AP Biology Chapter 15 Worksheet

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AP Biology Chapter 11 Worksheet

1. Give 3 examples of signals a typical cell may receive.

2. Give the 2 sexes yeast contain.

3. What happens to mating factors in yeast?

4. What happens once these mating factors are bound?

5. Which cell contains the genes?

6. Explain what a signal-transduction pathway is.

7. Explain what a local regulator does.

8. When does paracrine signaling occur?

9. Explain what happens in synaptic signaling.

10. Explain the function of hormones in plants.

11. Explain the function of hormones in animals.

12. Give the function of ethylene in plants.

13. Give the function of insulin in animals.

14. Give the 2 ways cells may communicate by direct contact.

15. Give the 3 stages of cells signaling and who pioneered this research.

16. Explain Sutherland’s work.

17. What discovery resulted from this work?

18. Explain what happens in the reception stage.

19. Explain what happens in the transduction stage.

20. Explain what happens in the response stage.

Section B

1. Explain the function of a receptor protein.

2. When does recognition occur?

3. Explain what a ligand is and what it does.

4. Give the 2 things that happen once receptor proteins are bound.

5. Describe the structure of most signal receptors.

6. Explain how these signal receptors influence cell activities.

7. Give the 3 major types of receptors.

8. Where is the G protein linked receptor located? What molecules does it work with?

9. Explain the action of this g protein.

10. Explain the function of GTP.

11. Explain the function of GTPase and its result.

12. Explain the action of the tyrosine-kinase receptor system.

13. Describe the structure of an individual tyrosine-kinase receptor.

14. Explain how a tyrosine-kinase receptor dimer is formed.

15. Explain the importance of these tyrosine-kinase receptor dimers.

16. Explain what ligand-gated ion channels are and what they do.

17. Explain how a channel is opened up.

18. Explain how that channel closes.

19. Where do these channels mostly do their work?

20. Explain what testosterone is and how it gets into cells.

21. What happens when these hormones enter the nucleus?

22. Explain what a transcription factor is and what it does.

23. Explain what mRNA is and what it does.

Part C

1. Explain the function of the transduction stage of signaling.

2. Explain how signal-transduction pathways are like falling dominoes.

3. Are the signal molecules themselves passed on along the pathway? Explain

4. Explain what a protein kinase is and what it does.

5. Explain what phosphorylation is and what a phosphorylation cascade is.

6. What is the result of phosphorylation?

7. Explain how cancer can be formed from protein kinases.

8. Explain the function of phosphateases.

9. Explain the function of a second messenger.

10. Give 2 of the most important second messengers.

11. Explain what happens with an increase in concentration of cyclic AMP.

12. Explain the function of adenylyl cyclase.

13. Explain the function of phosphodiesterase.

14. Explain how a hormone can trigger the formation of cAMP.

15. Explain how microbes can affect G-protein signaling pathways.

16. Explain the effect an increase in Ca2+ concentration can have on both plant and animal cells.

17. Explain how Ca2+ gets in and out of the cell.

18. What is the source of Ca2+ from inside the cell?

19. What are DAG and IP3 and how are they created?

20. What is the result of the release of IP3?

21. Explain what calmodulin is and what it does.

Part D

1. What is the ultimate goal of a signal-transduction pathway?

2. Give the 2 ways this is accomplished.

3. Give the 2 benefits of signaling pathways with multiple steps.

4. Do all cells respond the same from the same signal? Explain

5. What determines the response of a particular cell to a signal?

6. How do cells that respond differently to the same signal vary?

7. Explain what a scaffolding protein is and what it does.

8. Explain Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

9. Are cell signals long or short lived? Explain

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