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Academic integrity: What is academic integrity?

Description: This topic introduces eight strategies to help you practise academic integrity. This is the accessibility document of the tutorial created using Adobe Captivate.

Slide 1

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Description:

Screenshot shows a banner image of colourful board game pieces on a white board. Text and a Start button.

Heading:

Putting academic integrity into practice

Information caption:

This module will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

This topic introduces eight strategies to help you practise academic integrity.

Slide 2

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Description:

Screenshot shows a heading, some text, and an image of three characters who are waving: Donna, Carmel and Ming Hui.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back and a Next button at the bottom of the screen.

Heading:

Introduction

Information caption:

Meet your module hosts Donna, Carmel, and Ming Hui who will guide you through eight useful strategies to increase your chances of academic success and reduce breaches of academic integrity.

Slide 3

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Description: screenshot shows a heading, text, and a video with a play button.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back and a Next button at the bottom of the screen.

Heading:

Manage your workload

Instructional caption:

Watch this short video to learn more about how to manage your workload.

Video:

Go to Appendix B to read the video transcript.

Slide 4

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Description:

Screenshot shows a heading, some text, and a set of nine icons and buttons which each link to a different video.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back and a Next button at the bottom of the screen.

Heading:

Manage the assignment process.

Information caption:

Breaches of academic integrity are not always intentional.

Sometimes this occurs when students try to overcome their anxiety/stress around completing a particularly 'hard' assignment or exam. The best way to overcome this type of stress is to manage your workload and timelines.

Instructional caption:

Click the icons to watch some videos on the eight steps to help you manage your assignments, or click 'View all' to watch them all together.

Videos:

Go to Appendix B to read the video transcripts.

Slide 5

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Description:

Screenshot shows a heading, text, and a large image with a play button.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back and a Next button at the bottom of the screen.

Heading:

Read actively and critically

Information caption:

Academic Integrity and smart reading practices are closely related.

When you read the literature in your discipline, you are participating directly in academic culture in that particular field. Academic journal articles have been carefully screened before publication and the writers have closely followed academic rules.

Paying close attention to how these texts are written, as well as to their content, will help you to practise these rules effectively in your own writing. One way to engage with academic texts is to read actively. This means much more than passively understanding words or phrases.

Instructional caption:

Launch the presentation on the right to learn more about active and critical reading and answer the questions as you go.

Slide 5a

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Description:

Screenshot shows the presentation in a popup window with a heading, text, and a progress bar showing you are on slide 1 of 8.

Heading:

Reading effectiveness

Instructional caption:

These videos and activities will help you to understand how to read effectively and critically and why these skills are important for academic integrity.

Navigate through the screens by the progress bar at the bottom. Full screen view is recommended.

Let's get started!

Slide 5b

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Description:

Screenshot shows the presentation in a popup window with some text, a video with a play button, and a progress bar showing you are on slide 2 of 8.

Instructional caption:

Watch this short video to learn more about reading effectively.

Video:

Go to Appendix B to read the video transcript.

Slide 5c

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Description:

Screenshot shows the presentation in a popup window with some text, an image of an academic paper with a link to view it in a new window, and a progress bar showing you are on slide 3 of 8.

Instructional text:

First, skim the title and the abstract quickly, noting the key information.

In this activity, you are only skimming the abstract, but in a real life situation, you will skim and scan the whole article.

View the article in a new window (PDF, 306kb)

References:

Wood, L., Martin, K., Hayley, C., Nathan, A., Lauritsen, C., Houghton, S., Kawachi, I., & McCune, S. (2015). The Pet Factor - Companion Animals as a Conduit for Getting to Know People, Friendship Formation and Social Support. PLoS One, 10(4), E0122085.

Slide 5d

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Description:

Screenshot shows the presentation in a popup window with a quiz question, an image of an academic paper with a link to view it in a new window, and a progress bar showing you are on slide 4 of 8.

Instructional text:

View the article in a new window (PDF, 306kb)

Question:

Which statement best sums up the title?

Answer options:

a. Pets as companions

b. How pets enable social relationships

c. Pets and social behaviour

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

Slide 5e

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Description:

Screenshot shows the presentation in a popup window with a quiz question, an image of an academic paper with a link to view it in a new window, and a progress bar showing you are on slide 5 of 8.

Instructional text:

View the article in a new window (PDF, 306kb)

Question:

Based on the information in the abstract, this study breaks new ground.

Answer options:

a. True

b. False

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

Slide 5f

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Description:

Screenshot shows the presentation in a popup window with a quiz question, an image of an academic paper with a link to view it in a new window, and a progress bar showing you are on slide 6 of 8.

Instructional text:

View the article in a new window (PDF, 306kb)

Question:

Which statement best sums up the Abstract conclusion?

Answer options:

a. The research proves that pet-owners are more sociable.

b. This research suggests that pets could play a role in individual and community well-being.

c. The research confirms that pets are social beings.

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

Slide 5g

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Description:

Screenshot shows the presentation in a popup window with a heading, a video with a play button, and a progress bar showing you are on slide 7 of 8.

Instructional text:

Watch this short video to find out how the structure of a text can help reading.

Videos:

Go to Appendix B to read the video transcript

Slide 5h

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Description:

Screenshot shows the presentation in a popup window with video with a play button, and a progress bar showing you are on slide 8 of 8.

Video:

This video contains quiz questions. Go to Appendix B to read the video transcript.

Slide 6

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Description:

Screenshot shows a heading, text, and a video with a play button.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back and a Next button at the bottom of the screen.

Heading:

Take effective notes

Instructional caption:

Watch the following video to learn more about good note-taking. There will be questions within the video to help you understand the concept better.

Vidoe:

This video contains quiz questions. Go to Appendix B to read the video transcript

Slide 7

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Description:

Screenshot shows a heading, text, an information box, and a video with a play button.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back and a Next button at the bottom of the screen.

Heading:

Paraphrase and summarise effectively

Information caption:

Paraphrasing is one of the most challenging and important academic writing skills to master.

Instructional caption:

Watch the following video about paraphrasing and summarising and answer the questions in the video while you watch.

Information box:

To see examples of paraphrasing, summarising and quoting visit the Library’s RLO page.

Video:

This video contains quiz questions. Go to Appendix B to read the video transcript.

Slide 8

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Description:

Screenshot shows a heading, text, and an information box.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back and a Next button at the bottom of the screen.

Heading:

Cite and reference accurately

Information caption:

Knowing how to cite and reference your work correctly is an important skill to develop at university. Not only will it help you to avoid breaches of academic integrity, but it can also contribute to higher grades.

Citing refers to how you acknowledge sources in text and referencing refers to how you compile your list of sources at the end of your writing.

You need to know how to cite and reference in the style required by your faculty and your discipline. Your Unit Guide and Assignment task will state clearly what style you need to use.

Information box:

The Citing and referencing tutorial will help you to learn:

• about citing and referencing

• what, when and how to cite and reference.

The Citing and referencing Library guide contains:

• list of Library resources about citing and referencing

• citation style guides including APA, Harvard, Law, Vancouver and others.

Slide 9

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Description:

Screenshot shows a heading, text, an information box, and a video with a play button.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back and a Next button at the bottom of the screen.

Heading:

Develop your academic voice

Instructional caption:

Watch the video to learn about developing your own academic voice and then complete the activity on the next screen.

Video:

Go to Appendix B to read the video transcript.

Slide 10

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Description:

Screenshot shows a heading, some text and two buttons.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back and a Next button at the bottom of the screen.

Heading:

Develop your academic voice: activity

Information caption:

The video on the previous screen covered a number of useful tips about finding your own academic voice in your work. Now try and apply some of those ideas in the following activity.

Instructional caption:

Select each example to read the source text provided and answer the questions that follow.

Buttons:

Example 1 (shown in section Slide 10a)

Example 2 (shown in section Slide 10b)

Slide 10a (Example 1)

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Description:

Screenshot shows a window with a paragraph of text on the left, and a set of 6 buttons on the right.

Activity text:

“Beyond incidental social contact, the study sought to investigate whether pet-facilitated social contacts translate into tangible friendships or sources of social support. Our findings affirmed this premise, countering an earlier UK study which concluded casual interactions facilitated by dogs do not necessarily enhance social networks or social support. Specifically, we found that across the four cities, around a quarter of pet owners who got to know people in the neighborhood through their pet considered one or more of the people they met to be friends, and 42% of pet owners had received one or more forms of social support from people met through their pet. It is pertinent to note the wording of the question asked about actual support received, and was not just about the perceived or hypothetical availability of social support.”

Question:

What features of this text can you identify?

a. Confident word choices

b. Unconfident word choices

c. Clear examples

d. Unclear examples

e. Strong commentary

f. Weak commentary

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

Slide 10b (Example 2)

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Description:

Screenshot shows a window with a paragraph of text on the left, and a question on the right.

Question:

Identify the section of the following paragraph where the writer shifts from simple reporting to analysis.

Example text:

“Based on these characteristics, roadmaps appear particularly suitable for supporting the implementation of sustainability strategies. Paramanathan et al. (2004) have been among the firsts to highlight the potential for applying roadmapping and, more generally, technology planning tools, in connection to sustainability. The authors point out how the lack of a comprehensive and unique framework to assist managers in implementing a sustainability strategy often determines questions such as “how do we start?” and “what are we heading towards?” and calls for operational tools that could support companies in developing an implementation plan. From this point of view, they highlight strong similarities with the problem of integrating technological considerations into business strategy and planning, and pinpoint how road-mapping and technological foresight methods could be successfully applied to sustainability. Although this contribution underlines the potential use of roadmapping for supporting the implementation of sustainability strategies, it does not give any indication about how a sustainability roadmap could be designed and does not provide evidence of its practical application.”

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

Slide 11

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Description:

Screenshot shows a heading, text, and a video with a play button.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back and a Next button at the bottom of the screen.

Heading:

Develop a critical perspective

Information caption:

The word ‘critical’ often has a negative meaning in English. However in academic communication it carries a positive connotation.

Instructional caption:

Watch the video to learn more about developing a critical perspective in your work and answer the questions while you watch.

Video:

This video contains quiz questions. Go to Appendix B to read the video transcript.

Slide 12

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Description:

Screenshot shows a heading with some text.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back and a Next button at the bottom of the screen.

Heading:

Summary

Information caption:

Here is a summary of what you have learned in this module:

There are eight strategies to help you avoid breaches of academic integrity and achieve academic success.

1. Manage your workload

2. Manage the assignment process

3. Read actively and critically

4. Take effective notes

5. Paraphrase and summarise effectively

6. Cite and reference accurately

7. Develop your academic voice

8. Develop a critical perspective

To go through any of the strategies again, navigate through the menu by clicking the link in the top right.

Slide 13

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Description:

This screen has a heading followed by some informational text.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back button at the bottom left of the screen. There is a Start again button to retry the module and a Go back home button that leads to the homepage of the tutorial.

There are two images that will take you to the What is academic integrity? as well as the Plagiarism, collusion and contract cheating modules when clicked.

There is a Resources section containing two links.

There is a Menu and a Help button in the top right hand corner. There is a Back at the bottom left hand corner of the screen.

Heading:

End of module

Information caption:

Well done for completing this module on academic integrity.

If you haven’t done so already, view the other modules or explore more resources by selecting the links provided.

Resources

● Further resources

● Citing and referencing

Instruction caption:

View the other modules

● What is academic integrity?

● Plagiarism, collusion and contract cheating

Appendix A: answers

Answers for: Slide 5d

Question: Which statement best sums up the title?

Correct answer:

b. How pets enable social relationships

Feedback:

When you read the whole title, you should be able to see why this is the most accurate choice.

Incorrect answers:

a. Pets as companions

c. Pets and social behaviour

Answers for: Slide 5e

Question: Based on the information in the abstract, this study breaks new ground.

Correct answer:

a. True

Feedback: The sentence in the abstract about how the role of companion animals "as a catalyst for friendship formation or social support networks among humans has received little attention" indicates that this choice is correct.

Incorrect answer:

b. False

Answers for: Slide 5f

Question: Which statement best sums up the Abstract conclusion?

Correct answer:

b. This research suggests that pets could play a role in individual and community well-being.

Feedback:

This choice mentions individual and community well-being, which are closely related to the three dimensions of social relatedness mentioned by the authors.

Incorrect answers:

a. The research proves that pet-owners are more sociable.

c. The research confirms that pets are social beings.

Answers for: Slide 5h

Question: What aspect of the text does this comment relate to?

Correct answer:

a. The generalisability of the findings

Incorrect answers:

b. The suitability of the sites

c. The ethical approach of the study

Answers for: Slide 6

Question: How does effective note-taking help you to avoid breaches of academic integrity?

Correct answer:

b. It enables you to track and accurately capture, recall and retain information and knowledge.

Feedback:

That’s correct. All of these factors reduce the chance of accidental or intentional plagiarism as deadlines draw near.

Incorrect answers:

a. It activates your memory and supports your learning.

c. It will ensure that you will finish your assignments.

d. It promotes confidence and reduces stress.

Question:

Effective note-taking practices enable you to (choose all that apply):

Correct answers:

b. Retrieve the information and knowledge you will need for assignments.

c. Consolidate your learning.

d. Capture the main thoughts of the work.

Feedback:

That’s correct. Active and reflective note taking is a good habit and will help you maintain academic integrity and attain good grades.

Incorrect answers:

a. Collect sentences to be inserted into your own work.

Answers for: Slide 7

Question: Which one of the following paraphrases is acceptable?

Answer options:

1. To exist or not to exist, that is the question.

2. Should I continue to live, or should I end my life?

3. I wish I had never been born.

Correct answer:

2. Should I continue to live, or should I end my life?

Feedback:

Well done. Number two is acceptable. It poses the questions which Hamlet is asking, in a new way.

Incorrect answers:

1. To exist or not to exist, that is the question.

Feedback:

Number one is definitely not a good paraphrase.

It’s actually an example of plagiarism, because only one word has changed and the form is the same.

3. I wish I had never been born.

Feedback:

Number three is not acceptable because it doesn’t capture the true meaning of the phrase.

Question: Identify the best paraphrase for the following quote:

“The ability to effectively use (and acknowledge) source material is one of the skills that students must learn as they become part of the academic community” (Vardi, 2012. p. 921).

Correct answer:

2. An essential requirement of academic life at university involves learning how to work with original sources and cite and reference them correctly in your writing (Vardi, 2012).

Feedback: Well done. The first response is too similar to the original, and the second is focused only on academics, not the entire academic community (which includes students and other staff).

Incorrect answers:

1. One of the important skills that students must learn if they are part of the academic community is how to use and acknowledge source material (Vardi, 2012)

3. Knowing how to use sources is important for academics. (Vardi, 2012)

Answers for: Slide 10a

Question: What features of this text can you identify?

Correct answer:

a. Confident word choices

Feedback:

[Refers to the text ‘our findings affirms this premise, countering an ealier UK study’]

That’s correct. Words like “affirm” and “counter” help he reader contextualise the research and indicate the authors’ confidence in what they learnt from it.

c. Clear examples

Feedback:

[Refers to the text ‘Specifically, we found that’]

That’s correct. This kind of language is unambiguous in alerting the reader to texactly what the authors discovered.

e. Strong commentary

Feedback:

[Refers to the text ‘It is pertinent to note the wording of the question asked’]

That’s correct. The researchers’ vioce is clear here, alerting the reader to a noteworthy aspect of what was found.

Incorrect answer:

b. Unconfident word choices

d. Unclear examples

f. Weak commentary

Feedback:

That’s incorrect. Try again.

Answers for: Slide 10b

Question:

Identify the section of the following paragraph where the writer shifts from simple reporting to analysis.

Correct anwser:

Although this contribution underlines the potential use of roadmapping for supporting the implementation of sustainability strategies, it does not give any indication about how a sustainability roadmap could be designed and does not provide evidence of its practical application.”

Feedback:

That’s correct. In this paragraph, we see the writers shift from simple reporting to analysis. Note how their voices become more evident in the text.

Answers for: Slide 11

Question:

What do you think ‘critical thinking’ means in an academic context?

Corrector answer:

c. The act of analysing, questioning and scrutinising ideas and knowledge to establish their efficacy and value.

Incorrect answer:

a. The act of criticising and finding errors in others’ academic work to prove which authors are the experts in a field.

b. The act of criticising, opposing and insulting other work with citations.

Question: Why do you need to think critically? (select all that apply)

Correct answer:

a. To evaluate and identify quality academic sources.

b. To fully understand and engage with the materials you are studying.

c. To help you develop analysing, discussing, interpreting and skills.

Incorrect answer:

d. To show your lecturers that you are capable and intelligent.

Appendix B: video transcripts

Slide 3

Video transcript:

Narrator (Donna)

Read all unit guides at the beginning of semester and plan around due dates.

Start early, allowing at least five weeks to complete all stages of an assignment.

Break tasks down into manageable chunks of time. Use daily, weekly and monthly planners to help you.

Seek help early if you feel that you are slipping behind for any reason. The university support services are there to assist you.

Stress can cause students to make bad decisions, like taking shortcuts or even cheating. Identify how you manage stress and anxiety and then use these approaches during stressful periods.

For example, talk things over with a friend, play sport or go for a walk, Remember. If you feel overwhelmed, seek help.

Leaving things to the last minute and not allowing sufficient time for your tasks puts you at risk. This useful Monash Library blog can help you work on your time management skills.

Slide 4

Video transcripts:

Narrator (Ming Hui)

Analysing the task

The first step is to analyse the task.

Break down each assignment task to identify the instructions, the scope and the essential concepts. It’s also helpful to read the Marking Guide carefully.

The Library’s Research and Learning Online website is a useful resource for developing task analysis skills.

Brainstorming

The second step is to brainstorm.

Brainstorming helps you generate ideas and clarify what you already know.

At this point, you may also do some background reading, revision, or general searching. This gives you direction, especially when it comes

to searching for and collecting information.

Visit the Library’s brainstorming and mind mapping page for information about mind mapping techniques and activities.

Collecting resources

The third step is to search for and collect the necessary resources.

The Library Search tool is an excellent place to begin your search for materials.

This is also where you can connect to the databases to access the best academic and professional sources for your assignment.

Reading

The fourth step is to read.

Allow plenty of time to read the material for your assignments and take notes. Remember that most people have to read several times to unpack deeper meaning.

As you read, you may discover that you need to dive back into the search process. You may even want to retake the earlier steps of this process before you start to write.

Synthesising

The fifth step is to synthesise.

Once you’ve gathered the information you need, and taken notes, you can bring the various sources and ideas together. How you do this will depend on your assignment

Learning how to incorporate and summarise evidence is a big part of practising academic integrity.

For help with synthesising, explore the Library’s Research and Learning Online site. Or find out whether your faculty has a writing guide such as the Q Manual for Business and Economics students.

Argument

The sixth step is to form an argument.

Once you’ve synthesised the necessary information, your own position will be clearer and you will be ready to structure your outline.

This often involves articulating an argument, but equally it might be an explanation, a report, a critical review, or another type of writing.

You may also find that you are now more able to analyse and evaluate information.

Drafting

The seventh step is to write the first draft.

Write each section of the text according to your plan, integrating information to suit your purpose.

This involves writing well-linked paragraphs and paying careful attention to acknowledge all your sources. Allow enough time and stick to your plan.

If you would like feedback on your draft, attend a drop-in session at the library.

Editing/Proofreading

The final step is to proofread and edit.

Before submitting your final draft, you need to edit your writing and then proofread it.

Editing means reading the text carefully to check for consistency, flow, organisation and expression.

Then you must proofread, looking for problems like omissions, typing errors and spelling mistakes.

Finally, it is important to check that you have followed all the rules for your particular referencing style.

Slide 5b

Video transcript:

Narrators (Donna and Carmel)

Donna: Hi. The strategy we are going to focus on is reading effectiveness.

Carmel: Donna, how is reading connected with academic integrity?

Donna: You have so much to read at Uni. Reading smarter saves you time and enables you to connect more effectively with the material.

Reading critically will also help you analyse and evaluate information, and then integrate it into your own work.

Let’s take a look at an academic article together and practise some different reading skills.

Carmel: OK. Great.

Donna: The academic article we are going to look at is about pets.

Let’s start with some simple skimming and scanning practice.

Slide 5g

Video transcript:

Narrator (Donna and Carmel)

Donna: Now, let’s look at how the structure of a text can help our reading.

Let’s look at some of the important cues within an introduction.

Click pause at any moment to read as we go along.

In this introduction, the writers aim to:

Engage you as a reader

[Description of scene in video] Video shows a portion of the article’s Introduction on page 2, with text highlighted as below (highlighted areas are shown here in bold).

‘Pets play an important role in the lives of many people throughout the world, and there is a growing body of research indicating a positive relationship between pet ownership and human health [1–5]. With more than 60% of households in the U.S. and Australia owning one or more pets [6,7], the benefits to individuals of human-animal interactions (HAI) to health have been widely explored. Findings have revealed a number of therapeutic, physiological, psychological and psychosocial benefits to pet owners [8] including decreased blood pressure [9,10], reduced risk of heart attacks [11], improved survival rates [9,12,13], increased physical activity [14], increased sensory stimulation, emotional support and sense of physical and psychological wellbeing [15], as well as psychological resilience at times of adversity [16,17].

‘In the literature more broadly, there is now compelling empirical evidence for the importance of social relationships and social support for both physical and mental health and wellbeing. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 148 studies placed the influence of social relationships on mortality risk on a par with well-established risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption [5], concluding that people had a 50 percent higher survival rate if they belonged to a wider social group. Conversely, social isolation and loneliness have been identified as risk factors for poor health [18].

‘How then can socially supportive networks be enhanced in a modern fast-paced world that has been observed by some sociologists to precipitate disconnectedness from the people amongst whom we live [19]? Although there are anecdotal and qualitative research accounts about pets as a ‘social lubricant’ [20,21], this has rarely been investigated empirically. Research into the role of animals in facilitating social interaction among human beings has lagged behind the proliferation of research into other health or therapeutic benefits associated with companion animals [22]. Of the studies undertaken to date, the focus has primarily been on dogs in their capacity as social ‘ice-breakers’ [20], with a number reporting dogs were often a conversation trigger between strangers or casual acquaintances [23–25].’ (Wood et al., 2015, p. 2)

[end of description of scene]

Donna: Locate the research within an existing context

[Description of scene in video] Video shows a portion of the article’s Introduction on page 2, with text highlighted as below (highlighted areas are shown here in bold).

‘Pets play an important role in the lives of many people throughout the world, and there is a growing body of research indicating a positive relationship between pet ownership and human health [1–5]. With more than 60% of households in the U.S. and Australia owning one or more pets [6,7], the benefits to individuals of human-animal interactions (HAI) to health have been widely explored. Findings have revealed a number of therapeutic, physiological, psychological and psychosocial benefits to pet owners [8] including decreased blood pressure [9,10], reduced risk of heart attacks [11], improved survival rates [9,12,13], increased physical activity [14], increased sensory stimulation, emotional support and sense of physical and psychological wellbeing [15], as well as psychological resilience at times of adversity [16,17].

‘In the literature more broadly, there is now compelling empirical evidence for the importance of social relationships and social support for both physical and mental health and wellbeing. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 148 studies placed the influence of social relationships on mortality risk on a par with well-established risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption [5], concluding that people had a 50 percent higher survival rate if they belonged to a wider social group. Conversely, social isolation and loneliness have been identified as risk factors for poor health [18].

‘How then can socially supportive networks be enhanced in a modern fast-paced world that has been observed by some sociologists to precipitate disconnectedness from the people amongst whom we live [19]? Although there are anecdotal and qualitative research accounts about pets as a ‘social lubricant’ [20,21], this has rarely been investigated empirically. Research into the role of animals in facilitating social interaction among human beings has lagged behind the proliferation of research into other health or therapeutic benefits associated with companion animals [22]. Of the studies undertaken to date, the focus has primarily been on dogs in their capacity as social ‘ice-breakers’ [20], with a number reporting dogs were often a conversation trigger between strangers or casual acquaintances [23–25].’ (Wood et al., 2015, p. 2)

[end of description of scene]

Donna: Show this research addresses a gap

[Description of scene in video] Video shows a portion of the article’s Introduction on page 2, with text highlighted as below (highlighted areas are shown here in bold).

‘Pets play an important role in the lives of many people throughout the world, and there is a growing body of research indicating a positive relationship between pet ownership and human health [1–5]. With more than 60% of households in the U.S. and Australia owning one or more pets [6,7], the benefits to individuals of human-animal interactions (HAI) to health have been widely explored. Findings have revealed a number of therapeutic, physiological, psychological and psychosocial benefits to pet owners [8] including decreased blood pressure [9,10], reduced risk of heart attacks [11], improved survival rates [9,12,13], increased physical activity [14], increased sensory stimulation, emotional support and sense of physical and psychological wellbeing [15], as well as psychological resilience at times of adversity [16,17].

‘In the literature more broadly, there is now compelling empirical evidence for the importance of social relationships and social support for both physical and mental health and wellbeing. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 148 studies placed the influence of social relationships on mortality risk on a par with well-established risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption [5], concluding that people had a 50 percent higher survival rate if they belonged to a wider social group. Conversely, social isolation and loneliness have been identified as risk factors for poor health [18].

‘How then can socially supportive networks be enhanced in a modern fast-paced world that has been observed by some sociologists to precipitate disconnectedness from the people amongst whom we live [19]? Although there are anecdotal and qualitative research accounts about pets as a ‘social lubricant’ [20,21], this has rarely been investigated empirically. Research into the role of animals in facilitating social interaction among human beings has lagged behind the proliferation of research into other health or therapeutic benefits associated with companion animals [22]. Of the studies undertaken to date, the focus has primarily been on dogs in their capacity as social ‘ice-breakers’ [20], with a number reporting dogs were often a conversation trigger between strangers or casual acquaintances [23–25].’ (Wood et al., 2015, p. 2)

[end of description of scene]

Donna: Indicate the range of literature and evidence which informs this study

[Description of scene in video] Video shows a portion of page 3 of the article, with text highlighted as below (highlighted areas are shown here in bold).

‘Fig 1. Types of social relatedness facilitated by pets.

‘…and Collis [26] is that the presence of an animal provides people with a neutral and safe conversation starter.

‘Other evidence suggests pets can precipitate more than just incidental contact or casual conversations with strangers. For instance, in a previously published study undertaken in Perth, Western Australia, 40.5% of pet owners reported getting to know people in their suburb as a result of their pet [8]. Knowing people within the local community can be an important antidote to isolation and social disconnectedness [28], regardless of whether or not it deepens into friendships [29].

‘Further along the social relatedness continuum, the role of pets in facilitating new friendships has been observed in qualitative studies in Australia [30] and the UK [31] but has been less explored empirically.

‘While companion animals have been recognised as a source of social support for their owners in the HAI literature [32], pets may also precipitate human-human interactions that lead to supportive networks [33]. Qualitative data from a previous Perth study suggested relationships facilitated through pets can evolve into a source of social support for some pet owners [21]. By contrast, a UK study by Collis et al. [34] contended that casual interactions facilitated by dogs did not necessarily enhance social networks or social support. These differing findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the different types of ‘social lubrication’ that might be precipitated by pets; ranging from incidental greetings exchanged with a stranger, through to getting to know people by face or name, through to people being considered an acquaintance or even a friend. Social support can differ again, and, as articulated by Collis et al. [34], may not necessarily transpire from casual interactions catalyzed by companion animals.

‘Fig 1 below presents a conceptual diagram of the main types of pet-facilitated social relatedness identified from the literature considered as part of this study. The inclusion of social support as a potential byproduct of pet ownership is a particularly novel proposition within the domain of HAI research, where social support has been more typically viewed as something owners might derive directly from their companion animal [32], rather than through people met via their pet.”’ (Wood et al., 2015, p. 3)

[end of description of scene]

Donna: Outline the research design and the research aims.

[Description of scene in video] Video shows a portion of page 3 of the article with all the text highlighted.

‘This mixed methods study collected survey data from four cities (three in the U.S., one in Australia) and was underpinned by four research aims. These aims were to:

• investigate the extent to which pets are identified (unprompted) as one of the ways people got to know other people in their neighborhood;

• explore whether pet ownership facilitates the formation of new friendships (beyond acquaintances);’ (Wood et al., 2015, p. 3)

[end of description of scene]

Carmel: So by noticing the structure and style of academic writing, we can connect more easily with the content?

Donna: Yes. As you begin to read, draw on what you know about the structure of the text to help your reading.

Slide 5h

Video transcript:

Narrator (Donna and Carmel)

Carmel: What about reading critically? How does that help with academic integrity?

Donna: Reading critically means closely examining a number of features, for example:

• the evidence and arguments the writers use

• influencing factors such as who employs the writers

• limitations in the study design or focus, and

• interpretations the writers make about their findings or the findings of others.

You then have to decide to what extent you accept the writer’s arguments, opinions and conclusions.

Reading critically helps you avoid breaches of academic integrity because you are able to make clearer judgements and are more able to engage authentically with the ideas and knowledge. By reading critically, you also have more capacity to analyse and evaluate.

Let’s look at an example from our article.

Click pause to read the following excerpt from the Discussions section of the article.

Then, compare the underlined text with the critical comment written below.

[Description of scene in video]

Excerpt:

‘Pet culture’ differences may also have a bearing on some findings, so any international research would need to include consideration of the socio-cultural context of each study site. In the U.S. for example, dedicated dog runs within parks are more common than in Australia, and may foster greater social interaction between dog walkers than a regular park. There are also differences between countries and even between cities within the same country in relation to the permissibility of pets in various settings such as cafes, apartments and flats, and on public transit. The opportunity to meet or get to know people or forge social support networks through pets will in part be influenced by both the contextual laws and social norms relating to the presence of pets in such settings.’

Critical comment:

In evaluating future research directions, the authors note that local ‘pet culture’ differences between the US and Australian sites influences findings, and warrant further investigation (Wood et al., 2015). While their recommendation to compare socio-cultural factors across sites seems appropriate, they appear to have mistakenly generalised Perth conditions as nationally representative. Just as in the three US sites, ‘leash free’ parks and designated dog play zones are widely available in other Australian cities.

[end of description of scene]

Donna: Next, please answer the question.

[pop up quiz question in video]

Question:

What aspect of the text does this comment relate to?

Answer options:

a. The generalisability of the findings

b. The suitability of the sites

c. The ethical approach of the study

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

[end of quiz question]

Donna: If you would like to further develop your reading skills check out this helpful guide on the Library Research and Learning Online site.

Slide 6

Video transcript:

Narrator (Donna)

All stages of the research and learning process involve note-taking, from listening to lectures, through working on assignments, to preparing for exams.

These questions will get you thinking about the benefits of note-taking.

[pop up quiz question in the video]

Question:

How does effective note-taking help you to avoid breaches of academic integrity?

Answer options:

a. It activates your memory and supports your learning.

b. It enables you to track and accurately capture, recall and retain information and knowledge.

c. It will ensure that you will finish your assignments.

d. It promotes confidence and reduces stress.

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

Question:

Effective note-taking practices enable you to (choose all that apply):

Answer options:

a. Collect sentences to be inserted into your own work.

b. Retrieve the information and knowledge you will need for assignments.

c. Consolidate your learning.

d. Capture the main thoughts of the work.

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

[end of quiz question]

Donna: There are many different note-taking techniques and each requires active listening or reading, mindful concentration and effort.

To be effective, note-taking needs to be: systematic, organised, user-friendly, and dynamic.

Good notes are the start of a working document which you can revisit and revise regularly and overlay with new insights, questions, connections, summaries and reflections.

To see examples of effective note-taking techniques, visit the Library’s tutorial about reading and note-taking.

Slide 7

Video transcript:

Narraor (Carmel and Ming Hui)

Carmel: Hi. Ming Hui and I would like to talk about some important ways to avoid plagiarism.

Ming Huig: That’s right. And we are going to start with paraphrasing. I’m sure you know in theory what it is, but can you do it? Let’s find out.

Carmel: So let’s start with a very famous opening phrase from Act Three, Scene One of William Shakespeare's play Hamlet.

The character Hamlet says aloud to himself:

To be or not to be, that is the question (Shakespeare, W., & Hibbard, G. R., 1987)

[pop up of quiz question in video]

Question:

Which one of the following paraphrases is acceptable?

Answer options:

1. To exist or not to exist, that is the question.

2. Should I continue to live, or should I end my life?

3. I wish I had never been born.

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

[end of quiz question]

Carmel: Number one is definitely not a good paraphrase.

It’s actually an example of plagiarism, because only one word has changed and the form is the same.

Number three is not acceptable because it doesn’t capture the true meaning of the phrase.

Number two is acceptable. It poses the questions which Hamlet is asking, in a new way.

You are going to use paraphrasing a lot in your writing at uni, especially when you are discussing or comparing different sources of information.

Ming Hui: Paraphrasing accurately and ethically allows you to bring the ideas and evidence of other writers into your own text, while acknowledging their contribution.

When you do this, you show your lecturer that you have read widely and recognised what the experts think about your topic.

Carmel: Let’s review the main features of a successful paraphrase:

• Most words are different

• The meaning is the same

• Some words change form. For example, from a noun to a verb

• The length or order of the text may change

• The source is acknowledged in an in-text citation.

[pop up quiz question]

Question:

Identify the best paraphrase for the following quote:

“The ability to effectively use (and acknowledge) source material is one of the skills that students must learn as they become part of the academic community” (Vardi, 2012. p. 921).

Answer options:

1. One of the important skills that students must learn if they are part of the academic community is how to use and acknowledge source material (Vardi, 2012)

2. An essential requirement of academic life at university involves learning how to work with original sources and cite and reference them correctly in your writing (Vardi, 2012).

3. Knowing how to use sources is important for academics. (Vardi, 2012)

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

[end of quiz question]

Carmel: Now, let’s review another important skill for avoiding plagiarism - summarising.

You probably know what summarising is, right? But did you know that you still have to cite all your sources if you combine the views, ideas or evidence of several authors?

Effective summarising allows you to condense and combine several perspectives or pieces of information, in line with your writing purpose. This can add strength to the points that you wish to make.

However, it is important to acknowledge where this information came from. Summarising still requires accurate citing and referencing.

Ming Hui: To better understand how to paraphrase and summarise accurately and to see examples of good paraphrasing and summarising, visit the Library’s Research and Learning Online website.

Slide 9

Video transcript:

Narrator (Carmel)

This strategy focuses on developing your academic voice as a way to help you practise academic integrity.

One way to develop your academic voice is to become familiar with the rules and expectations of your faculty or discipline, and to practise those conventions and styles in your own work.

Though this might seem hard at first, it will increase your confidence and improve your performance.

Another way to develop your academic voice is to use your own words to bring your perspective into the text, whether you are writing or delivering an oral presentation.

Have you ever received feedback from your tutor that says - “too much description and not enough analysis and discussion”?

Or worse still, has the tutor suggested that sections of your text do not appear to be your own work?

This suggests that you need to develop your academic voice.

Let’s look at some examples of academic voice on the next screen.

Slide 11

Video transcript:

Narrator (Ming Hui)

What is critical thinking?

[pop up quiz question]

Question:

What do you think ‘critical thinking’ means in an academic context?

Answer options:

a. The act of criticising and finding errors in others’ academic work to prove which authors are the experts in a field.

b. The act of criticising, opposing and insulting other work with citations.

c. The act of analysing, questioning and scrutinising ideas and knowledge to establish their efficacy and value.

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

[end of quiz question]

Critical writing is an extension of critical thinking and critical reading.

The act of analysing, questioning and scrutinising ideas and knowledge to establish their relevance and value is the backbone of academic communication and the foundation of academic integrity.

Why do you need to practise critical thinking?

[pop quiz question]

Question:

Why do you need to think critically? (select all that apply)

a. To evaluate and identify quality academic sources.

b. To fully understand and engage with the materials you are studying.

c. To help you develop analysing, discussing, interpreting and skills.

d. To show your lecturers that you are capable and intelligent.

For the correct answer, refer to Appendix A.

[end of quiz question]

When you attempt to bring a critical perspective into your writing you show that you are engaged with the content. This signals to the reader that your assignment is likely to be your own, authentic work.

By breaking down and evaluating the claims, arguments, findings and biases you have found in your reading, you are demonstrating to your lecturers that you are developing important academic and professional skills.

These include the capacity to analyse, discuss, interpret and evaluate.

The best way to discover how to write effectively using a critical perspective in your chosen field is to carefully read the discussion and analysis sections of a range of relevant peer-reviewed articles.

Notice how different writers critique knowledge, ideas, findings and other forms of evidence.

Also notice how writers use logic and specific types of language to analyse, interpret and evaluate. Try to adopt some of these strategies in your own text.

Even if you are not entirely successful at first, your attempts will be appreciated by your lecturers and will show that you are genuinely adopting academic writing conventions.

For more practice on critical thinking, reading and writing, visit the Library’s research and learning online website.

Appendix C

References

Arena, M., & Chiaroni, D. (2014). Roadmapping for sustainability: Evidence from an italian-based multinational firm, International Journal of Business Science & Applied Management, 9(2), 1-15. Retrieved from 

Bretag, T., Harper, R., Burton, M., Ellis, C., Newton, P., Rozenberg, P., Saddiqui, S., & van Haeringen, K. (2018). Contract cheating: a survey of Australian university students. Studies in Higher Education, 1-20. doi:10.1080/03075079.2018.1462788

Monash University. (2013). The Monash Academic Integrity Policy. Retrieved from 

Monash University. (2018). Academic integrity, plagiarism and collusion. Retrieved from 

Shakespeare, W., & Hibbard, G. R. (1987). Hamlet. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wood, L., Martin, K., Hayley, C., Nathan, A., Lauritsen, C., Houghton, S., Kawachi, I., & McCune, S. (2015). The Pet Factor - Companion Animals as a Conduit for Getting to Know People, Friendship Formation and Social Support. PLoS One, 10(4), E0122085.

Vardi, I. (2012). Developing students' referencing skills: a matter of plagiarism, punishment and morality or of learning to write critically? Higher Education Research & Development, 31(6), 921-930. doi:10.1080/07294360.2012.673120

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