PROJECT GLAD

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PROJECT GLAD

Woodstock Community Unit School District 200, Illinois

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY

Grade 4

(Adapted from Electromagnetism by Mountain View School District)

IDEA PAGES

I. UNIT THEME

▪ Electricity and magnetism are two forms of the single phenomena, electromagnetic force.

▪ Electromagnetic force is one of four main forces in the universe and has many useful applications in everyday life throughout the world.

▪ Many scientists have contributed to this field, and their work is built upon the foundation of previous research and discoveries.

II. FOCUS/MOTIVATION

▪ Literacy Award/3 Standards

▪ Big Books

▪ Observation Charts

▪ Inquiry Charts

▪ Realia – magnets, iron filings

▪ Picture File Cards

▪ Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal World

▪ Poetry and Songs

III. CLOSURE

▪ Process all charts and graphs

▪ Add to living walls

▪ Team Exploration

▪ Personal Exploration

▪ Sharing of Team and Personal Explorations

▪ On-going assessments – Learning logs, Interactive journals

▪ Home-School Connection

▪ Team Jeopardy game

IV. CONCEPTS

▪ Atoms have negatively charged electrons that spin around a nucleus of positively charged protons and neutrons.

▪ Charges fill space with an electric field.

▪ Static electricity is associated with the gain or loss of electrons.

▪ Electromagnetic forces can attract or repel.

▪ Opposite charges attract each other, and like charges repel each other.

▪ Electric current is the flow of electrons.

▪ A complete, continuous path of current is called an electric circuit.

Conductors are materials that allow energy to flow and carry out current.

▪ Simple, series, and parallel circuits can be built by using materials such as wires, batteries, and bulbs.

▪ Magnetic materials are sources of magnetic fields.

▪ The Earth has a magnetic field caused by electrical currents.

▪ Magnets have two poles; like poles repel and unlike poles attract.

▪ Electric current, like magnets, produce magnetic fields.

▪ Electromagnets are used in many simple devices, tools, and appliances.

V. VOCABULARY

Electricity – Static Electricity/ Electric Currents

atoms, charge, electric field, electricity, circuits, simple circuit, series circuit, parallel circuit, batteries, bulbs, wire, resistance, current, voltage, short circuit, fuse, conductor, insulator, superconductor, electrical energy, potential energy, capacitors, AC – alternating current, DC – direct current, amperes, coulombs, watts, volts, ohms, joules, circuit breaker, conversion,

switch, lightning, ammeter, voltmeter, multimeter, ohmmeter

Magnetism

magnets, magnetic force, repulsion, attraction, repel, attract, compass, magnetic field, poles, permanent magnets, geographic North Pole and South Pole, polarized, domains, magnetic materials, ferromagnetic elements

Electromagnetic Force

electromagnets, electromotive force, motors, generators, doorbells,

induction, inductors, solenoid coil, temporary magnets, motion, energy,

transformers, power, watts, earphones

VI. ENGLISH/LANGUAGE ARTS SKILLS

ILLINOIS LANGUAGE ARTS STANDARDS

Reading Informational Text

CC.4.R.I.1 Key Ideas and Details: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

CC.4.R.I.4 Craft and Structure: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

CC.4.R.I.7 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

CC.4.R.I.10 Range of Reading and Complexity of Text: By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as necessary at the high end of the range.

Reading Foundation Skills

CC.4.R.F.3 Phonics and Word Recognition: Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

CC.4.R.F.3.a Phonics and Word Recognition: Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

CC.4.R.F.4.b Fluency: Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.

Writing

CC.4.W.1.a Text Types and Purposes: Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.

CC.4.W.1.b Text Types and Purposes: Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.

CC.4.W.1.c Text Types and Purposes: Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).

CC.4.W.1.d Text Types and Purposes: Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

CC.4.W.4 Production and Distribution of Writing: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

CC.4.W.5 Production and Distribution of Writing: With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.(Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3up to and including grade 4 on page 29.)

CC.4.W.6 Production and Distribution of Writing: With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.

CC.4.W.7 Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

CC.4.W.10 Range of Writing: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Speaking Listening

CC.4.SL.1 Comprehension and Collaboration: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led)with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

CC.4.SL.1.b Comprehension and Collaboration: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.

CC.4.SL.1.c Comprehension and Collaboration: Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.

CC.4.SL.2 Comprehension and Collaboration: Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

Language

CC.4.L.1 Conventions of Standard English: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

CC.4.L.1.a Conventions of Standard English: Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).

CC.4.L.1.d Conventions of Standard English: Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).

CC.4.L.1.e Conventions of Standard English: Form and use prepositional phrases.

CC.4.L.2 Conventions of Standard English: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

CC.4.L.2.a Conventions of Standard English: Use correct capitalization.

CC.4.L.2.b Conventions of Standard English: Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.

CC.4.L.2.d Conventions of Standard English: Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

CC.4.L.3 Knowledge of Language: Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

CC.4.L.3.a Knowledge of Language: Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.*

CC.4.L.3.c Knowledge of Language: Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).

CC.4.L.4 Vocabulary Acquisition and Use: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

CC.4.L.4.a Vocabulary Acquisition and Use: Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

CC.4.L.4.b Vocabulary Acquisition and Use: Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).

CC.4.L.5.c Vocabulary Acquisition and Use: Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).

CC.4.L.6 Vocabulary Acquisition and Use: Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

WIDA GRADE 3-5 ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

VII. SCIENCE/SKILLS/UNDERSTANDING

SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARDS FOR GRADE 4

STATE GOAL 11: Understand the processes of scientific inquiry and technological design to investigate questions, conduct experiments and solve problems.

A. Know and apply the concepts, principles and processes of scientific inquiry.

11.A.2a Formulate questions on a specific science topic and choose the steps needed to answer the questions.

11.A.2b Collect data for investigations using scientific process skills including observing, estimating and measuring.

11.A.2c Construct charts and visualizations to display data.

11.A.2d Use data to produce reasonable explanations.

11.A.2e Report and display the results of individual and group investigations.

B. Know and apply the concepts, principles and processes of technological design.

11.B.2a Identify a design problem and propose possible solutions.

11.B.2b Develop a plan, design and procedure to address the problem identifying constraints (e.g., time, materials, technology).

11.B.2c Build a prototype of the design using available tools and materials.

11.B.2d Test the prototype using suitable instruments, techniques and quantitative measurements to record data.

C. Know and apply concepts that describe properties of matter and energy and the interactions between them.

12.C.2a Describe and compare types of energy including light, heat, sound, electrical and mechanical.

D. Know and apply concepts that describe force and motion and the principles that explain them.

12.D.2b Demonstrate and explain ways that forces cause actions and reactions (e.g., magnets attracting and repelling; objects falling, rolling and bouncing).

B. Know and apply concepts that describe the interaction between science, technology and society.

13.B.2a Explain how technology is used in science for a variety of purposes (e.g., sample collection, storage and treatment; measure-ment; data collection, storage and retrieval; communication of information).

13.B.2b Describe the effects on society of scientific and technological innovations (e.g., antibiotics, steam engine, digital computer).

13.B.2c Identify and explain ways that science and technology influence the lives and careers of people.

VIII. RESOURCES AND MATERIALS

Callan, Jim. Amazing Scientists; John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY 1997

Christelow, Eileen. What Do Authors Do?, Clarion Books, NY 1995

Cole, Joanna & Degen, Bruce. Magic School Bus and the Electric Field Trip;

Scholastic, NY 1997

Da Silva, Wilson. A Guide to Modern Science, Fog City Press, CA 2002

Lafferty, Peter. Magnets to Generators; Gloucester Press, NY 1989

Lehrman, Robert. Physics, The Easy Way, Barron’s Educational Series, NY 1998

Oxlade, Chris. States of Matter; Heinemann Library, Chicago, Il 2002

Oxlade, Chris. Atoms; Heinemann Library, Chicago, Il 2002

Parker, Steve. Electricity; Dorling Kindersly, Inc., NY 1992

Tocci, Salvatore. The Periodic Table; Children’s Press, NY 2004

Raintree-Steck-Vaughn. Electricity and Magnetism; NY 2002

Ramsey, W. Physcial Science, Holt, NY 1997

Schreiber, Anne. Magnets, Scholastic, NY 2003

Stockley, C. Usborne Illustrated Dictionary of Physics, EDC Publishing 2000

VanCleave, Janice. Magnets, John Wiley & Sons, NY 1993

Whalley, Margaret. Experiment with Magnets and Electricity; Lerner Publications

Co., Minneapolis, Minnesota 1994

District Texts

Harcourt Science, Grade 4

FOSS, Magnetism and Electricity Grade 4

FOSS Science Stories, Magnetism and Electricity Grade 4

Internet Resources

Types of Magnetism, Materials by Design mse.cornell.edu/courses

Circuits schoolscience.co.uk/content/3/physics

Electricity & Static Electricity static

Ultra simple Electric Generator amateur

Circuit Diagrams EducationResources

Scientists

PROJECT GLAD

Woodstock School District

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY

Grade 4

UNIT PLANNING PAGES

I. FOCUS/MOTIVATION

▪ Observation Charts

▪ Inquiry Charts

▪ Direct Experiences

▪ Realia

▪ Read Aloud

▪ Big Book

▪ Cognitive Content Dictionary

▪ Learning Logs

▪ Scientific Awards

▪ Comparative Input

II. INPUT

▪ Pictorial Inputs – atom, 3 states of matter, electrical charges and fields, circuits, magnets – Earth, permanent, electromagnets

▪ Narrative Input

▪ 10/2 lecture

▪ Read Aloud/Shared Book Experiences

▪ Realia

▪ Demonstrations/Explorations/ Labs (static electricity, compass, circuits, magnetic fields)

▪ Videos – Bill Nye, Lightning …

▪ Listen and Sketch

▪ Timeline of Scientists and their contributions

III. GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE

▪ T-Graph

▪ Cooperative learning techniques for cross-cultural respect and decision making

▪ Personal Interaction for bonding/respect

▪ Exploration Report/Picture File Cards

▪ Poetry/Chants/Songs/Rap

▪ Farmer in the Dell

▪ Process Grid

▪ Team Points

▪ Flexible groupings

▪ Group Frame

▪ On-going processing of charts

IV. READING/WRITING

Total class modeling – English, Primary language, all genres

Small Groups – Cooperative Tasks, Flex Groupings – by need & choice

▪ Focused reading

▪ Shared, guided, and flexible group reading

▪ Interactive reading

▪ Cooperative Strip paragraphs

▪ Expert Groups

▪ Mind Mapping

▪ Oral book sharing

▪ Flip chants

▪ Ear-to-ear reading

▪ Big Books

▪ Textbooks and trade books

▪ Reader’s Theater

▪ Group Frame

Individual Practice and Choice (Student’s own language)

▪ SSR

▪ SSW

▪ All genres and domains

▪ Interactive Journals, Learning Logs, Mind-mapping

▪ International Library

▪ Read Aloud by teacher and students of a variety of literature including students’ work

Writer’s Workshop

▪ Choice

▪ Metacognition – Mini-lesson and Conferencing

▪ Author’s Chair (Works in Progress only)

▪ Author’s Day (Sharing of Completed Works)

V. EXTENDED ACTIVITIES FOR INTEGRATION (INTELLIGENCES)

▪ Role-playing/drama

▪ Guided imagery

▪ Scientific Explorations

▪ Music/Movement

▪ Poetry

▪ Art

▪ Movie

▪ Field trips

▪ Computer

VI. CLOSURE/EVALUATION

▪ Personal exploration

▪ Rubrics

▪ Assessments matched to outcomes/standards

o Practical – building of circuits, compass, electromagnet

▪ Team exploration

Jeopardy Game

▪ Process charts and learnings

▪ On-going assessments

o Group Frames, Learning Logs, Interactive Journals

▪ Running Records/Writing Inventories

▪ Home-School Connection/Family Involvement

▪ Alternative assessment strategies

o Videos, plays, presentations, demonstrations, building projects,

o Big Books, Portfolios

▪ District tests

▪ Teaching of study skills and test-taking skills

PROJECT GLAD

Woodstock Community Unit School District 200, Illinois

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY

Grade 4

SAMPLE DAILY LESSON PLANS

Italicized words represent strategies done daily.

DAY 1

FOCUS/MOTIVATION

3 Personal Standards/Literacy Awards

Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal Word

Observation Charts

Inquiry Chart

Big Book

Portfolios

GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE

Chant – I’m a Magnet

INPUT

Graphic Organizer - Timeline

10/2

*Learning Log

*ELD Review

*Read Aloud

GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE

Chant – Electrons

T-graph for Social Skills

Exploration Report/Picture File Cards

INPUT

Pictorial Input – Magnets

10/2

Learning Log

ELD Review

READING/WRITING

*Writer’s Workshop

Mini-lesson

Write

Author’s Chair

CLOSURE

*Process charts

Interactive Journals

Home/School Connection

DAY 2

FOCUS/MOTIVATION

3 Personal Standards/Literacy Awards

Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal Word

Process Home/School Connection

*Big Book Review

*Realia

Process input with word cards and picture file cards

INPUT

Narrative Input

Learning Log

10/2

GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE

Chant – I Know a Physicist

*Personal Interaction

Process Chant – Electrons, *I’m a Magnet

Highlight, sketch, picture file cards, TPR

READING/WRITING

Flexible Groups – Expert Groups

Team Tasks

▪ T-Graph Review

▪ Team Tasks

▪ Process T-graph and Team Share

*Writer’s Workshop

Mini-lesson

Write

Author’s Chair

CLOSURE

Process Inquiry Chart

Interactive Journals

Home/School Connection

DAY 3

FOCUS/MOTIVATION

3 Personal Standards/Literacy Awards

Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal Word

Process Home/School Connection

*Big Book/Read Aloud

READING/WRITING

Story Map

GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE

Chant – I’m a Circuit

READING/WRITING

Flex Groups – Expert Groups

Team Tasks, Oral Team Evaluation from T-graph

Sentence Patterning Chart (SPC)

Reading Game

Trading Game

*Flip Chants

READING/WRITING

Mind Map

GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE

Process Grid

READING/WRITING

Cooperative Strip Paragraph

Read, Respond, Revise, Edit

*Strip Book

*Writing Workshop

Mini-lesson

Write

Author’s Chair

CLOSURE

Process Inquiry Chart

Interactive Journals

Home/School Connection

DAY 4

FOCUS/MOTIVATION

3 Personal Standards/Literacy Awards

Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal Word

Stumper Word (Student Selected Vocabulary) – 4 day demo only

Process Home/School Connection

GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE

Chant – Is This a Circuit?

READING/WRITING

Flexible Group Reading

Team Tasks

Group Frame - ELD Retell (Narrative)

Clunkers and Links – at or above level reading

*Writing Workshop

Focused Reading with Personal CCD

Ear to Ear Reading with Poetry Booklet

Listen and Sketch – The Legend of Magnes

GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE

Chants/Poetry – I’m an Electrical Engineer

CLOSURE

Turn in Learning Logs for Evaluation

Process Inquiry Charts

DAY 5

FOCUS/MOTIVATION

3 Personal Standards/Literacy Awards

Cognitive Content Dictionary with Signal Word

Student Choice – Stumper Word

Process Home/School Connection

GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE

Chants/Poetry

READING/WRITING

Flex Group Reading

Struggling and Emergent Reading with Coop Strip Paragraph

Team Tasks

Team Presentations

Found Poetry

*Writing Workshop

Mini-lesson

Write

Author’s Chair

CLOSURE

Presentations/Publishing

Letter Home

Process Inquiry Chart

Process Week – “What helped you learn?”

Chant – Superstar

I JUST THOUGHT YOU’D LIKE TO KNOW…

about ELECTRICITY and MAGNETISM

By Lillie Ruvalcaba

Adapted by Katie Vazquez

I just thought you’d like to know that electricity and magnetism are related forces…

Our earth is a giant magnet.

A compass detects magnetic fields, including Earth’s magnetic field.

The compass needle always points to the magnetic north pole.

Explorers have used compasses for over 1000 years to navigate.

I just thought you’d like to know.

I just thought you’d like to know that electricity and magnetism are related forces…

Magnets have two poles, north and south. Like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other in an invisible area called the magnetic field.

I just thought you’d like to know.

I just thought you’d like to know that electricity and magnetism are related forces…

Electricity has positive and negative charge. Electrically charged objects attract and repel each other in the same way magnets attract and repel each other.

I just thought you’d like to know.

I just thought you’d like to know that electricity and magnetism are related forces…

Current electricity is the movement of charge. Every atom has electrons whizzing around the nucleus, so every atom is generating an electric current. Every atom in the universe has its own little magnetic field.

I just thought you’d like to know.

I just thought you’d like to know that electricity and magnetism are related forces…

When electricity is flowing, charges are moving throughout a circuit. Both simple series and parallel series circuits use things like wires, batteries and bulbs.

I just thought you’d like to know.

I just thought you’d like to know that electricity and magnetism are related forces…

Electricity is all around. Electrical energy can be converted to heat, light, sound and motion.

I just thought you’d like to know.

I just thought you’d like to know that electricity and magnetism are related forces…

Electricity is all around.

Electrical energy can be converted to heat, light, sound and motion.

I just thought you’d like to know.

The Important Book about Electricity

By Marita d’Arnaud

An important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

Electricity is one form of electromagnetic force. A force is a push or a pull.

Electricity is related to magnetism, the other form of electromagnetic force.

Electrical energy, which comes from charged particles, allows us do many things

like play a PlayStation II game, toast bread in a toaster, and drive an

electric car.

But an important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

An important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

Negatively charged electrons(-) in atoms spin around a nucleus of positively

charged protons(+) and neutrons(0), which have no charge.

When atoms lose or gain electrons, the atoms become charged.

Charges fill space with an electric field.

Opposite charges attract each other, and like charges repel each other.

But an important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

An important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

When negative charges move from one object to another, charge builds up on

both objects.

One object will have a positive charge. The other will have a negative charge.

This buildup of charges is called static electricity.

Built-up charges can leak out harmlessly or “jump” causing an electrical

discharge, like lightning or an electrical shock.

But an important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

An important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

A stream of moving electrons produces an electric current.

An electric circuit is a complete, continuous path of current.

Conductors, like copper and aluminum, are materials that allow current to flow

easily. Insulators, like rubber and plastic, do not allow current to flow.

But an important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

An important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

Simple, series, and parallel circuits can be built using materials such as wires,

batteries, switches, and bulbs.

As current flows through a bulb, electrical energy is converted to heat and light

energy.

As electric current flows, a magnetic field is produced. A moving magnetic field

creates an electric current.

Electricity allows us to turn on lights, play videogames, use a microwave, and

watch television.

But an important thing to remember about electricity is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

The Important Book about Magnetism

By Marita d’Arnaud

An important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

Magnetism is one form of electromagnetic force. A force is a push or a pull.

Magnetism is related to electricity, the other form of electromagnetic force.

Can openers, magnetic levitation (Maglev) trains, and screwdrivers use magnets.

But an important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

An important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

Magnetic materials include metals and metal alloys like iron, nickel, and cobalt.

Magnets come in different sizes and shapes such as rings, bars, and horseshoes.

There are temporary magnets and permanent magnets.

But an important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

An important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

A magnet has two poles, a north pole and a south pole.

Each magnet produces a magnetic field traveling from north to south that

curves around the magnet.

Unlike poles attract, and like poles repel. The closer the poles are, the

stronger the force.

Electric currents produce magnetic fields.

But an important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

An important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

Our earth, with a nickel and iron core, is a giant magnet that has a magnetic north

pole and south pole.

Scientists theorize that moving electric currents inside the earth create its

magnetic field.

A compass is a magnetized needle that points to the earth’s magnetic north pole.

The earth’s magnetic poles are at least one thousand miles away from the earth’s

geographic poles.

But an important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

An important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

Just as an electric current produces a magnetic field, a changing magnetic field

produces an electric current.

A coiled wire with an electric current has a stronger magnetic field than a straight

wire with current.

Inserting an iron bar into the coil creates an electromagnet, with an even stronger

field.

Electromagnets are used in electric generators, motors, and simple devices such as

doorbells, VCRs, telephones, and loudspeakers.

But an important thing to remember about magnetism is that it has many useful applications in everyday life.

THE LEGEND OF MAGNES (for Listen and Sketch)

(another option is to use the Magnes story from the FOSS reader)

A legend is a story about an event that happened a long time ago. Usually, a legend has some truth to it, but untruths have often been added through the years. There is a Greek legend about how magnets were first discovered.

Thousands of years ago, an old man named Magnes was herding his sheep. As he walked his sheep through the fields, he climbed on a large, black rock to get a better view.

Something strange happened. The nails in his shoes and the metal at the tip of his shepherd’s staff stuck to the rock! He lifted his feet out of his shoes and left his staff to go tell the townspeople of Magnesia what happened.

They came to look at the mysterious rock. The townspeople were amazed. Magnes then removed his shoes and staff and went on his way. The townspeople named the black rock “magnetite” after the old man and

the town nearby.

Over the years, legends were made up about the power of magnetite.

Some legends told of magnetite having magical powers. Others told of magnetite healing the sick and driving evil spirits away. Sailors told legends of ships made of iron being attracted to magnetite rocks only to be crushed and shipwrecked.

From Teacher Created Materials

Famous Scientists Timeline

L. Ruvalcaba

470 BC Democritus Greek philosopher - theorizes about the atom.

Theorized that all matter was made up of invisible particles called atoms. His idea was rejected at the time because it could not be proved. He was even suspected of being insane.

625-547 BC Thales Ancient Greek scientist, Thales, observed that an electric charge could be generated by rubbing amber with a piece of wool or fur, the greek word for electron

1600 William Gilbert English Scientist - first to study about the

lines of force around magnets. He theorized

that Earth was a large magnet and exerted

a magnetic influence (gravity) throughout

the solar system. He was the first scientist

to use the word electric to describe one

object’s power to attract others. He made

the first electroscope, an instrument that

detects the presence of an electric charge.

1687 Sir Isaac Newton British Scientist - Explained how all objects

in the universe, even the planets, move. His laws of motion used math and he made predictions, for the first time. Scientists still consider Newton the most famous physicist ever.

1752. Benjamin Franklin American statesman and inventor. He proved

that lightning was static electricity, invented the Franklin stove, bifocal glasses, and the lightning rod.

1769 James Watt Scottish engineer – made important improvements

to the steam engine, thereby helping to stimulate

the Industrial Revolution. He was the first person

who coined the term, horsepower. The basic

measure of electric power is the watt, which was

named in his honor.

1800 Alessandro Volta Italian physicist. Discovered that 2 metals in

contact could create an electric current. Created the first electric battery and condenser. Invented the electrophorous to show static electricity, a device with two metal plates that can make an electrical charge. Volt (modern unit of electric potential, which is the strength or “electric push” of the flowing charge) named after him

1803 John Dalton English scientist provided proof that atoms

existed. His atomic theory states that all matter is made up of small, indivisible particles called atoms. Atoms of different particles have different properties, but all atoms of the same element are identical. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed.

1819 Hans Christian Oersted Danish Scientist – discovered electromagnetism

He was conducting an experiment with an electrical

circuit and noticed that when he turned the circuit

on and off the needle of his nearby compass would

jump. He concluded that electricity produces magnetism. His discovery became the basis of the electric motor and the electromagnet.

1826 Georg Ohm Made an important discovery about resistance. He

studied the relationship between the amount of

current that flowed through a wire(amperage) and

the amount of EMF that drove the current (voltage).

1830’s Andre Ampere French scientist - Discovered that if he passed an

electric current through a coil of wire, the wire

acted like a magnet. The basic unit of electric

current flow is named “ampere.”

1831 Michael Faraday British Scientist – Conducted an experiment devised

to bring about the conversion of magnetism to

electricity. He imagined that there were “lines of force” stretching out in space from a magnet. He discovered electromagnetic induction, a varying or moving magnetic field produces an electromotive force emf in a nearby conductor, and thus an electric current if the conductor is part of a circuit. Constructed the first electric generator.

1847 Alexander Graham Bell Born in Scotland, emigrated to America in

1871. American scientist and inventor. He found

that different voice tones could vary the electrical

signals flowing in a wire, by the process of

electromagnetic induction. Invented an early

version of the telephone.

1865 James Clerk Maxwell Scottish physicist. Developed the math to

describe electric and magnetic fields and how they

affect each other. He showed that magnetic fields

and electric fields always exist together, so the

field is really an electromagnetic field. Maxwell

also produced a theory about what light is and how

it moves.

1873 Demitri Mendeleyev Siberian scientist devised his periodic table of

elements. He used the atomic weights of elements

and grouped the elements according to similar

properties, such as how they react with oxygen.

This gave him seven different groups of elements.

He made the claim that “properties of the elements

were periodic functions of their atomic weights.”Mendeleyev called this the periodic table of elements because the chemical properties repeated themselves every seven elements.

1877 Thomas Edison American Inventor He invented the phonograph

and the incandescent lightbulb, had more than 1,300 inventions in his lifetime

1881 Lewis H. Latimer African American inventor - He made incandescent

lightblulb last much longer by using inexpensive

carbon filaments.

1893 Nikola Tesla Croatian Scientist – invented AC power (alternating

currents) An alternating current flows alternately in

either direction, and its voltage can be easily controlled. Tesla showed that AC power could be transmitted efficiently at high voltages over great distances. When it reached the points it was to be transferred into homes, devices called transformers could decrease the voltage to safe levels. Tesla invented all the different components of the entire AC system – generator, transformer, transmission lines, motor and lights.

1898 Marie Curie Polish scientist – discovered the element

radium. Famous for her discoveries in field of radioactivity. Discovered that a small amount of radium would destroy human tissue.

1905 Albert Einstein German scientist – Most famous for his theory of

relativity. One of the most famous discoveries in all

scientific history was the amount of energy stored

in matter. If the amount of energy that is stored in

just one pound of coal could be converted into

energy it would produce the amount of electricity the entire world uses in one day.

[pic]

Pictorial

[pic]

NARRATIVE INPUT

Katrina Faber, her brother Carl, and their parents are spending Saturday afternoon at the Franklin Institute Science Museum in Philadelphia. “Hey kids, come look at this! It’s an exhibit on Ben Franklin’s inventions. He was from Philly, you know, just like us,” said Mrs. Faber.

“No, he was born in Boston!” Carl quickly added. Mrs. Faber stated that he lived in Philadelphia, Ben’s favorite city, most of his life.

“Wow! This is pretty incredible! Look at all the things he invented. Wood stoves…bifocals…” Mr. Faber exclaimed. Katrina wanted to know what bifocals were. Carl explained that they are special glasses with two lenses. The top is for viewing long distances while the bottom half is for reading. Then Mr. Faber continued to explain how old Ben got tired of switching his regular glasses to his reading glasses that he combined the two and invented bifocals.

1

Katrina sat down on a bench while her family continued looking at exhibits. As Mrs. Faber started talking about Franklin discovering electricity, Katrina noticed an oddly dressed elderly man. He was wearing a shiny suit with ruffles at the wrists, and his pants went down to his knees. His shoes had silver buckles on them. Still, Katrina was sure she’d seen him somewhere before. “It never happened,” the stranger spoke.

“What?” asked Katrina.

“I never discovered electricity.” Katrina stared at the stranger and was dumbfounded.

“What, you don’t recognize old Ben? Ben Franklin?” Ben said.

“You can’t be Ben Franklin, he was born a million years ago!” Katrina remarked.

“Would you offer him a seat if he were here?” asked Ben. Katrina nodded.

2

Ben sat down next to Katrina and kicked off his shoes and asked her what they were talking about. Katrina couldn’t believe that he had already forgotten what they were discussing. “Electricity, Mr. Franklin,” she replied.

3

Ben chuckled and then began to explain how many people thought he discovered electricity however it was the Greeks who discovered it about 3,000 years ago in 600 B.C.E. They weren’t sure how to use it. All they knew was that rubbing amber with a piece of wool would create static electricity. He told her another example of static electricity is when a person takes off their hat in the winter and their hair stands straight up. “That’s electricity?” Katrina asked.

“Sure. It’s just like your TV,” Ben answered. Then Katrina gave Ben a puzzled look and he replied, “Keep up. Here, close your eyes for a second and I’ll show you exactly how I discovered that lightning was made out of electricity.”

4

When Katrina opened her eyes, she found herself in a living room of a house. There was a paper on the table that resembled a newspaper with date 1752. Ben was there, with his shoes on, sitting in a chair talking to his son named William. He asked him what he was doing for the day and if he wanted to help perform an experiment. She could then hear Ben saying, “It’s going to be a rainy evening. It’s perfect weather for our electrical experiment. Let’s get started.” Katrina watched as they made a kite out of two crossed strips of cedar wood and an old handkerchief. Then they attached a piece of wire to one of the strips. She wondered if they needed her help or if they could even see her.

5

The two went outside and Katrina followed. She heard Ben tell William how electricity was discovered hundreds of years ago. Yet, nobody really knew what it was, or how to use it, or if it could be used. “Is it magic?” she heard William ask.

“It’s not magic. I suspect it comes from nature. My guess is that lightning is made of electricity. That’s what I hope we can prove tonight. Metal attracts electricity. I think it attracts lightning, too,” Ben said. He then took the kite and tied a large metal key to it. Ben held onto the string as William ran with the kite. A strong wind took the kite high into the air.

6

“Hey wait! That’s really dangerous! I heard about someone who got hit by lightning on a golf course and got badly hurt! Hey! Can your hear me?” Katrina yelled. Ben and his son didn’t hear Katrina’s warning.

“Direct me towards the darkest cloud, William!” Ben instructed. Lightning was flashing all around them, and finally it struck the wire on the kite. Ben reached for the key and yelled, “Yeow!” A spark flew off the key and zapped him.

“Did electricity travel down the string? Was that spark electricity?” William asked.

“It most certainly was! We’ve done it, William! We’ve proven that lightning is made of electricity!” exclaimed Ben.

7

“How does this help us?” asked William. Ben put his arm around William and began telling him how he thought he could prevent houses from burning down to the ground that get struck by lightning. He explained that lightning is attracted to metal, and that lightning usually strikes the tallest thing around. Katrina then heard Ben tell his son that if he put a tall metal pole on every house, the lightning would hit the pole instead of the house. “Katrina, it’s time to go!” William said.

“What? You can see me?” Katrina said.

“I said it’s time to go!” William said again.

8

Katrina blinked and found that she was sitting on the bench at the Franklin Institute. Katrina’s dad was shaking her on the shoulder. “Hey Katrina, it’s time to go! I said, it’s time to go! Have you been sleeping on this bench all afternoon?” Mr. Faber asked.

Carl laughed, “I’ll bet you’ve really learned a lot.”

“I learned plenty today,” Katrina responded. She then went into detail about the story of Ben and his son discovering that lightning was made of electricity and how he put that discovery into inventing the lightning rod.

“Where did you learn that?” asked Mrs. Faber.

“Ben Franklin told me. I mean, I must have read it somewhere,” Katrina stammered. Mr. Faber had then said that it was time to hit the road.

9

“I need to get a drink of water first. I’ll hurry,” Katrina said. Just as she was getting a drink she noticed someone carefully studying the electricity exhibit. It was Ben. “Mr. Franklin, your still here. I told my parents about the lightning rod. That was great,” Katrina said. With a smile on Ben’s face, he told Katrina of some other amazing accomplishments during his time. He told her how he formed the first fire department, established the first free library, invented the wood stove, signed the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution. He even went to France to raise money for the American Revolution. “Wow, I can’t even finish all of my homework sometimes!” Katrina said.

10

“People can accomplish a lot if they believe in themselves and work hard. Nothing is so complicated that we can’t understand it. All you have to do is slow down and think it through carefully. Pretty soon it’ll make sense to you. When I was young there were a million things we didn’t understand about science and medicine. But, I read everything I could, spent lots of time thinking about things. Try it. You’ll be surprised what you might discover.” Ben said. Just then Ben pulled a penny from behind Katrina’s ear and handed it to her. “Here’s a penny for your thoughts,” he said.

“How did you do that?” Katrina was shocked.

“It’s magic,” Ben replied.

“Thanks, Mr. Franklin. Thanks for everything,” Katrina said

11

That night Mrs. Faber went to tuck Katrina into bed. They discussed the events of the day and their favorite exhibits. As Mrs. Faber went to turn the light off she noticed something shiny on Katrina’s desk and picked it up. “This penny is from 1789. Where did you get this?” Mrs. Faber asked.

Katrina smiled, “An ‘old’ friend gave it to me.”

12

Speech Bubbles and Word Cards

“Wow! This is pretty incredible!

Look at all the things he invented.

Wood stoves…bifocals…”

“I never discovered

electricity.”

“That’s electricity?”

“Keep up. Close your eyes for a second and

I’ll show you exactly how I discovered that

lightning is made out of electricity.”

“It’s not magic. I suspect it

comes from nature. My guess

is that lightning is made of

electricity. That’s what I hope

we can prove tonight. Metal

attracts electricity.”I think

it attracts lightning, too.”

“It most certainly was! We’ve done it,

William! We’ve proven that lightning is made

of electricity!”

“People can accomplish a lot if they

believe in themselves and work hard.

Nothing is so complicated that we can’t

understand it.”

spark

invented

discovered

lightning rod

electrical experiment

Magnetism

and

Electricity

POETRY BOOKLET

NAME:__________________________

ELECTRONS by M. d’Arnaud adapted by K. Vazquez

Electrons here, electrons there,

Electrons, electrons, everywhere!

Minute electrons spinning furiously,

Negative electrons attracting constantly,

Weightless electrons repelling persistently, and

Spherical electrons flowing energetically.

Electrons in the circuits,

Electrons around the magnets,

Electrons near the filaments, and

Electrons from the generator.

Electrons here, electrons there,

Electrons, electrons, everywhere!

Electrons, electrons, electrons!

Magnets Here-There

By K. Vázquez, S. Wargaski, E. Postigo, R. Cervantes

Magnets here, magnets there,

Magnets, magnets everywhere!

Strong magnets repelling forcefully,

Permanent magnets attracting naturally,

Artificial magnets holding temporarily,

Useful magnets helping daily.

Magnets on the white board,

Magnets in our electronics,

Magnets inside the Earth, and

Magnets around the house.

Magnets here, magnets there,

Magnets, magnets everywhere!

Magnets! Magnets! Magnets!

I’M AN ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

I’m an electrical engineer, and here to say

I study how charges move everyday.

Sometimes I plan a circuit or read a physics book,

Sometimes I analyze how electromagnets look.

Conductors, voltage, and resistance, too

The Electrical Current Bugaloo!

I study electricity and where it flows,

When switches are flipped, well, there it goes.

It travels through conductors often wrapped in insulators,

Currents can convert to light, and cool refrigerators.

Conductors, voltage, and resistance, too

The Electrical Current Bugaloo!

Parallel and series circuits are part of my design

When creating electrical devices divine,

Generators and batteries produce electricity,

And current can flow as AC or DC.

Conductors, voltage, and resistance, too

The Electrical Current Bugaloo!

by M. d’Arnaud

I’M A MAGNET by M. d’Arnaud

(Tune of I’m a Nut)

I’m a magnet, and I’m here to say,

I have a magnetic field around me all day.

North and south are my two poles,

When next to other magnets, they’ve got their own roles.

I’m a magnet with magnetic force.

I’m a magnet with magnetic force!

Unlike poles attract while like poles repel,

Attraction or repulsion, it’s easy to tell.

I’m a permanent magnet if I’m strongly magnetic,

If weak, I’m temporary, not quite so energetic.

I’m a magnet with magnetic force.

I’m a magnet with magnetic force!

Electric currents create strong electromagnets,

And magnetic fields induce electric currents.

Nickel, cobalt, and iron are ferromagnetic,

Other strong magnets can be natural or synthetic.

I’m a magnet with magnetic force.

I’m a magnet with magnetic force!

I’M A CIRCUIT by M. d’Arnaud

(My Darling Clementine tune)

I’m a circuit, I’m a circuit, where electric current flows.

I’ve got a light bulb and a battery,

Plus conductive wires, everyone knows.

I have voltage from my battery, and resistance in the bulb,

Moving electrons cause a current,

As they flow, spin, and revolve.

IS THIS A CIRCUIT?

By Elsa Perini and Marita d’Arnaud

Is this a circuit? Yes, ma’am.

Is this a circuit? Yes, ma’am.

How do you know? Electrons are flowing.

How do you know? It has electrical wires.

What else does it have? Light bulbs and switches,

Any other parts? A battery for voltage.

Is this a simple circuit? Yes, ma’am.

Is this a simple circuit? Yes, ma’am.

How do you know? It has only one bulb.

What else does it have? A conductor and voltage.

Any other parts? Sometimes a switch.

What is happening? Electrons are flowing.

Is this a series circuit? Yes, ma’am.

Is this a series circuit? Yes, ma’am.

How do you know? It has two or more bulbs.

How are they connected? In a row.

Give me an example. Holiday lights.

Is this a parallel circuit? Yes, ma’am.

Is this a parallel circuit? Yes, ma’am.

How do you know? It has two or more bulbs.

How are they connected? Branching out in different paths.

Give me an example. The lighting in your house.

Well, now are you through? Yes, ma’am.

Did you tell me true? Yes, ma’am.

And what did you chant? An electrical circuit.

And what did you chant? An electrical circuit.

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

By M. M. d’Arnaud

I just know, but I’ve been told,

An investigation’s worth its weight in gold.

A lab experiment is fun to do,

The scientific method’s the way for you.

Sound off…….Meaningful question,

Sound off…….Investigation,

Sound off…….1,2, 3, 4…Experiment!

Start with a question, for which you’d like an answer,

And develop a hypothesis, an educated guess,

Determine the variables that can affect the outcomes,

Then list the materials and procedures for your tests.

Sound off…….Hypothesis,

Sound off…….Procedures and Materials,

Sound off…….1,2, 3, 4…Experiment!

Carefully observe what’s in motion or at rest,

Record and gather data as you measure and test,

Repeat your tests, analyze your observations,

Then develop a conclusion for the investigation.

Sound off…….Analysis,

Sound off…….Conclusions,

Sound off…….1,2, 3, 4…Experiment!

MATTER by M. M. d’Arnaud

(Tune of Down by the Bay)

The world’s made of matter.

It has mass and takes up space,

And it comes in different phases,

Like solid, liquid, and gas.

Matter’s made up of elements,

Elements’ units are called atoms,

More than a hundred different atoms on the Periodic Table,

The world’s made of matter.

Our universe is made of matter,

Which can melt, boil, freeze, and evaporate.

Mixing matter can form new substances,

With different properties than the originals.

Early people thought all matter

Was made of earth, wind, fire, and water,

Over a hundred different atoms,

microscopic and in motion,

Make up our universe.

MATTER

(Tune of The Brady Bunch – Verse 2 & Chorus)

By Kendra Maxwell and Margaret John

Here’s a story

About the states of matter,

It is everywhere in this whole wide world.

It is people. It is water.

It is plants. It is rocks, and it is air.

The states of matter,

The states of matter,

It is solid. It is liquid. It is gas.

I Know a Physicist

I know an accomplished physicist,

An observant accomplished physicist,

An observant accomplished physicist,

Who studies the laws of the universe.

He develops and conducts experiments,

Monitors momentum and motion,

Calculates forces and distances,

And determines the causes of change.

She designs electric circuits,

Investigates magnetic fields,

Utilizes inductors and capacitors,

And reads research by other scientists.

I know an accomplished physicist,

Who examines the conversion of energy,

Solves problems about mass and charge,

And speculates future events.

By M. d’Arnaud

Magnetism and Electricity

Home/School Connection #1

Find two objects that you think are magnetic and two that are nonmagnetic.

Sketch and label the objects. Bring them to class tomorrow.

Student’s Name:_______________________________________________________

Parent’s Signature:_____________________________________________________

Magnetismo y Electricidad

Conecsiones del Hogar y la Escuela #1

Busca dos objetos que piensas que son magneticos y dos que no son magneticos. Dibujalos y nombralos. Traelos a clase manana.

Alumno:_______________________________________________________

Padre:_____________________________________________________

Magnetism and Electricity

Home/School Connection #2

Ask an adult at home to give two examples of matter that they use at home or at work. Sketch and label those examples.

Student’s Name:_______________________________________________________

Parent’s Signature:_____________________________________________________

Magnetismo y Electricidad

Conecsiones del Hogar y la Escuela #2

Preguntale a un adulto en casa que te den dos ejemplos de material. Dibujalos y nombralos.

Alumno:_______________________________________________________

Padre:_____________________________________________________

Magnetism and Electricity

Home/School Connection #3

Tell an adult at home about the legend of Magnes. Remember to include who, what, when, where, and why in your retelling. Sketch and write your favorite part of the legend of Magnes.

Student’s Name:_______________________________________________________

Parent’s Signature:_____________________________________________________

Magnetismo y Electricidad

Conecsiones del Hogar y la Escuela #3

Cuentale a un adulto acerca de la leyenda de Magnes. Cuando cuentas la leyenda incluye quien, que, cuando, donde, y por que. Dibuja y escribe tu parte favorito de la leyenda de Magnes.

Alumno:_______________________________________________________

Padre:_____________________________________________________

Expert Groups

Static Electricity

Definition

When electrical charges have built up on the surface of an object, and stay there, static electricity is created. For example, when a balloon is rubbed against your hair, electric charges build up on the surfaces of the balloon and your hair.

| |

Components (parts)

All matter is made up of tiny particles. Some of these particles carry units of electricity called electric charges. These charges can be positive (+) or negative (-). Most matter is neutral, which means that the number of positive charges and negative charges are equal.

| |

Properties

Like charges repel, or push away, one another. Unlike charges attract, or pull toward, each other. Only negative (-) charges can move from one material to another. When charges transfer from one neutral object to another, the first object is left with a positive (+) charge. The second one has gained negative (-) charges. Therefore, it has a negative charge. Eventually, electrically charged objects will lose their “charge”. These charges may simply leak away slowly into the air. When electric charges move off of a charged object, an electric discharge takes place.

| |

Scientists and Contributions

In 1752, Benjamin Franklin conducted a famous experiment in which he attached a metal key to a kite. Franklin flew this kite during a thunder storm and proved that lightning is indeed static electricity. He showed that lightning occurs when there is a positive charge (+) build up at the top of the storm clouds. Because opposite charges attract, the negative charges from the cloud “jump” toward the closest positively charged object creating a GIANT electrical discharge. This discovery led to Franklin’s invention of the lightning rod. The rod is attached to the top of buildings and is connected to the ground by heavy wires. It is through these wires that the electric charge can safely move toward the ground.

| |

Applications

Today, static electricity is useful in our everyday life. For example, as a form of pollution control, an electric static precipitator is used to charge dirt particles in the air and then collect them. People use products such as hair diffusers to dry curly hair, air purifiers (ionizers), photocopiers and paint guns, all of which use static electricity.

| |

Expert Groups

Electric Currents

Definition

Electricity is a form of energy produced by the movement of electrons. When there is a steady flow of electrons (negative charges) through a given path, an electric current is created.

| |

Components

Electric currents travel easily through various forms of matter such as water and metal. These materials are called conductors. Metals such as gold, silver and copper are good conductors of electricity. Materials that are poor conductors are known as insulators. Wood, rubber, plastic, glass and cork are a few examples. Copper wires that are used to carry electric currents are coated with rubber. This rubber serves as an insulator. The insulator helps maintain the strength of the electric current within the wire and it also protects us from receiving an electric shock.

| |

Properties / Scientists and Contributions

Electricity flows through Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC). In a direct current, electricity flows continuously in one direction. Electric cells and batteries for flashlights are examples of DC. Thomas Edison’s first power plant could only transmit Direct Current (DC) power over one square mile. It was transmitted through thick dangerous cables. Edison’s direct current power was not safe for homes, schools or buildings because it produced too much voltage (amount of electricity) at once.

| |

Nikola Tesla, a Croatian physicist,, found a solution to Edison’s problem. Tesla discovered that an Alternating Current (AC) could transmit electricity more efficiently at high voltages over great distances. In an Alternating Current (AC), the electricity flows one way around a circuit and then quickly switches back around in the opposite direction at a rate of fifty times per second. Tesla taught Edison about AC and explained that the voltage could easily be decreased to safe levels through transformers for daily use. The electricity in our homes and schools is AC.

| |

Applications

Computers, video games, TVs and radios all rely on components that control, change and manipulate electric currents. In fact, we depend on electric currents to supply energy to just about everything we use in our daily lives.

| |

Expert Groups

Electromagnets

Definition

An electromagnet is a powerful temporary magnet that is made when an electric current passes through a wire coiled around a piece of ferromagnetic material, often an iron core. In an electromagnet, electricity is used to create magnetism.

| |

Components (parts)

When an electric current moves through a wire, the wire becomes surrounded by a magnetic field. The magnetic field of the current is comprised of concentric circles, centered on the wire and lying in the plane perpendicular to the current. By tightly winding the wire many times around the magnetic field becomes stronger and more concentrated. If this is done around a cylinder, a solenoid coil with a magnetic field similar to a bar magnet is created. When an iron core is placed inside the wire coil, the magnetic field is strengthened, and the result is an electromagnet.

| |

Properties

An electromagnet is similar to a natural magnet is some ways. First, they both attract materials that contain iron and certain other metals. Next, they both have north and south poles. Electromagnets also have magnetic fields.

Electromagnets and permanent magnets differ in some ways. First, the strength of an electromagnet can be controlled by changing the amount of current flowing through the wire coil. Next, an electromagnet can be turned on and off. Finally, the connections of an electromagnet to a dry cell (battery) can be switched to make the current reverse directions.

| |

Scientists and Contributions

Until 1819, everyone believed that magnetism and electricity were completely separate. In 1819, Danish physicist Hans Oersted discovered that an electric current passing through a wire caused a nearby compass needle to deflect, or move. In 1865, James Clerk Maxwell, a Scottish physicist, showed that magnetic fields and electric fields always exist together forming an electromagnetic field.

| |

Applications

Electromagnets have many useful applications. Enormous, strong electromagnets are used in recycling plants to separate cans made of steel from those made of aluminum. Our homes are filled with items that use them. Doorbells, telephones, VCRs and cassette players have electro-magnets. When a doorbell is pressed, a circuit closes and the electromagnet pulls on a hammer which strikes a bell. Electric motors rely on electromagnets as well. These motors run clocks, fans, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners and hair dryers.

| |

Expert Groups

Electric Circuits

Definition/Properties

For electricity to be useful, it must flow through a continuous, open

path. This path along which negative electric charges can flow is called a circuit.

The flow of electrons in a circuit is similar to the water flow in a pipe. The circuit gives the electrons a path in which to flow. Every circuit has a switch to start or break the flow. When the switch is off, air separates the conductors breaking the path. Therefore, no current can flow.

| |

Components

There are two types of electric circuits. A series circuit uses one path for the current to follow through the circuit. The holiday bulbs are an example of a series circuit. The current runs from the battery to one bulb, then to the next bulb, and then back to the battery. If one bulb is removed, the path is broken. No bulbs on the circuit will light.

The parallel circuit is the other type of electric circuit. The same materials are used, but they are connected differently. In a parallel circuit, each bulb or device is directly connected to the battery thus providing each bulb with its own path for electricity to flow to it. Parallel circuits are used in our schools and homes. A switch controls the flow of electricity through the circuit. When the switch is open, the current cannot flow. If the switch is closed, the current can flow.

| |

Scientists and Contributions

Thomas Edison is primarily responsible for the distribution of electricity to factories, offices and homes. In 1879, while living in New Jersey, Edison worked on perfecting the electric light. He spent two years searching for the proper filament to provide adequate resistance. After over 7,000 attempts, he succeeded at inventing the electric light bulb. In 1882, Edison and his colleagues had cables installed to neighboring cities in order to distribute electricity to them.

| |

Applications

| |

Electric circuits have enabled us to carry out many of our everyday tasks. Our cities, homes, businesses and schools are all supplied electricity through circuits. It is because of these circuits that we are able to light up dark places, watch TV, play video games and store food in our refrigerators. We have truly become a world dependant on the inventions and discoveries of physicists!

Process Grid

| | | | |Scientists and |Applications |

|Major Concepts |Definition |Components |Properties |Contributions | |

| |An object that |Magnetic Field: Area around |Magnetic Forces: Caused |1600, William Gilbert |-magnets |

| |attracts, or pulls |magnet |by spinning moving |“Earth is a giant |-compass |

|Magnets |on certain |-north and south poles |electrons |magnet”. |-screw driver |

| |materials mainly | |Opposite poles |- First Electroscope |-can opener -Maglev |

| |iron and steel. | |Attraction/:pull toward. | |train |

| | | |Similar poles | | |

| | | |Repulsion/ push away | | |

| |Electrical charges |Tiny particles with electric |Negative charges move |-Benjamin Franklin, |electrostatic |

| |build up on surface|charge. |from one material to |- metal key to the |precipitator charge |

|Static |of an object. |Positive and negative equal: |another. |kite. |dirt particles in air |

|Electricity |It stays there. |most matter is neutral. |One object is positively|-Lighting rod |to be collected |

| | | |charged, the other is | |-air purifier charges |

| | | |negatively charged. | |air with static charge|

| | | |The electrical charge | |Hair diffusers, |

| | | |remains for a while. | |photocopiers, etc. |

| |Continuous flow of |Travels through conductors |DC: Direct current:flows |-Thomas Edison |Computers, TV, radios,|

| |electrons through a|Good conductors: Metals |continuously in one |-Nikola Tesla |etc. |

|Electric Current |given path. |(copper,gold, silver) |direction. | | |

| | |Poor conductors: |AC:Alternate current: | | |

| | |insulators:wood, rubber, |flows in one directions | | |

| | |plastic, glass,etc. Protect |and switches back in the | | |

| | |from electric shock |opposite direction. | | |

| | | |Safer. | | |

| | | | | | |

| | | | | | |

| | | | | | |

| |Path around which |Circuit gives electrons a path |-make a series circuit & |Thomas Edison: |-switches |

|Electric Circuits|an electric current|to flow. |a parallel circuit lab. |Electric light bulb |-overhead projector |

| |flow. |Switch to open or close the | | |-car window |

| | |circuit for electricity to flow| | |-holiday lights |

| | |in circuit | | |-wiring in homes use |

| | | | | |parallel circuits |

| |Powerful temporary |-electric current generates a |Electromagnets have |Hans Oersted 1819- |-doorbell |

| |magnet made by |magnetic field |Magnetic fields. |James Clerk Maxwell |-earphones |

|Electro- |wrapping a coil of |-current determines strength of|Strength can be |1865. |-VCRs |

|magnets |wire around a piece|magnet |controlled. | |-Electric motors |

| |of iron |-can be switched on or off |Magnetic force can be | |-Electric generators |

| | |-poles can be changed |turn on and off. | |-recycling plants to |

| | |-magnetic fields of parallel | | |separate aluminum cans|

| | |currents attract each other | | |from steel ones. |

Cooperative Strip Paragraph Topic Sentence:

▪ Electricity and magnetism are related forces.

▪ Electricity and magnetism are scientific in many ways.

| |Definition |Components (Parts) |Properties | Scientists and |Applications |

| | | | |Contributions | |

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|Magnetism | | | | | |

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|Static Electricity | | | | | |

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|Electric Currents | | | | | |

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|Electric Circuits | | | | | |

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|Electromagnets | | | | | |

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Name

*These items will not be part of the demonstration but would be included in classroom instruction.

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