Metabolic Energy Concepts

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Review Questions for Renal Solute Regulation topic

Review questions will not be collected and are not worth any points. Doing them will, however, help you prepare for the midterms and quizzes in this course. Furthermore, some of these review questions will appear on the final exam (although the numbers within the questions may be changed).

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1) The main nitrogen containing waste that is removed from the blood by the kidneys is…

A) bilirubin.

B) urea.

C) albumin.

D) ammonia.

2) The blood vessel delivering blood directly to the glomerulus

A) renal artery.

B) peritubular artery.

C) renal vein

D) afferent arteriole.

3) The glomerulus is a…

A) capillary bed

B) artery

C) arteriole

D) region of the nephron

4) Which of the following are too large to filter through the renal corpuscle and thus are not normally found in the filtrate? (More than one correct answer)

A) blood cells

B) glucose

C) amino acids

D) sodium ions

E) proteins

5) Filtration is driven by

A) Osmosis

B) Diffusion

C) Blood pressure

6) Blood in the glomerulus that does not filter into the nephron exits the glomerulus via a blood vessel called the efferent arteriole. The efferent arteriole then becomes a capillary bed that surrounds the nephron. What is the name of this capillary bed?

A) The peritubular capillary bed.

B) The renal capillary bed.

C) The collecting duct

D) The nephron capillary bed.

7) Monosaccharides (such as glucose) will enter the glomerular filtrate because of

A) their size.

B) their use as an energy source by the nephron

C) their attraction to receptor proteins in the collecting duct

D) All of the above

8) The return of filtered molecules from the nephron tubules back into the blood is called

A) filtration.

B) reabsorption.

C) secretion.

D) excretion.

9) How much of the filtrate is reabsorbed back into the blood?

A) None

B) Very little

C) Most

D) All

10) If a substance is neither filtered, reabsorbed, nor secreted, where would you expect to find it? In…

A) The filtrate

B) The blood that exits the kidney

C) The urine

D) All of the above.

11) If a substance is filtered and also secreted but not reabsorbed, where would you not expect to find it?

A) The filtrate

B) The blood that exits the kidney

C) The urine

D) All of the above.

12) Which of the following is filtered but not reabsorbed?

A) K+

B) sodium

C) urea

D) glucose

13) How much of the filtrate becomes the urine?

A) None

B) Very little

C) Most

D) All

14) When the concentration of antidiuretic hormone increases in the blood…

A) The urine becomes more dilute and has increased volume

B) The urine becomes more dilute and has decreased volume

C) The urine becomes more concentrated and has increased volume

D) The urine becomes more concentrated and has decreased volume

15) Which statement about antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is false?

A) ADH is released from the pituitary gland

B) The target cells of ADH are the nephron cells

C) More ADH is released when the body is dehydrated

D) More ADH is released when there is an increase in the blood’s water content

16) When ADH _________, ______ water moves _____ of the filtrate.

A) increases; more, out

B) increases; less, out

C) decreases, more, into

D) decreases, more, out

17) Aldosterone

A) is the major hormone secreted by the kidney.

B) promotes the filtration of Na+ into the nephron

C) promotes the reabsorption of Na+ from the nephron

D) is secreted by the pituitary gland

18) If aldosterone levels _________, then (because of osmosis) blood volume will ________, and blood pressure will __________.

A) increase; increase, increase

B) increase; decrease, increase

C) decrease; increase, decrease

D) decrease, decrease, increase

19 -22) These questions have been deleted

23) The normal blood pH is

A) 6 - 8

B) 7.4

C) Exactly 7.0 (neutral) because of acid/base balancing

D) 4.6 – 8.0

24) The normal urine pH range is

A) 0 - 14

B) 7.4

C) Exactly 7.0 (neutral) because of acid/base balancing

D) 4.6 – 8.0

25) The normal urine specific gravity range is

A) 7.0

B) 1.01 – 1.025

C) 4/5 (80%)

D) 4.6 – 8.0

26) If a person drank a very large amount of water, their urine’s specific gravity would

A) increase

B) decrease

C) stay the same (as long as the water was pH 7.0)

D) stay the same (regardless of the water pH)

27) Urine is formed in the two _____ (a pair of organs). From each of these organs, a tube called the _____ propels the urine downward to the _____ where it is stored until its release is convenient, at which time it flows out of the body through the _____.

28) The urethra exits the body in the ________ or males and near the _______ of females.

29) In the blank space in each phrase, write the most correct and specific anatomical direction term (such as Superior, Inferior, Anterior, Posterior, Medial, Lateral, Superficial, or Deep).

a) The kidneys are _________ to the bladder

b) The bladder is ________ to the ureters

c) The kidney is _______ to the adrenal gland

d) The kidneys are on the _________ side of the abdominal cavity

e) The urethra is _______ to the bladder.

30) Define the following terms as they were defined in class:

a) “Clean the blood”

b) “Balance the blood”

c) Nephron

d) Glomerulus

e) Filtration

f) Filtrate

g) Reabsorption

h) Secretion

i) Specific gravity

j) Equivalent (of ions)

31) Name three examples of each of the following:

a) Cell types in the blood:

b) Monomers in the plasma:

c) Ions in the plasma:

d) Proteins in the plasma:

32) The kidneys’ major role is to _____ the blood (which means to remove waste products) and to ______ the blood (which means to adjust the blood’s nutrient and water concentrations to their correct levels).

33) The most abundant waste molecule that the kidneys clean from the blood is _____. This nitrogen-containing waste product is made by the liver from ammonia that it detoxifies.

34) The kidney forms _____ out of the wastes, excess solutes, and excess water that it has removed from the blood.

35) Blood that needs to be cleaned and balanced flows through small arteries in the kidney called __________. Each of these small arteries delivers blood to a round capillary bed that is called a ___________. Small molecules in the blood then pass from the round capillary bed into a microscopic tubule called a ____________ that cleans and balances the blood.

36) Each kidney contains roughly this many nephrons? _____.

37) The first region of the nephron is called the _________. This region surrounds the glomerulus.

38) The glomerulus and the glomerular capsule of the nephron together are called a ____________.

39) Not all the blood that enters the glomerulus filters into the nephron. The blood in the glomerulus that does not filter into the nephron exits the glomerulus and then enters a blood vessel that surrounds the nephron. This blood vessel that surrounds the nephron is called the _______________.

40) The process of __________ in the kidney means when the small molecules of the blood (such as water and small solutes) are separated from the larger blood components (such as blood cells and proteins) by passing through small openings in the wall of the renal corpuscle (the glomerulus and glomerular capsule of the nephron).

41) _____ is the force that powers filtration into the nephrons.

42) The liquid that enters the nephron from the blood in the glomerulus is called the ______.

43) What substances in the blood are found in the filtrate?

44) What components of the blood are not found in the filtrate?

45) Explain what determines which molecules from the blood enter the nephron and which do not.

46) The blood contains many organic molecules, such as proteins and glucose. Explain how proteins are excluded from the filtrate but glucose is not.

47) The filtration of the blood as it passes from the glomerulus into the nephron does/doesn’t (←circle one word) clean the blood. Justify the answer you circled.

48) The filtration of the blood as it passes from the glomerulus into the nephron does/doesn’t (←circle one word) balance the blood. Justify the answer you circled.

49) The process of _____ in the kidney means when water, glucose, amino acids, ions, and other nutrient molecules are transported from the filtrate in the nephron back into the blood.

50) The blood vessel that receives the reabsorbed nutrients and water from the nephron is the _____________ (a blood vessel).

51) The amounts of water and nutrients that are reabsorbed from the nephron into the peritubular capillary bed are/aren’t (←circle one word) the balanced amounts of water and nutrients.

52) Urea and other wastes are/aren’t (←circle one word) reabsorbed from the nephron into the peritubular capillary bed. .

53) To summarize the previous review questions, the process of small molecules entering the nephron from the blood by passing through the renal corpuscle (the “filter”) is called __________. The process of molecules from the filtrate being returned from the nephron to the blood is called __________.

54) Which is the first blood vessel in the kidney to contain cleaned and balanced blood? _________. Justify the answer you wrote in the blank.

55)What happens to any substances in the filtrate that are not reabsorbed as they pass through the nephron?

56) If you were injected with very large amounts of penicillin, vitamin C, or any other molecule that the kidney rapidly removes from the blood, would you expect your urine volume to increase, decrease, or stay the same? Justify your answer. Hint: In your notes from the carbohydrates laboratory, review the effect of diabetes mellitus on urine volume and why diabetes affects the urine volume.

57) Insufficient water concentration in the plasma is called _____. Common causes are _____, _____, and _____.

58) Over-hydration (too much water in the blood) is generally caused by _____.

59) Sensors in the brain monitor the blood’s water concentration. In response to changes in water concentration, these brain regions regulate the release of _____ hormone from the ______ gland. This hormone promotes the reabsorption of ____ from the filtrate.

60) ADH is released when the brain senses an increase/decrease (circle one) in the water concentration of the blood. (Note: These same conditions also result in the sensation of thirst).

61) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes _____ (what action?) by the _____ organ.

62) When ADH levels are high, more water in the filtrate is reabsorbed, resulting in urine that is low/high (←circle one) volume and low/high (←circle one) in solute concentration.

63) When ADH levels are low, less water in the filtrate is reabsorbed, resulting in urine that is low/high (←circle one) volume and low/high (←circle one) concentration.

64) Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus of the brain are stimulated by an increase / decrease (←circle one word) in the plasma osmolarity.

65) When they detect an increase/decrease (←circle one word) in blood osmolarity, the osmoreceptors stimulate the secretion of ____________________ from the ______________________ gland.

66) The hormone named in the question above stimulates the kidneys to ___________________.

67) Describe how ADH secretion and action in the kidneys help to maintain homeostasis of blood volume and solute concentration:_____________________

68) Antidiuretic hormone increases/decreases (←circle one word) the secretion/filtration/reabsorption (←circle one word) of H2O .

69) If a person had normal blood osmolarity, and the person was given a large injection of ADH, the osmolarity of their blood would soon increase/decrease (←circle one word) and the osmolarity of the urine would soon increase/decrease (←circle one word). The concentration of water in the blood would soon increase/decrease (←circle one word) and the concentration of water in the urine would soon increase/decrease (←circle one word).

70) If a person had larger than normal concentration water in their blood, the pituitary gland would increase/decrease (←circle one word) the amount of ADH that it releases.

71) If a person had larger than normal blood osmolarity, the pituitary gland would increase/decrease (←circle one word) the amount of ADH that it releases.

72) When the body needs to conserve water, the kidneys excrete hypertonic urine. However, the fluid that the urine is made from, the plasma, is an isotonic solution. First . define what the terms isotonic and hypertonic mean, then describe how the kidneys change the isotonic fluids they receive from the blood into hypertonic urine.

73) The receptors for thirst are located in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. These receptors, called osmoreceptors, are stimulated by an increase blood osmolality. Imagine a man who is initially properly hydrated. He lands on a desert island with no water to drink Trace the course of events leading to his sensation of thirst. Can he satisfy his thirst by drinking seawater? Explain

74) Imagine a very dehydrated desert prospector and a champagne-drinking partygoer, each of whom gives a urine sample. Fill in the table below comparing how the two urine samples would differ. (Hint: Alcohol inhibits ADH secretion.)

On each row of the table, compare the urine samples to each other use relative terms (such as Higher or Lower).

Urine measurement: Prospector Partygoer:

Urine volume

Specific gravity

Solute concentration

After you complete this table, write a paragraph justifying the answers that you

gave.

75) Diuretics are drugs that block the action of ADH. Diuretic drugs, therefore, cause an increase/decrease (←circle one) in the water reabsorbed from the filtrate. Based on the answer you circled, you would expect the blood pressure of a person taking diuretics to increase/decrease (←circle one). Justify the answer you circled in the last sentence.

76) The hormone _____ controls sodium and potassium levels in the blood.

77) Aldosterone is released by the _____ gland, which is located on top of the _______ (a pair of organs).

78) Aldosterone is secreted in response to low blood levels of _____ ion and in response to high blood levels of _____ion.

79) Aldosterone increases/decreases (←circle one word) the secretion/filtration/reabsorption (←circle one word) of Na+.

80) Aldosterone increases/decreases (←circle one word) the secretion/filtration/reabsorption (circle one word) of K+.

81) At a molecular level, the hormone aldosterone controls sodium and potassium levels by changing the amount of a certain transport protein that is found in the nephron walls. What is the name of the transport protein that aldosterone changes the levels of? ________________

82) If a person had normal levels of Na+ and K+, and the person was given a large injection of aldosterone, the concentration of Na+ in the blood would soon increase/decrease (←circle one word) and the concentration of Na+ in the urine would soon increase/decrease (←circle one word). The concentration of K+ in the blood would soon increase/decrease (←circle one word) and the concentration of K+ in the urine would soon increase/decrease (←circle one word).

83) If a person had larger than normal concentration of K+ in their blood, the adrenal gland would increase/decrease (←circle one word) the amount of aldosterone that it releases.

84) If a person had larger than normal concentration of Na+ in their blood, the adrenal gland would increase/decrease (←circle one word) the amount of aldosterone that it releases.

85) If a person had smaller than normal concentration of K+ in their blood, the adrenal gland would increase/decrease (←circle one word) the amount of aldosterone that it releases.

86) If a person had smaller than normal concentration of Na+ in their blood, the adrenal gland would increase/decrease (←circle one word) the amount of aldosterone that it releases.

87) Many diuretic drugs used clinically inhibit Na⁺ reabsorption from the nephron by inhibiting the sodium-potassium pump. Predict the effect of these drugs on potassium levels in the plasma. Justify your answer.

88) Most molecules enter the nephron through the glomerulus and glomerular capsule (this process is called “filtration”) and exit the nephron by being transported back into the blood (this process is called “reabsorption”). But there is a third type of transport process that takes place in the neprhon: Some molecules enter the nephron by moving from the peritubular capillaries into the nephron. This process is called ______.

89) K+ secretion into the nephron is caused by the same hormone (Aldosterone) that causes Na+ to be reabsorbed out of the nephron. Therefore, if the body increases aldosterone because blood K+ is high, the blood’s Na+ concentration will _____.

90) Body functions are more easily disrupted by changes in potassium ion concentration than it is by changes in sodium ion concentration. If a person had high potassium and high sodium in their blood, which hormone would you predict would be used to adjust the imbalance, and would the level of this hormone increase or decrease? Explain the answer you circled, and include a discussion of in what way the hormone will correct the imbalance and in what way the hormone will worsen the imbalance.

91 -98) These questions have been deleted

99) The measurement that is 1.000 for pure water and that is above 1.000 when solutes are present in the water is called: _________________________

100) The higher the osmolarity of a solution, the higher/lower (←circle one word) the specific gravity of the solution.

101) Carbonate ion has the molecular formula CO3-2. How many equivalents (Eq) are there per each mole of this ion?

102) If a solution contains 4.8 moles of CO3-2 per liter of solution, how many Eq per liter does the solution contain?

103) Sodium ions (Na+) are normally present in the plasma at a concentration of 0.14 moles per liter. What is the sodium ion concentration in Eq/L? __________. The atomic weight of Na is 23 g/mole. Show all unit conversion factors. Hint: You may or may not need the atomic weight.

104) Potassium ions (K+) are normally present in the plasma at a concentration of 18 mg per 100 mL. What is the normal potassium ion concentration in Eq/L? __________. The atomic weight of K is 39 g/mole.

105) Calcium ions are normally present in the plasma at a concentration of about 0.1 g/L. Calculate the Eq/L of Ca²⁺ in the plasma: _________ The atomic weight of calcium is 40 g/mole.

106) A solution has a sulfate ion (SO42-) concentration of 100 mg/L. Calculate the Eq/L of sulfate ion in the solution: _________ The atomic weight of sulfur is 32 g/mole and the atomic weight of oxygen is 16 g/mole.

107) Describe the purposes of the kidneys in a single sentence.

108) You hire a landscaper to trim your rose bushes and pull some weeds. The rose trimmings and the weeds both end up in the garbage can.

a) Which activity (weed pulling or rose trimming) is cleaning your yard? Justify your answer.

b) Which activity (weed pulling or rose trimming) is balancing your yard? Justify your answer.

c) As your yard is to the blood, the trash can is to the __________ and the

landscaper is to the ____________. Justify your answers.

109) In the context of the urinary system, explain what “clean and balance the blood” means. Your answer should include the names of specific molecules in the blood as examples.

Answers for Review Questions for Renal Solute Regulation Review topic:

1) B

2) D

3) A

4) A and E

5) C

6) A

7) A

8) B

9) C

10) B

11) B

12) C

13) B

14) D

15) D

16) A

17) C

18) A

19-22) These questions have been deleted

23) B

24) D

25) B

26) B

27) Kidneys

Ureter

Urinary bladder

Urethra

28) Penis

Vagina

29) a) Superior (or lateral)

b) Inferior (or medial)

c) Inferior

d) Posterior

e) Inferior

30) a) “Clean the blood” = To remove unwanted waste molecules from the blood.

b) “Balance the blood” = To adjust the blood’s water and nutrient levels to their correct concentrations by removing any excess amounts of these molecules.

c) Nephron = The tubular structures in the kidney that clean and balance the blood.

d) Glomerulus = A ball shaped capillary bed where substances from the blood filter into the nephron.

e) Filtration = The selective passage of molecules through a porous membrane based on the size of the molecule.

f) Filtrate = The substances that have passed through a porous membrane. (In the urinary system, the term filtrate means the substances in the blood which filter into the nephron. These include water, nutrients, and wastes but do not include blood cells or plasma proteins).

g) Reabsorption = The transport of substances from the filtrate in the nephron into the blood in the peritubular capillary bed.

h) Secretion = The transport of substances in the blood of the peritubular capillary bed into the filtrate in the nephron.

i) Specific gravity = The density of a solution compared to the density of pure water.

j) Equivalent (of ions) = One mole of ionic charge.

31) a) RBCs, WBCs, platelets

b) Amino acids, glucose, nucleotides, fatty acids

c) Na+, K+, Cl-, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3-, H+, etc. [Name any three]

d) Albumin, antibodies, clotting factors

32) Clean

Balance

33) Urea

34) Urine

35) Arteriole

Glomerulus

Nephron

36) Roughly one million nephrons per kidney

37) Glomerular capsule (also called Bowman’s capsule)

38) Renal corpuscle

39) Peritubular capillary bed

40) Filtration

41) Blood pressure

42) Filtrate

43) Water

Nutrients (such as monomers, ions, and vitamins)

Wastes (such as urea)

44) Blood cells

Plasma proteins

45) The size of the molecules determines whether they can filter into the nephron or not. The pores (holes) in the wall of the glomerulus and the nephron are small enough to allow small molecules such as water, monomers, ions, and wastes to enter the nephron, but larger blood substances (such as blood cells and plasma proteins) are too large to pass through the pores and therefore these do not enter the nephron.

46) Plasma proteins are too large to pass through the pores in the wall of the glomerulus and the nephron, and are therefore the proteins are too large to enter the nephron. Glucose is a much smaller molecule than protein. Glucose is small enough to pass through the pores and therefore glucose does enter the nephron.

47) Filtration doesn’t clean the blood. Cleaning the blood means to remove the wastes from the useful parts of the blood (such as water and nutrients). The filtration step does not remove the wastes from the water and nutrients of the blood. The wastes, the water, and the nutrients all are filtered together into the nephron.

48) Filtration doesn’t balance the blood. Balancing the blood means to adjust the water and nutrient levels to their proper concentrations by removing any excess water and nutrients. The filtration step does not remove excess water and nutrients from the blood. All amounts of water and nutrients, whether they are in the proper concentration range or not, are filtered into the nephron.

49) Reabsorption

50) Peritubular capillary bed

51) Are

52) Aren’t

53) Filtration

Reabsorption

54) The peritubular capillary bed.

It is the blood vessel that receives the proper amounts of water and nutrients from the filtrate in the nephron. Therefore the blood in the peritubular capillary bed is balanced. The blood in the peritubular capillary bed does not receive any of the wastes from the filtrate in the nephron, therefore the blood in the peritubular capillary bed is cleaned blood.

55) Substances in the filtrate that are not reabsorbed back into the blood pass all the way through the nephron and eventually become the urine.

56) The urine volume would increase. This is due to osmosis. When the kidney removes large amounts of a solute from the blood (such as penicillin, vitamin C, or the large amounts of blood glucose when a person has diabetes mellitus) the solute appears at a high concentration in the urine. The principle of osmosis says that a large solute concentration will attract water. Water will therefore move from the surrounding tissues into the urine, which increases the volume of the urine.

57) Dehydration

Not drinking enough fluids

Excessive sweating

Excessive diarrhea

58) Drinking excessive water

59) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Pituitary gland

Water

60) Decrease

61) Water reabsorption

Kidney

62) Low

High

63) High

Low

64) Increase

65) Increase

ADH

Pituitary gland

66) Reabsorb more water

67) If the blood is low in water concentration, the blood will have low volume and high osmolarity (high solute concentration). Increased ADH secretion from the pituitary gland adds more water to the blood by reabsorbing more water from the filtrate back into the blood. Adding water to the blood will increase the blood’s volume and decrease its osmolarity (solute concentration).

If the blood is high in water concentration, the blood will have high volume and low osmolarity (low solute concentration). Decreased ADH secretion from the pituitary gland decreases the amount of water returned to the blood by reabsorption, and therefore there is an increase in the amount of water that is transferred from the blood to the urine. Removing water to the blood will decrease the blood’s volume and increase its osmolarity (solute concentration).

68) Increases

Reabsorption

69) Decrease

Increase

Increase

Decrease

70) Decrease

71) Increase

72) Isotonic = The same solute concentration as a cell

Hypertonic = Greater solute concentration than a cell

The kidney removes water from the filtrate to convert it from an isotonic solution to a hypertonic solution. At the beginning of the nephron, the filtrate is isotonic because the filtrate comes directly from the plasma, which is isotonic. As the filtrate moves through the nephron, water is removed from the filtrate by reabsorption. Removing water from any solution increases the solution’s solute concentration, and this converts it from an isotonic solution into a hypertonic solution.

73) The man’s plasma is initially an isotonic solution since he is properly hydrated. As he sweats and defecates on the desert island, his body loses water. Removal of water from any solution increases the osmolarity (the solute concentration) of the solution, so the man’s plasma begins to increase in solute concentration. Eventually it becomes hypertonic. The osmoreceptors in his brain detect that the plasma has too high a solute concentration. The brain then generates feelings of thirst in the man.

The man cannot satisfy his thirst by drinking sea water. Sea water is hypertonic, and adding one hypertonic solution (the sea water) to another hypertonic solution (his plasma) cannot make the plasma an isotonic solution. He must drink fresh (non-salty) water to restore his plasma to an isotonic state.

74)

Urine measurement: Prospector Partygoer:

Urine volume Lower volume Higher volume

Specific gravity Higher SG Lower SG

Solute concentration Higher conc. Lower conc.

Justifications: When a person is dehydrated (such as the prospector), the kidney conserves water by reabsorbing more water from the filtrate in the nephrons. Removing the water from the urine lowers the urine’s volume, increases the urine’s solute concentration, and increases its density (specific gravity).

When a person’s secretion of ADH hormone is inhibited (such as the partygoer), the kidney reabsorbs less water from the filtrate in the nephrons. This means that more water will appear in the urine. Adding more water to the urine raises the urine’s volume, decreases the urine’s solute concentration, and decreases its density (specific gravity).

75) Decrease

Decrease.

One factor that determines the blood pressure is the blood’s volume. Higher blood volumes lead to higher blood pressure and lower blood volumes lead to lower blood pressure. Blocking ADH causes less water to be reabsorbed into the blood, which lowers the blood’s volume, which lowers the blood pressure.

76) Aldosterone

77) Adrenal gland

Kidneys

78) Low sodium ion (Na+)

High potassium ion (K+)

79) Increases

Reaborption

80) Increases

Secretion

81) The sodium-potassium pump

82) Increase

Decrease

Decrease

Increase

83) Increase

84) Decrease

85) Decrease

86) Increase

87) This class of diuretic drugs would tend to increase potassium levels in the blood. This is because the drugs inhibit the sodium-potassium pump, which is used to secrete excess potassium out of the blood and into the urine.

88) Secretion

89) Increase

90) Aldosterone would be used to correct the ion inbalances.

The aldosterone levels would increase because increased aldosterone levels will remove the excess potassium from the blood by secreting the excess potassium into the nephrons. In this way the potassium ion balance will be restored. The sodium ion imbalance, however, will be worsened. This is because aldosterone increases sodium ion reabsorption from the filtrate in the nephron into the blood. Therefore, the high levels of sodium in the blood will become even higher. Since potassium imbalance is more harmful to the body than sodium imbalance, the body is willing to worsen the sodium imbalance to correct the potassium imbalance.

91-98) These questions have been deleted

99) Specific gravity

100) Higher

101) 2 Eq per mole

102) Answer = 9.6 Eq/L

4.8 moles CO3-2/liter x (2 Eq/1 mole CO3-2) = 9.6 Eq/L

103) Answer = 0.140 Eq/L

0.14 moles Na+/L x (1 Eq/1 mole Na+) = 0.140 Eq/L

104) Answer = 0.0046 Eq/L

18 mg K+/100 ml x (1g/1000 mg) x (1000 ml/1L)

x (1 mole K+ /39 g K+ ) x (1 Eq/1 mole K+ )

= 0.0046 Eq/L

105) Answer = 0.005 Eq/L

0.1 g Ca2+ /L x (1 mole Ca2+/40 g Ca2+)

x (2 Eq/1 mole Ca2+) = 0.005 Eq/L

106) Answer = 0.0021 Eq/L

100 mg SO42-/L x (1 g/1000 mg)

x (1 mole SO42-/96 grams SO42-)*

x (2 Eq/1 mole SO42 ) = 0.0021 Eq/L

* The molecular weight of SO42- is calculated as follows: The SO42-molecule contains one sulfur atom. An atom of sulfur has an atomic weight of 32. The SO42- molecule also contains four oxygen atoms. Each oxygen atom has an atomic weight of 16, so the four oxygen atoms together have a combined weight of 64 (4 x 16). Adding together the atomic weights of the one sulfur atom and the four oxygen atoms gives a molecular weight of 96 (32 + 64) for the entire molecule.

107) The kidneys clean and balance the blood.

108) a) Weed pulling is cleaning your yard. Cleaning means to remove unneeded and unwanted substances. You do not want any weeds in your yard so removing the weeds is cleaning.

b) Trimming the roses is balancing your yard. Balancing means to adjust the amount of a wanted substance to its proper level. You want roses in your yard so trimming them to their proper level is balancing.

c) As your yard is to the blood, the trash can is to the urine and the

landscaper is to the kidney.

The yard is like the blood because the yard and the blood both contain needed substances and unneeded substances.

The trash can is like the urine because both the trash can and the urine receive the unneeded substances and also receive the excess amounts of the needed substances.

The landscaper is like the kidney because both the landscaper and the kidney remove the unneeded substances and also remove excess amounts of the needed substances.

109) Clean the blood means to remove unneeded substances (wastes) from the blood. Examples of wastes that are removed from the blood include urea, uric acid, and urochrome.

Balance the blood means to restore needed substances in the blood to their proper levels. Examples of needed substance sin the blood include sodium ions, calcium ions, potassium ions, and water.

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