – a link was found between dopamine and schizophrenia.Sketch a quick diagram about the action of neurotransmitters:Initially it was proposed that too much dopamine led to schizophrenia. It was supported by research in 1968 by Griffith et al. who induced schizophrenic symptoms in non-schizophrenic volunteers by giving them dextro-amphetamines – a drug which increases dopamine levels in the brain. The volunteers demonstrated abrupt onset of paranoid delusions and were cold and detached emotionally. Later, this hypothesis was suggested to be too simple, as giving drugs to lower dopamine levels had little or no effect on schizophrenic patients who had mainly negative symptoms.249885088Several dopamine receptors were then discovered, D1-D5. They are distributed across the cerebral cortex and subcortically in the limbic system. Seeman and Lee (1975) have shown the impact of antipsychotic drugs on the D2 receptors (you’ll study this later too), and the limbic system became the main focus of the dopamine hypothesis.The limbic system has a variety of subcortical structures engaged in functions such as memory, emotions and arousal. Nerves leave this area to other subcortical structures and the cerebral cortex. Two of the main pathways are illustrated in the diagram on the left:Mesolimbic pathwayMesocortical pathwayMake some notes about these pathways on the next page.Mesolimbic pathwayMesocortical pathwayCauses of schizophrenia: Interpreting statistical dataWhat conclusions do you think can be drawn from the following data? As well as trying to reach a conclusion, try to comment upon the value of the data – are there any problems in reaching the conclusion you have stated? How strong is the evidence provided?Statistical DataConclusionA study in Denmark (Kety et al., 1988) found that 14% of the biological relative of adoptees with schizophrenia were classified as schizophrenic themselves, whereas only 2.7% of their adoptive relatives were found to be schizophrenic.On average, the ventricles of a person with schizophrenia are about 15% bigger than normal (Torrey, 2002).About ? of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia have no close relatives with the disorder (Stirling and Hellewell, 1999). Evaluating the Biological Explanation of Schizophrenia: Dopamine Hypothesis Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanation190501314This news article suggests that smoking may play a role in the development of schizophrenia. Make some notes below:Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia: Structural Abnormalities24765678815We have already studied the theory that neurotransmitters (and dopamine in particular) are the cause of schizophrenia. You will now study a theory that suggests the structure of the brain as being a route cause of the illness. Brain scanning technology has made it easier to support this view in identifying structural abnormalities.The image on the left shows the structure of the brain. Ventricles are cavities that produce and transport cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid is important as it provides protection, buoyancy and chemical stability of the brain and spine.There are four ventricles – highlight them in the diagram above:The left and right lateral ventricles (situated in the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes of their respective hemisphere).The third ventricle is situated behind the left and right thalamus.The fourth ventricle lies between the pons and medulla oblongata.Some individuals with schizophrenia seem to have larger ventricles. Weinberger et al. (1979) used CAT scans and found...Andreasen (1988) studied MRI scans of individuals with and without schizophrenia and found that those with schizophrenia tended to have 20-50% larger ventricles than those without the illness.Cortical atrophyThis is the loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex. It can occur all over the brain making it look as though it has shrunk, or the atrophy can occur in a limited area. In the latter case the atrophy affects the cognitive functions in that area of the cerebral cortex, resulting in widening of the grooves that cover the area. This damage seems to characterise the brains of 20-30% of people with chronic schizophrenia.Vita et al. (1988) used CAT scans to assess...Reversed cerebral asymmetryIn most individuals without schizophrenia the left hemisphere is slightly larger than the right hemisphere (this is called cerebral asymmetry). However, in some individuals with schizophrenia the right is larger than the left, so this is called reversed cerebral asymmetry. If you consider that language function is normally found in the left hemisphere, this could explain the poverty of language (alogia) which is associated with schizophrenia.Luchins et al. (1979) compared, using CAT scans... Evaluating the Biological Explanation of Schizophrenia: Structural Abnormalities Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanationIndividual Differences Explanations of Schizophrenia: Psychodynamic ApproachFreud attempted to apply psychoanalytical and psychodynamic principles to explain schizophrenia. Many of the concepts that you came across in Component 1 are used here to explain the illness. -38100160020FixationRegression Losing touch with realitySchizophrenogenic motherEvaluating the Individual Differences Explanation of Schizophrenia: Psychodynamic ApproachWeaknesses of the explanationTASK: Evaluate two individual differences explanations of schizophrenia. Individual Differences Explanations of Schizophrenia: Cognitive ApproachThe cognitive approach became popular at the start of the 21st century, it didn’t blame the patient or the family like the psychodynamic approach does. It proposes a more logical explanation based on malfunctions in cognitive systems such as perception, attention and working memory. It has not yet explained all symptoms of schizophrenia but is has tackled some of the key positive and negative symptoms. How does the approach explain hallucinations?How does the approach explain negative symptoms?Individuals with schizophrenia may have a lack of preconscious filters, what does this mean?Individuals with schizophrenia may have a compromised theory of mind and disorders in three separate cognitive systems, explain these: Evaluating the Individual Differences Explanation of Schizophrenia: Cognitive Approach Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanation49260463651053This short clip will help you to experience a brief simulation of a psychotic episode in 491744092710a patient with schizophrenia.Social Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia: Dysfunctional FamiliesAlthough the psychodynamic approach became less popular in the 1950s, the role that family relationships play was still considered to be a causal factor. Double bind theoryBateson et al. (1956) proposed that the symptoms of individuals with schizophrenia are as a result of difficulties within the family, particularly parents and their children. How can schizophrenia develop if they are repeatedly offered conflicting messages?How does long-term exposure to these conflicting messages lead to schizophrenia?Expressed emotion When George Brown joined the Medical Research Council Social Psychiatry (MRCSP) in 1956 the use of the drug chlorpromazine was widely used to treat schizophrenia. After being given the stabilising medication in hospital they would be released but would often be readmitted after a relapse. Brown (1959) investigated 156 men with schizophrenia. They found relapse to be connected to the home they were discharged to. Those men who lived with wives or parents were more likely to relapse than those who lived with siblings or in lodgings. In interviews conducted later they found a relationship between the amount of expressed emotion (EE) and likelihood of relapse. Complete the table below about the components of EE.Critical commentsHostilityEmotional over-involvementWarmthPositive regard Evaluating the Social Psychological Explanation of Schizophrenia: Dysfunctional Families Strengths of the explanationWeaknesses of the explanation5694045104775TASK: Using your own knowledge, analyse and evaluate two explanations of stress. Social Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia: Sociocultural FactorsSociocultural explanations attempt to explain individual behaviour through aspects of society and culture. When biological explanations of schizophrenia were introduced the popularity of sociocultural explanations declined, however since the 1990s there has been resurgence. Very few sociocultural explanations can explain all cases of schizophrenia, however there is a lot of research into how these factors interact with brain development or psychological vulnerabilities.UrbanicitySince 1939 we’ve known that schizophrenia is more prevalent in urban areas compared to rural areas. Label the diagram with research into urbanicity.Social isolationFaris (1934) suggested that people with schizophrenia find contact with others to be stressful so they withdraw. This self-imposed isolation cuts them off from feedback on inappropriate behaviour.Jones et al. (1994) reported the findings of a longitudinal study of 5362 people born within one week of March 1946. Prospective childhood data was collected, and between the ages of 16 and 43, 30 cases of schizophrenia were diagnosed. Researchers found that those with schizophrenia were more likely to have played solitarily at age 4 and 6, and at age 13 were more likely to rate themselves as less socially confident.24784701095Ethnicity and discriminationSince the 1970s research has shown that individuals of Afro-Caribbean descent were more likely to find themselves being compulsorily admitted to hospital as opposed to voluntary admissions. This cannot be genetic because the increased risk is not apparent in Caribbean studies. It was suggested that the stress of migration explains the statistics, however Harrison et al. (1988) disagrees as the increased risk was not only found in first generation migrants but also their children. This suggests that discrimination exists in society and psychiatry when it comes to diagnosing schizophrenia. Evaluating the Social Psychological Explanation of Schizophrenia: Sociocultural Factors Weaknesses of the explanationMethods of Modifying Schizophrenia: Antipsychotic Drugs6057900427990Before drugs were used to treat schizophrenia there were other unsuccessful treatments, for example ‘trepanning’, where holes were drilled into the heads to release evil spirits, or ‘whirling’, where a patient was spun around on a chair repeatedly until they lost consciousness.There are a range of antipsychotic medications, but they broadly fall into two categories:Conventional antipsychoticsAtypical antipsychoticsConventional antipsychoticsDraw a diagram to show the action of antipsychotics and explain how they work:Atypical antipsychoticsAtypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine, are also known as the newer or second generation antipsychotics. They have been developed since the 1990s, they work in the same way as conventional antipsychotics, by acting as a dopamine antagonist, but the precise mechanisms of how they work is not clear. How are atypical antipsychotics different from conventional antipsychotics? Evaluating the Methods of Modifying Schizophrenia: Antipsychotic Drugs EffectivenessEthical implicationsSocial implicationsMethods of Modifying Schizophrenia: Cognitive Behavioural TherapyWhen CBT was developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychological disorders such as depression, some therapists questioned whether CBT could be used to treat psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.19050151130Recap the ABC model of CBT:A major symptom of schizophrenia is disordered thinking, the purpose of CBT is to try and organise these disordered thoughts in a more rational way. CBT aims to get the patient to be more aware of the connection between their disordered thoughts and their illness. It also challenges their interpretations of events by asking them for evidence of their beliefs. These techniques help to deal with the positive symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g. hallucinations and delusions), but it also helps the client to be more self-reliant with their thoughts.Key components of CBT for schizophreniaSmith et al. (2003) identified the key center24806treatment components when using CBT for schizophrenia: Evaluating the Methods of Modifying Schizophrenia: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy EffectivenessEthical implicationsSocial implications60413902032019050114935This video shows Beck discussing the use of CBT for treating schizophrenia.centertopEnd-of-topic self reviewHow am I progressing?My target grade: _____The grade I am working at now is: _____What do I do, or where do I look, to find out how well I am progressing?Two targets to improve my work are: I want to have achieved these targets by:I will know if I have achieved these targets because:Two words to describe how I feel about my learning are: ControversiesCultural bias Ethical costs of conducting research Non-human animals Scientific status 438150643254Sexism4267200143510For each of the five controversies it will be necessary for you to:understand the issue and why it is controversial.apply knowledge and understanding to controversies in psychology.make judgements and come to conclusions about the controversies from a psychological perspective.32575502182495152400357314518173701167130-3238501167130CulturalCross cultural studiesDifference or biasbiasEthnocentrismHistorical and social contextEthical costsBenefits to societyIndividual participantsof conducting researchPotentially negative consequences for societyRisk management techniques used by psychologistsNon-humanBPS guidelines for psychologists working with animalsComparative/ethological psychologyanimalsUse as a therapeutic techniqueSpeciesismScientificBenefits of being a scienceChanging nature of ‘science’statusCosts of being a scienceMethodologies used by the various approachesSexismGender differences or gender biasHeterosexismHistorical and social contextThe ‘invisibility’ of women in psychologyTopic AreaCovered in ClassRevisedApplications : StressKnow the characteristics of stressKnow and understand biological explanations of stress (e.g. adrenaline, evolutionary adaptation, and stress genes)Know and understand individual differences explanations of stress (e.g. hardiness, self-efficacy, and type A, type B personalities)Know and understand social psychological explanations of stress (e.g. daily hassles, life events, and locus of control)Evaluate the biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations of stressKnow and understand the methods of modifying stress (beta blockers and stress inoculation training)Apply the explanations to methods of modifying stressEvaluate the methods of modifying stress (including their effectiveness, ethical implications and social implications)Controversies : Cultural BiasCross cultural studiesDifference or biasEthnocentrismHistorical and social contextControversies : Ethical costs of conducting researchBenefits to society and the economyIndividual participantsPotentially negative consequences for societyRisk management techniques used by PsychologistsControversies : Non-human animalsBPS Guidelines for Psychologists Working with AnimalsComparative / ethological psychologyUse as a therapeutic deviceSpeciesismControversies : Scientific statusBenefits of being a science to society and the economyChanging nature of 'science'Costs of being a scienceMethodologies used by the various approachesControversies : SexismGender difference or gender biasHeterosexismHistorical and social contextThe 'invisibility' of women in psychologyComponent ChecklistUse this checklist to ensure that you have covered all the areas needed for success in your exams. The following topics will be covered in class. However, it will be your responsibility to catch up with any topics you miss and to actively revise the different ic AreaCovered in ClassRevisedApplications : Criminal BehavioursKnow the characteristics of criminal behavioursKnow and understand biological explanations of criminal behaviours (e.g. disinhibition hypothesis, inherited criminality, and the role of the amygdala)Know and understand individual differences explanations of criminal behaviours (e.g. Eysenck’s criminal personality, intelligence factors, and psychopathic personality)Know and understand social psychological explanations of criminal behaviours (e.g. differential association theory, gender socialisation, and normalisation theory)Evaluate the biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations of criminal behavioursKnow and understand the methods of modifying criminal behaviours (anger management and restorative justice)Apply the explanations to methods of modifying criminal behavioursEvaluate the methods of modifying criminal behaviours (including their effectiveness, ethical implications and social implications)Applications : SchizophreniaKnow the characteristics of schizophreniaKnow and understand biological explanations of schizophrenia (e.g. cannabis influence on brain chemistry, dopamine hypothesis and enlarged ventricles)Know and understand individual differences explanations of schizophrenia (e.g. thought disorder, schizophrenogenic mother, and sex differences)Know and understand social psychological explanations of schizophrenia (e.g. cultural norms, dysfunctional families, and expressed emotion)Evaluate the biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations of schizophreniaKnow and understand the methods of modifying schizophrenia antipsychotic drugs and cognitive behavioural therapy)Apply the explanations to methods of modifying schizophreniaEvaluate the methods of modifying schizophrenia (including their effectiveness, ethical implications and social implications)The checklist continues on the previous page. ................
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