THE GROWTH OF CITIES AND INDUSTRY

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THE GROWTH OF CITIES AND INDUSTRY

IN THE UNITIED STATES

1885 TO 1920

A UNIT PLAN FOR 7TH GRADE STUDENTS IN US HISTORY

by

Lynn Dille

Submitted through “Teaching American History”

George Mason University

Center for New Media in History

And

US Department of Education

April 12, 20005

Unit Title: The Growth of Cities and Industry

|Author: Lynn Dille |Grade Level: 7th |

|School: Francis Hammond Middle School |Time Estimated: 10 days |

Overview: The “Growth of Cities” unit will cover the inventions and technology that led to industrialization. Students will also study the immigrants who would supply the labor for industrialization. Finally, students will learn about some of the people who would create the “big business” financing and industrial infrastructure. Students will be exposed to some of the problems that the rapid expansion of cities and industry created, however, the next unit of study will delve more deeply into reforms and the progressive movement. Following this unit, students will examine the US role in World War I.

Our 7th grade students at Hammond are from many different cultures and backgrounds. Many speak more than 1 language. About 30% of the students’ parents are from Latin America, however, we have many students from Africa, Afghanistan, India, and other countries as well. Few have the resources or background at home that provide a fundamental common base of knowledge in US culture and history. Another factor I consider when teaching is that my students have not yet had any world history or world cultures courses. They will get World History in the 9th and 10th grades and then study US History again in the 11th grade. Finally, given the large number of English as a Second Language students in our classes, vocabulary and writing are challenges for many.

Our students will have just begun their 7th grade year with a review of the outcome of the Civil War and the impact of Reconstruction on the South. Their first unit of new material covered the resumption of the drive to settle the West and the new technologies and adaptations that made this possible after the Civil War. As part of that unit they explored the impact of western settlement on Native American (First Americans) Tribes. Since the unit below will be taught quite early in the school year, it will be used to teach fundamental historical skills for internet use, primary source analysis, and graphing as well as the basic history of the period. This unit on the Growth of Cities will be followed by a study of the problems that industrialization and rapid growth brought and the reforms that began to address these problems.

Historical Background: With the end of the Civil War, the expansion and industrialization that had begun in the first half of the 19th century resumed. The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad and an ever-expanding railroad network in the East allowed the nation to utilize the abundant raw materials of the country. Miles of railroad track went from about 30,000 in 1860 to 254,000 in 1910. Transportation Timeline The availability of cheap labor in the form of immigrants also fueled the industrial growth of the nation. For example, the potato famine in Ireland in 1845 would bring millions of Irish to the United States between 1845 and 1850. The passage by Congress of the “Contract Labor Act” in 1864 legalizing the importation of contract labor would bring millions more. In 1880, political instability, economic depression and crop failures would bring about 4 million Italians to the United States. The 1882 May Laws restricting the rights of Jews in Russia will cause about 3 million Russians to immigrate. Library of Congress Learning Page on Immigration

Plentiful raw materials, labor, and transportation united with the capitalization of industry provided by corporate financing. Corporate financing created the venture capital needed to build the urban and industrial infrastructure necessary for rapid industrial growth. Industrialists such as John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and Cornelius Vanderbilt would develop the huge monopolies and corporate organizations capable of linking and developing national production and marketing.

Finally, while railroads provided transportation, new inventions like the telephone, the process of refining oil, and electric power supplied the technology and power. The transformation of our cities was dramatic. Skylines showed the changes in the smokestacks of the factories, the sweeping lines of bridges, and the towers of the skyscrapers. Population statistics show the huge growth of cities in size and density. Chicago, for example, grew from a population of about 100 in 1830 to 1,100,000 in 1890 to 2,185,000 in 1920. Chicago Population Chart

Such growth did not come without problems. In the cities immigrants worked in sweatshop conditions for subsistence wages. Due to the low wages, sometimes young children were forced to work long hours to help the family survive. Working conditions were unsafe. Living conditions in the tenement neighborhoods were crowded, leading to dangerous fires, as well as outbreaks of diseases such as influenza, TB, and typhus. Political bosses took advantage of the immigrant’s need for aid, trading help for votes and support. This would lead to corrupt and inefficient city services, hampered by bribery and kickback schemes, cronyism, and graft.

Efforts to improve conditions in the cities would begin as early as 1830. However, the energy of these movements would focus on slavery, suffrage and temperance until after the Civil War and Reconstruction’s end in 1877. Reform efforts would gain new energy in the late 19th century and continue into the 20th century under the label of Progressivism. “Battling Bob” LaFollette, Wisconsin’s feisty senator, Theodore Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson, among others, would work to break up large monopolies, promote fair trade, protect consumers, and reduce cronyism in government. The reform movement’s momentum would culminate in the passage of the 18th Amendment prohibiting the sale, transport or manufacture of alcoholic beverages and the passage of the 19th Amendment giving women the vote.

Major Understanding:

Following the Civil War the United States industrialized rapidly, which transformed the economic and social structure of America. Cities grew dramatically as immigrants flooded into the United States taking advantage of the freedom and opportunities here. Immigrants would provide the cheap labor needed by a growing industry. Advances in transportation and communication created national markets. New methods of production produced goods more cheaply and efficiently. Abundant natural resources provided the raw materials for the industrialization. Financing and organization resources were provided by “big business” in the form of monopolies, corporations, and trusts.

Objectives: Students will:

Understand how rapid industrialization following the Civil War transformed the economic and social structure of America by examining primary sources including maps, photographs, early films, letters, tables, and documents.

Standards of Learning:

Skills

USII.1 The students will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis, including the ability to

a) analyze and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history from 1877 to the present;

Content

USII.2 The student will use maps, globes photographs, pictures, and tables for

b) explaining relationships among natural resources, transportation, and industrial development after 1877

USII.3 The students will demonstrate knowledge of how life changed after the Civil War by

b) explaining the reasons for the increase in immigration, growth of cities, new inventions, and challenges arising from this expansion;

d) explaining the rise of big business, the growth of industry and life on American farms.

Culminating Assessment:

Students will conclude their study by creating a timeline of inventions which will reflect their knowledge and understanding of the rapid industrial changes for the period They will be required to choose and research inventions from the 1850s – 1890s using their textbook, online resources and the library. Their timeline should include illustrations of the inventions and an explanation about their importance. Students in advanced classes will create a newspaper which will reflect their knowledge and understanding of the period. They will write articles, editorials, and ads as if they were living in 1898 during the Spanish American War.

Resources

Below is a list of resources for the entire unit. Each resource is annotated with reference to the specific lesson for which it was used or would be an additional resource.

Books:

Biesty, Stephen. Stephen Biesty’s Incredible Explosions, Dora Kindersley, New York, 1996. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Detailed exploded drawing of a steam driven generator and a windmill. Also good exploded drawing of a city and the entire infrastructure involved.

Bridgman, Roger. Technology, Eyewitness Books, Dora Kindersley, New York, 1995. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Good coverage of mass production, the automobile and technology in farming.

Burne, David. Machines and How They Work, Dora Kindersley, Inc. New York, 1991. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Good simple explanations and pictures of the windmill, automobile and steam engine.

Coiley, John. Train, Eye Witness Books, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1992. (Juvenile)

Lesson 6: Detailed coverage of the development of rail travel and its impact on cities.

Cole, Joanna. The Magic School Bus and the Electric Field Trip, Scholastic Press, New York, 1997. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Good explanation of electricity and its impact

Errico, Charles C. and Oates, Stephen B. Portrait of America, Volume I: to 1877, The Growth of Technology, p. 275-298, Houghton Mifflen, New York, 2003.

Lesson 5-10: Excellent discussion of the development of railroads

Harwood, Herbert. Rails to the Blue Ridge- The Washington and Old Dominion Railroad, 1847-1968, Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority, Fairfax Station, VA, 2000.

Lesson 5-10: Many pictures of the local area 1860-1968 give an idea of cities and the role trains and electric trolleys played in our area and why they were replaced.

Macauley, David. The New Way Things Work, Houghton Mifflin, New York, 1998. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Good explanations of windmills, steam engines, and electricity.

Paterson, Katherine. Lyddie. Puffin Books, New York, 1991. (Juvenile)

Wilkins, Mary-Jane. Everyday Things and How They Work. Warwick Press, New York, 1991. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Simple explanations of telephones, radios and many other labor saving devices developed in the beginning of the 20th century.

There are many other books about inventions, inventors, and technology in children’s libraries. The above were some of the clearest and most suitable for middle school children.

Web Links and Sites:

Association of American Railroads

Offers free resources to teachers of grades K-12, including books, videos, CD-ROMs, maps, safety brochures, activity sheets, and supplies. Select “Teacher Resources.”

Chicago History Organization

Extensive on line information and photographs of the development of the city over time. Chicago Historical Society

Digital History Text: University of Houston

Good basic US History text with many interesting links to museum sites for individual cities, advertising collections and primary sources. A good first step to research for teachers and students.

Entrepreneurs and American Economic Growth

Dr. Poole’s Economics course website (UC San Diego) provides excellent graphs and biographical information on Rockefeller, Carnegie and Vanderbilt.

Henry Ford

Bibliography on Henry Ford

History Matters: The U.S. Survey Course on the Web

Links and information on all units’ materials and their connection to your community. Helpful information on teaching with documents in the “Making Sense of Evidence” section.

Library of Congress

Many primary sources from the period. Photographs and maps are particularly useful as are the advertising exhibitions. Of particular interest to students are the Edison films in the Early Films exhibition. There are clips of Chicago showing the stock yards, Los Angeles harbor, and many of New York at the turn of the century. The film clip of immigrants arriving at Ellis Island is of particular use.

Money and Inflation

Students often want to know about the relative cost of things and the value of the wages received by factory workers. The following site is a simple value calculator for students. The Inflation Calculator

National Archives

Interesting source of photos, documents and other primary sources. Takes a lot of digging. Very helpful archivists. One of my personal favorites is application number 1 for a homestead site which is an excellent resources for the unit preceding this unit on westward expansion.

National Museum of American History

Has an extensive of collection of artifacts from the late 1800’s which help give students a picture of life at the turn of the century in the US. Of particular interest to touring classes would be the display on Electricity Lighting: A Revolution which also has an interactive website that would be very good for class who cannot visit the museum.

A new exhibit hall entitled “America on the Move” gives a wonderful idea of the changes in cities that transportation improvements, and the automobile caused in the United States. There is an excellent on-line exhibition for a class web quest if the students cannot actually visit the museum NMAH: America on the Move

Public Broadcasting System

The PBS website has so many resources for all of US history. This link is to the American Experience Homepage which has excellent information on Andrew Carnegie and the development of “Big Business” in America.

Train Resources

Extensive information, including listings of railroad resources all over the United States. For information on railroads in your community, look under “Resources” on the left-hand side. Click “Tourist Railroads/Museums” and then your state to find attractions in your area. Clicking on “Historical Societies” leads to an alphabetical state listing of nationwide railroad historical societies. These links will provide railroad information specific to your area. Contact organizations by phone for more information.

U.S. Department of Commerce

Click on your state in the map in the right margin. Contact a commerce organization, administration, or department in your area for more information on the role your state plays in the global community.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

Click on “About Communities” in the left margin to find maps, statistics, and information on housing in your community. Contact your state housing department for more information.

U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration National Highway System

Learn the difference between types of highways, including President Eisenhower’s interstate system. Scroll down and click on your state to view the different highways that run through or near your community.

U.S. Historical Census Data Browser

Using the census, find out how the population of your community changed throughout time. Compare different time periods by selecting different years in the left margin. Select “Total Population,” then your state, to find your county’s population.



Movies:

Lyddie: Available on VHS. Details the difficulties of a young mill worker in Lowell, Massachusetts. This movie has much good information about conditions for workers in the factories. The movie is based on a book for young readers by Katherine Paterson

Far and Away: Popular film about a young Irish immigrant and his difficulties about 1887. Good re-enactment of the corruption and boss system in the urban centers. Hero also takes part in the Oklahoma land rush.

Lesson 1 (days 1, 2, 3)

Title: Changes in Cities from 1850 to 1909.

Objectives: Students will:

1) Gain an understanding of what is meant by industrialization and growth

2) Become familiar with the Library of Congress website as a source of historical knowledge

3) Examine primary documents (maps, lithographs, panoramic pictures, photos, and early films) and identify the type, date, and purpose for which the document was made

4) Identify major changes in US cities in the types of transportation used, the population, and the buildings and industries observed during the period from 1850 to 1909 by examining maps, lithographs, and panoramic pictures of San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, and Alexandria.

5) Develop questions about how and why these changes took place.

Materials:

Overhead projector, poster paper cut in 3” wide strips, markers, map of U.S. and South America

Class computer lab with internet capability, TV with hook-up to computer of LDC projector for computer screen

City Analysis Worksheet (link)

City Report Worksheet (link)

Maud Maxson’s letter Letter from Maud Maxson to her mother, Mrs. Arthur L.Maxson.

List of city links for reproduction Library of Congress American Memory Home Page

Student Research Sites

Group I: New York City, New York

New York City 1776

1856 color lithograph of NYC

New York City 1876

New York City 1882

New York Waterfront 1909 ,

1903, Elevated railroad, New York,

1903, Skyscrapers of New York City, from the North River

Group II: Los Angeles, California

Map of Los Angeles, 1871

Birds eye view of Los Angeles, 1877

View of Los Angeles from the east, 1877, Brooklyn Heights in the foreground; Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica Mountains in the background.

Los Angeles, 1888

Los Angeles, Cal., population of city and environs 65,000.1891

South Spring Street, Los Angeles, California, 190??

Building a Harbor in San Pedro, Los Angeles 1909.

Group III: Chicago, Illinois

The City of Chicago, 1892

Bird's-eye-view of Chicago as it was before the great fire, 1871.

Rascher's birds eye view of the Chicago packing houses.1890

Bird's eye view of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893.

Chicago, central business section, 1916

Chicago Stock Yards, 1897 (film)

Extra credit:

Group IV: Alexandria Virginia

George Washington's survey of the site of Belhaven (Alexandria)

Washington's Plan of Alexandria, 1749

Birds eye view of Alexandria, Va.,1863

District of Columbia and Alexandria, the seat of war, 1863

Fairfax County Soil Types, 1877

Atlas of fifteen miles around Washington, including Alexandria, 1879

Coolidge at Alexandria, 1923

Days 1 & 2

Objectives: Students will:

1. Examine primary source maps, photographs, and early films of San Francisco with their teacher and practice completing a City Analysis Worksheet for several sources.

2. Use their computer and the list of web links for their assigned city (NY, Los Angeles, Chicago or Alexandria) to describe the transportation, people and population, location, and buildings and industries for several sources.

Strategies

1. Preparation:

a. Before the class make transparencies and copies for a class set of Maud Maxson’s letter Letter from Maud Maxson to her mother, Mrs. Arthur L.Maxson.

b. Copy the City Analysis Worksheet (link) and the City Report Worksheet (link) for students.

c. Sign up for the computers.

d. Cut strips of poster paper 3” x 24” so you have 1 per student.

e.. Preview the Library of Congress American Memory, Library of Congress American Memory Home Page, website to familiarize yourself with the homepage and search protocols. Preview the San Francisco links below.

f. Copy the city links into a folder accessible by students on their computers. (If you cannot do this, the students will have to search the Library of Congress American Memory website to locate appropriate documents. This is less efficient, but still a great learning experience for the students. Hints: Have students use the gallery view to easily identify good sources. Limit search first to maps, then to prints and photographs, then to Early Films. Be sure students check for appropriate dates.)

2. Hook: as students enter the classroom assign the following warm-up exercise; ask students to complete the journal entry written on the board (students have been keeping a journal since the beginning of the year and are familiar with this type of imaginative exercise). The goal of this exercise is not to display prior knowledge although some students will have a great grasp of the era and enjoy writing using it. The goal is to get the students to connect current knowledge to the situation of someone their age in the 19th century.

Journal entry: Imagine you are traveling by ship to Los Angeles with your Uncle and Aunt. Write a letter home to your parents. You might describe what you do to occupy your time, what you miss at home, what chores you have to do, and what problems you face on your journey.

3. Discuss and share what the students wrote

4. Project the letter written by Maud Maxson to her mother in 1870 Letter from Maud Maxson to her mother, Mrs. Arthur L.Maxson and discuss it, explaining terms as necessary. Examine the class map and trace the route around the horn Maud took. Where did she land?. How old do you think Maud is? How was she traveling? Why might she have gone? Where did they land do you think? What tells you it was probably San Francisco? Why was the dress so expensive? Why was the letter written in installments? How long did the trip last? (At least 2 months each way) Could she have taken the train in 1870? (Yes)

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5. Now it is time to show the students how to use their computers using San Francisco as an example. Hand out the City Analysis Worksheets for students to record their observations. Stress the need to record the correct date for each document recorded. Show them on the overhead how they can circle the document type. Project pictures of early San Francisco from the links below.

(If the school does not have the technology to allow them to access city links directly, their observations will sort naturally if they request only maps or selections from the panorama collection first, then move on to prints and photographs and conclude with a selections from the Early films collection. Request a search for “San Francisco Harbor” through all collections at Library of Congress American Memory Home Page, I have added the dates after the titles to aid in giving the students a good idea of the chronology.)

View of San Francisco, 1846 before the discovery of gold,

San Francisco Harbor, 1850;

San Francisco Rooftops, 1851,

San Francisco in 1855;

San Francisco Bird's-eye view, 1864;

Dupont Street San Francisco, 1870,

San Francisco Harbor, 1890, San Francisco and harbor from Nob Hill, 1902.

US Fleet in San Francisco Harbor 1908.

6. Show several of these links and discuss them with the class. Demonstrate for the students how to use the “zoom” feature on the Library of Congress map viewer. They can zoom in to reveal a great deal of detail. Show them how to zoom out and relocate their view. (You will have practiced this before the lesson of course.) Ask the students to think about the following questions as they record their observations:

Were all cities like this in the 1850’s to 1900’s?

What would account for the differences in development?

What is the impact of climate? Of natural resources?

What role did water have on the development of the city?

7. Discuss what can be deduced from maps about transportation, people, technology, etc. from each type of source, demonstrating how to record the observation on the worksheet. Record several observations about San Francisco with the students. Tell the class that for the rest of today and tomorrow they will be working in groups to identify the changes over time in several major U.S. cities in the years between 1850 and 1920 by looking at maps, old photographs, and early films. If they are not linking directly to the sources on the City List, point out the search categories for the students and show them how to select “Gallery View” to more quickly sort through sources. Remind the students that these sources are primary documentation and they will have to use very careful powers of observation and analysis to use them effectively. Have the students work in pairs. Assign each pair one of the cities to research. Assign each student in the pair 2 categories to focus on. For example, Student A might focus on recording observations about Transportation and People, while Student B in the pair would record observations about the location of the city and the buildings and industries.

Student City Research Sites

Group I: New York City, New York

New York City 1776

1856 color lithograph of NYC

New York City 1876

New York City 1882

New York Waterfront 1909 ,

1903, Elevated railroad, New York,

1903, Skyscrapers of New York City, from the North River

Group II: Los Angeles, California

Map of Los Angeles, 1871

Birds eye view of Los Angeles, 1877

View of Los Angeles from the east, 1877, Brooklyn Hights in the foreground; Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica Mountains in the background.

Los Angeles, 1888

Los Angeles, Cal., population of city and environs 65,000.1891

South Spring Street, Los Angeles, California, 190??

Building a Harbor in San Pedro, Los Angeles 1909.

Group III: Chicago, Illinois

The City of Chicago, 1892

Bird's-eye-view of Chicago as it was before the great fire, 1871.

Rascher's birds eye view of the Chicago packing houses.1890

Bird's eye view of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893.

Chicago, central business section, 1916

Chicago Stock Yards, 1897 (film)

Extra credit:

Group IV: Alexandria Virginia

George Washington's survey of the site of Belhaven (Alexandria)

Washington's Plan of Alexandria, 1749

Birds eye view of Alexandria, Va.,1863

District of Columbia and Alexandria, the seat of war, 1863

Fairfax County Soil Types, 1877

Atlas of fifteen miles around Washington, including Alexandria, 1879

Coolidge at Alexandria, 1923

8. Supervise students as they search the sites and take notes (the sites are in chronological order)

9. Students will continue to practice using primary sources and the Library of Congress website, and be able to locate specific documents, select areas of the documents to view (zooming in as appropriate), and return to the document list page.

10. Students will continue their web searches and complete their city worksheets. Be sure they have at least one entry for each time period. This will be used to report to the class and produce a set of class questions on the factors influencing the development of cities.

Wrap-up: Ask them to write 2 questions each about what they observed about the changes in cities. For example, when did cars first appear? Who invented the car?

Day 3

Objectives: Students will:

1. Explain the changes in the cities and speculate on the reasons

2. Evaluate the changes in buildings, transportation, population and industries shown in the maps and develop questions to be answered in future lessons about how these changes took place.

Strategies:

Group Reports, questions and discussions.

1. (Journal Entry) Would you rather live in the city or the country? Why?

Go over the warm-up and discuss as a class. By now the students will have realized that cities grew dramatically during the period in question. Do they think people liked living in these cities? Did some people move there from the farms? Why? What problems that students identify as being part of city life today (pollution, crime) might have been problems at the turn of the century?

2. Hand out the City Report Worksheet (link) to each student. Have them use their notes on the City Analysis Worksheet to record general changes over time for their city. Tell them each student must write 2 questions at the bottom of their sheet about how and why cities changed.

3. Have each pair of students report on their city. Fill out a copy of the worksheet on the overhead taking input as to changes from each group. Discuss differences of opinion between groups and ask students to tell the class what led them to their conclusion (for example, ships at anchor in Alexandria had masts, not funnels.) In general, findings should be that over time cities grew larger, buildings grew taller, and transportation changed from horse and buggy to steam ship, trolly, and rail. Students should supplement their report with the findings of other students as the reports are synthesized for the class on the overhead.

Wrap-up:

1. After the groups report, ask the students for the questions they want answered about how the changes they saw took place. For example, how and why did skyscrapers begin to be built? When did sails give way to steam power in shipping? How were railroads and these large (teach the word infrastructure) changes in cities financed? Who provided the labor? What was the impact on the environment? What inventions fueled this change? When did electric power replace steam power?

2. Make a list on the overhead as the students give their questions so there is little or no duplication. Put the student’s initials by the question as you record so that the students will know which question they are responsible for copying onto the poster paper strip.

3. Pass out the strips of poster paper and markers. Have each student record a different question in large print on the paper strip. Tape some of the questions from each class up in the room. Post others in the hall. The next part of the unit will use these questions to guide the class’s investigation into the connections between immigration, inventions and changes in transportation, communication, manufacturing, and construction, financing, and marketing.

Assessment: Students will be assessed according to the following rubrics.

Worksheet A: Each site visited = 25 points.

Web address 5pts

Document date 2pts

Document description 3pts

City description 15pts

The group report will be assessed according to the following rubric.

Student contributed to the report and presented their findings 30pts

Student had meaningful comments about the changes in his city 30pts

Student developed questions for further study based on their research 30pts

Did they have time to research other sources for their city? 10pts.

Differentiation: City groups should be organized in mixed ability groups. Transportation and buildings are the easiest topics and should be given to students with academic difficulties. Students with greater ability should be encouraged to visit the websites given and then pursue research for other interesting informative photos.

Lesson 2 (1 day)

Title: Immigration

Objective: The student will explain the reasons for increased immigration and how immigration helped cities and industries grow.

Materials:

Supplies

Sample passport,

Computers for class or method of projecting web site for class viewing (TV or LCD projector)

Paper for cartoons,

Student Resources

Immigration picture book (see bibliography for list of books),

Cartoon Assignment (link)

Differentiated Cartoon Assignment (link)

Class set of Immigration Notes Graphic Organizer (link)

Class set of cartoon worksheet (link)

Websites

Immigrants Arriving at Ellis Island

Chinatown, 1903, Chinese railworkers, Immigration Examination Room, Angel Island

Library of Congress Learning Page on Immigration

Warm-up (Journal Entry) Show the students a passport (or picture of one). Ask them to tell you what it is and why it is important. What would make them willing to leave family, friends and home comforts?

Strategies:

1. (Hook) Read class a short storybook about immigration such as Grandfather’s Journey by Allen Say or When Jesse Came Across the Sea by Amy Hest.

2. Discuss why Grandfather came (Adventure) or why Jesse came (Oppressive Governments and Religious Freedom). Why might others come? Where did they come from? How did they get here? Where did they land? Where did they settle? What did they do once they got here?

3. Have students draw a graphic organizer and complete it as a class, using their text and the web sites below as a resource.

Immigration

Who When How To Why

Northern and 1870 – 1915 Boat New York and New Opportunity

Southern Europe Textile Factories Wealth

Irish Gold

Italian Chicago – meat packing Land

China Pittsburgh – steel mills Adventure San Francisco – Railroad Freedom from

Detroit – Autos oppression

Governments

Freedom of religion

4. Discuss what immigrants did once they arrived. What conditions and prejudices might they have faced? Many found work in the sweat shops and factories of the new industrial cities. Others homesteaded. Others went West to search for gold. Reinforce this part of the answer to the unit’s central question by having the students copy it at the bottom of their notes.

Immigrants provided the labor force (people) necessary for the cities and industry to grow

5. Some great resources to teach this lesson are: Edison’s early film Immigrants Arriving at Ellis Island. You may supplement this film clip with photos of the Angel Island Processing Center in California: Chinatown, 1903, Chinese railworkers, Immigration Examination Room, Angel Island (There are many other interesting photos in this collection of the Hart Hyatt North papers too.) If the class has more time to spend on immigration, access the Library of Congress Learning Page website on immigration Library of Congress Learning Page on Immigration which traces the immigration of many different ethnic groups. Have students research different groups and report to the class. They could put their report notes in a Passport for someone from a chosen (or assigned) ethnic group.

Assessment (independent practice): Have students draw a cartoon which represents immigration.

1. Draw a simple map outline of the United States in the center. Draw 4 people’s heads around the map. Label each head a different reason people came (opportunity, adventure, freedom from oppressive governments, freedom of religion)

2. Draw arrows from the people to the major cities they came to (New York, Chicago, San Francisco, LA)

3. Draw a bubble and write a statement for each person in the cartoon bubble which explains why they came. For example: I came to work on the railroads.

4. Draw facial features and clothing which indicates the country of origin.

Grading: D – Cartoon incomplete steps 1 and 2 or less completed

C – Cartoon incomplete steps 1, 2, and 3 completed

B – Cartoon complete steps 1,2,3, and 4

A – Cartoon complete

Wrap-up: Ask the class what questions that had been posed the day before have been answered by today’s work. Have the students write the questions and answers at the bottom of their notes.

Differentiation: Print out graphic organizers for immigration notes. Copy and print cartoon map and heads. Make a sample cartoon and instructions and pass out to students needing it or display on the overhead

Lesson 3 (1 day)

Title: Inventions

Objective: Students will examine how new inventions, advertising and methods of productions led to the growth of industry and cities

Materials:

Computers for students and teacher capable of accessing and displaying video from web sources.

Overhead projector.

Class set of terms worksheets (optional) (link).

Class set of graphic organizers for invention notes (link).

Scrap paper

Invention Notes (link)

Patent statistics: US Patent office report of patents issued 1790 to present (link for pdf file of these same statistics.)

Patent Data Worksheet (link)

Ad for a glass telephone mouthpiece

Children’s books on inventions and how things work

New York Skyscrapers

Brooklyn Bridge

New York Elevated Railway

Girls taking time checks, Westinghouse factory

Panoramic View Aisle B Westinghouse Factory

Coil Winding Machines

Strategies

1. Warm-up: Define the following terms: Invention, Patent, Technology, Mass Production

Note: I like to have my students use the following format whenever we define terms:

|Illustration |Term |Definition |When |So What |

|(students draw a small |Mass Production |Process of making large |1880’s to Present |Industry was able to grow |

|picture here to help them | |quantities of a product | |quickly at the turn of the|

|visualize the term) | |quickly and cheaply | |century |

2. Hook: Display the following Ad. Ad for a glass telephone mouthpiece

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3. Discuss it as a class. How is this ad different from today’s ads? How is it the same? Go over the definitions for the warm-up and tell the class that today they will be looking at how new inventions, new methods of production and advertising led to the growth of industries and cities in the US.

4. Examine the following links. How are the buildings so tall? What are the bridges made of? What powers the train? Who are the employees? Why are they employing women? Why were they taking films of the factory? What are they making? What are most of the big machines? What are they made of? Look at other films from the Westinghouse collection if you have time.

New York Skyscrapers

Brooklyn Bridge

New York Elevated Railway

Girls taking time checks, Westinghouse factory

Panoramic View Aisle B Westinghouse Factory

Coil Winding Machines

5. As you discuss the scenes in the films, explain and connect the terms they defined with the new inventions and technologies of this time period. Inventions to cover: Electricity Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse, The telephone – Alexander Bell, Bessemer Steel Process.

6. Have the students make a graphic organizer and write notes on these inventions. You can of course add your own favorites to these notes and some of the students’ ideas.

7. Introduce the culminating project for the unit: a timeline of inventions and their significance and point out the books you have placed on display. Encourage the students to examine these when they have time.

Invention Inventor Results

Electricity Thomas Edison Electric Light – Longer work hours, safer

lighting

Power Plant Thomas Edison and Electric Power – Cheaper, safer power

George Westinghouse power transmission

Telephone Alexander Bell Fast long distance communication

Steel Henry Bessemer Cheap, readily available steel,

Skyscrapers, bridges, railroads, trolleys,

subways

Wrap-up: Make a list of the things in the class room that use electricity. How would the room look different if we did not have electric power? What questions from lesson 3 have been answered today? Have the students write these questions and the answers in their journals.

Assessment: Exit ticket quiz. Put the following questions on the overhead. Have students write their answers on a small piece of paper. Then ask each student one of the questions as they leave the room. They should answer and hand you their paper. If they are wrong, have them repeat the query and the prompt three times orally.

1. What inventor and invention made communication faster and cheaper? (Bell/telephone)

2. What inventor and invention made skyscrapers possible? (Bessemer/steel)

3. What inventor and invention made electricity possible? (Edison/electricity)

Homework: Have students make a line graph of patents issued between 1875 and 1910 at 5 year intervals (link).

Differentiation: Provide graphic organizer for notes. Can be pre-printed to fill in blanks for students with dysgraphia. Provide a worksheet for patent information where the date is abstracted from the Patent Office Data.

Lesson 4 (1 day)

Title: Railroads

Objectives: Students will understand how railroads brought raw materials to factories and industries and then carried the finished goods to market creating national markets and a rapidly growing economy.

Materials:

Supplies

Boxed baking materials,

Tray, yarn, play or monopoly money,

Index cards for Simulation Role Cards for each student, Industrialization

VCR

Student Resources

Timeline Project Instructions (link)

Rubric for Timeline Projects (link)

Children’s books of inventions and how they work placed on display around the room

Sample Timeline (link)

Instructions for optional assignment (Newspaper Project as an alternative to the timeline) for more advanced students (link)

Rubric for Newspaper Project (link)

Strategies

Warm-up: Students should define the following terms: natural resource, raw material, gauge, dining car, air-brake

1. Hook – Have a tray with a bag of flour, a pound of butter, a bag of sugar, some eggs, baking powder and vanilla at the front of the room. Discuss with the class what these raw materials might be good for. Where did they come from? How did they get to the classroom? How would they have been produced and collected for the room in 1765? What was different after the completion of the railroad networks and transcontinental railroad in 1869?

2. Show a film and/or read about the completion of the railroads in your class text. Go over the vocabulary. Tell the students they are now going to “act out” the railroads.

3. Have students “construct” a railroad network in the classroom.

a. Give each student $2000 in monopoly money.

b. Some desks are mills, (give these students 5 index cards for each product they make which lists what they make and 5 index cards for each of the 2 or 3 raw materials they need (see chart below). Have students write the product and price on the card. (These cards will be exchanged to the purchaser at the time of payment and sale to represent the goods. Each car load of raw material costs $10.)

c. Some students are factories (give these students a list of the factory goods they make and sell and 5 index cards on which to write each car load of products as they produce it and sell it (they cannot produce their product until they have purchased the raw materials from the mills and a railroad has been built to their factory.) Each car load of finished goods costs $400.

d. Some students are the trains, everywhere they need to go, there must be a piece of yarn railroad. They will charge $50 per car load. Give these students 10 index cards on which to write their trips.

e. Some students are railroad builders, they build the yarn railroads and collect monopoly money fees of $50 per line (from one desk to another) of “railroad” built.

f. One student is the store. Give this student $10,000. Builders, factory owners, and railroads will soon have all the money and the experiment is over.

2. Discuss the exercise with the class. Who paid to build the railroads? Why? Where would the stores get more money? What would have happened if the railroads were different widths (2 colors of yarn)? Did railway builders cooperate or compete? (Our exercise had no consumers. Where would consumers get their money?) Below is a sample chart of factories and goods.

|Raw Material | | |Factory Shoes | | |General Store | |

|Steel Mill | | | | | | | |

|in |out | |in |out | |In |out |

|Iron ore $10 |Barrels $50 | |Leather $50 |Shoes $400 | |Shoes $400 |Shoes $800 |

|Coal $10 |Nails $50 | |Thread $50 | | | | |

| |Screws $50 | |Nails $50 | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

|Raw Material | | |Factory Coats | | | | |

|Lumber Mill | | | | | | | |

|Oak, Cherry, Pine |Buttons $50 | |Wool $50 |Coats $400 | |Coats $400 |Coats $800 |

|Coal $10 |Gun Stocks $50, | |Buttons $50 | | | | |

| |Furniture Woods | |Lining $50 | | | | |

| |$50 | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

|Raw Material | | |Factory Guns | | |General Store | |

|Woolen Mill | | | | | | | |

|Wool $10 |Thread $50, | |Steel $50 |Rifles $400 | |Rifles $400 |Rifles $800 |

|Coal $10 |Fabric $50 | |Gun Stock $50 | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

|Raw Material | | |Factory Furniture | | | | |

|Tannery | | | | | | | |

|Hides $10 |Leather $20 | |Leather $50 Fabric $50 |Chairs $400 | |Chairs $400 |Chairs $800 |

|Coal $10 | | |Nails $50 Wood $50 | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

|Raw Material Coal | | |Railroad Builder | | |Railroad Transport | |

|Coal Mine Worker |Coal $10 | |$50 per car load | | |$50 per connection | |

|$1 | | | | | | | |

Wrap-up: Discuss and collect patent homework for grading. Ask class what questions from lesson 3 were answered today. Have the students enter these questions and answers in their journals.

Homework: Begin culminating project (an Invention Timeline). Hand out instructions and rubric (link). Point out the books which you have placed around the class illustrating various inventions and giving information about inventors. Ask students to come to class with their ten inventions and inventors list (link).

Assessment: A – Listened to instructions, fulfilled role tasks, solved supply and

demand problems constructively, negotiated with other

students, perceptive feedback

B – Listened to instructions, sought help with problems from other

students or teacher, appropriate feed back

C – Able to follow instructions with teacher’s guidance, appropriate

feedback

D – Needed re-directs to stay on task.

Differentiation: Weaker students should monitor raw materials desks. Strong (mature) students should build railroads!

Lesson 5

Title: Captains of Industry

Objectives: Students will examine how national markets (created by the railroads discussed in the previous lesson) became controlled by a few very rich “Captains of Industry” using new methods of financing.

Materials:

Newsprint or poster paper, markers, magazines, scissors, glue

Fake Happy Meals sign

Financial Statements,

Copies of pictures of Vanderbilt, Rockefeller and Carnegie (link)

McDonald's Happy Meal

Entrepreneurs and American Economic Growth

Photos of Early oil refining in Eastern US

Rockefeller Drawing

PBS American Experience-Carnegie

Cornelius Vanderbilt

Mac Fat Financial Statement (link)

Captain of Industry Notes (link)

Captain of Industry Differentiated Notes (link)

Strategies

1. Warm-up: (Journal Response) The newspaper just announced that MacDonalds has bought out Wendy’s, Burger King and Jack in the Box in a surprise move. Is this a good news or bad? Why?

2. Hook : Fake sign for MacDonalds Happy Meal priced at $10) McDonald's Happy Meal Discuss the warm-up and introduce the days lesson.

3. Have students look up and define the following terms: monopoly, trust, and corporation. Go over the terms and discuss them with the class.

[pic]

4. While the students are doing their definitions, check their invention lists (homework from lesson 6) for compliance with the Timeline Instructions.

5. Demonstrate monopoly and trust with students by giving them a business financial statement for a fast food chain which demonstrates the reduction in profits, but the retention of significant capital assets, which would make them ripe for hostile takeover (link).

6. Have students read an account in a class textbook about the growth of big business and monopolies, and help students connect this to current situations. Ask students to take notes on the rise of big business showing how their size and capital wealth enabled the US to build the infrastructure needed for industrial growth on the one hand, but led to control of the nation’s wealth in the hands of a very few very rich and powerful men too.

7. Dr. Poole’s (UC San Diego) website on economics has excellent material and biographical information on Rockefeller, Carnegie and Vanderbilt with many graphs showing the growth of Standard Oil Assets and profits. Entrepreneurs and American Economic Growth

8. Notes: 3 Ingredients for Industrial Growth Controlled by 3 Very Powerful Men

I. What did Vanderbilt Build?

[pic]

II. What did Carnegie “Steal?”

[pic]

III. Why was Rockefeller an “Oily” fellow?

[pic]

Note: the following link contains many excellent photos including early modes of oil transport by horse and wagon and train if you have time to extend this lesson. Photos of Early oil refining in Eastern US

Wrap-up: Have students work in groups to make a collage showing the “Three Captains of Industry” (Vanderbilt, Rockefeller, Carnegie) monopolizing the major American industries of Transportation (railroads) Construction (steel) and Energy (oil refining). Have them cut pictures out of magazines that illustrate each of these areas and paste them under the picture of the appropriate tycoon. They should title their collage “Captains of Industry Control American Economic Growth.” They should label the picture of each man with the area of industry he controlled. Pictures of the three men may be down loaded from the web or reproduced from those below.

Rockefeller Drawing PBS American Experience-Carnegie

[pic] [pic]

Cornelius Vanderbilt

[pic]

9. Share the collages. Discuss what the students listed under each man. Ask the students what questions from lesson 3 were answered today. Have them enter these questions in their journals.

Homework: Students should continue to work on their timelines, researching and choosing inventions and making their illustrations of each.

Assessment: Collage completion

A – All required elements (Title, labels, appropriate pictures under each

industry) plus color, neat graphics, creative use of pictures

B – All required elements

C – Labels incomplete

D – Some elements mislabeled

Differentiation: Prepared graphic organizer for notes (link). Review work sheet for terms. Collage example and beginning pictures already cut out.

Lesson 6

Title: Review for Test

Objective: Students will review their notes and make a study guide for their test over the growth of cities.

Materials

1911 Cartoon on Capitalism

Growth of Cities Review Notes: Key (link)

Growth of Cities Review Notes: Graphic Organizer (link)

Growth of Cities Notes: Differentiated Graphic Organizer (link)

Strategies

1. Warm-up: (Journal) The United States has been criticized for being a nation of consumers where all we think about is money and what we can buy with it. What does this mean? Do you think it is true? Why? Why not?

2. (Hook) Show students the cartoon below. What does this say about the economic system that developed in the early 20th century? 1911 Cartoon on Capitalism from the “Industrial Worker” Spokane, WA.

[pic]

3. Have student get out their notes and drawings from the previous lessons. Hand out copies of the summary review notes organizer (link). Go over notes and fill in the blanks, reviewing the major concepts for the period. Discuss to clarify as necessary, emphasizing how all of these factors interacted to create the “Taiwan” of the early 20th century – cheap labor which was producing quality goods at rock bottom prices for the US market as well as expanding international markets.

4. Let students work on their Timelines for the rest of the period.

Wrap-up: Quick Quiz: Put the following questions on the overhead. Have students write their answers on a small piece of paper. Then ask each student one of the questions as they leave the room. They should answer and hand you their paper. If they are wrong, have them repeat the query and the prompt three times orally.

1. Who was the “Captain of Industry” responsible for the creation of trusts? (Rockefeller, Oil)

2. Who was responsible for the creation of the steel industry? (Carnegie, Steel)

3. Who was responsible for creating a monopoly of the railroads? (Vanderbilt)

Assessment: Quick quiz: A = 4/5

B = 4/5

C = 3/5

Lesson 7

Title: Timelines

Objectives: Students will:

1. Practice skills necessary to understanding timelines and demonstrate mastery by making a timeline of their own showing inventions between 1850 and 1920.

2. Review major inventions of the late 1800’s and their impact on the Growth of Industry.

Materials:

Index cards, scissors computers, markers, black pens, textbook references, glue, poster paper or news print,computers, texts, reference books regarding inventions

Sample time-lines

Sets of dates for student practice (link)

Magnetized dates to demonstrate order and spacing on the board

Pre-printed pictures of inventions as needed.

Strategies

1. Warm-up: Put the following list of dates on the board. Ask students to put these dates in order. 3500 B.C., 200 A.D., 20 A.D., 1945 A.D, 0, 750 A.D., 10,000 B.C., 450 B.C., 2005 A.D., 2005 B.C.

2. Hook: Ask students to line up “non-verbally” by birth date. Explain to them that the line they have formed is a sort of time line and that they are going to practice making these today so their final projects will be correct.

3. Draw a long straight horizontal line with evenly spaced separators on the board.

4. Hand out the magnetized dates and ask several students to arrange them on the time line you have drawn there. Usually students try to space the dates evenly across the line. Correct them and discuss the elements of a timeline, order, spacing, labels, and title. Go over the difference between A.D. and B.C.

5. Have students practice with timeline sets for several different sets of dates.

6. Go over the class project timeline instructions (link) handed out in lesson six. By now many students should all have selected their optional inventions and have drafted their sentences for the significance of each invention. Help those who have not completed this part of the project. Use class computers, texts, and reference books to locate information about their optional inventions and answer questions about mandatory inventions as needed. Depending on the time and the ability of the students it can help to have pre-preprinted pictures of the major and most popular inventions. Help students correct and edit their labels and statements. Try to encourage them to connect each invention with the growth of industry.

7. Have students write their labels and explanations for each timeline entry. Require that students complete their labels and illustrations on the half size index cards which can be glued to the poster board or newsprint after arranging them in order and adjusting the spacing to reflect the gap in years between each invention. (This is the hardest part for 7th graders and being able to adjust the spacing manually really helps them.)

Wrap-up: Give out envelopes to students to take their labels and illustrations home to work on their timeline. Remind them that presentations will count towards the grade too.

Homework: Finish up time lines

Assessment: A = On task, all definitions, illustrations and explanations complete

B = On task, all definitions complete

C = On task, almost complete

D = Needs to stay after to finish on time

Differentiation: Have students practice in mixed ability pairs. Provide pictures for time-line entries. Provide pre-divided time line.

Lesson 8

Title: Presentations of Timelines

Objectives: Students will demonstrate knowledge of reasons for the growth of cities in the United States during the period from 1850 to 1910.

Materials

Student Resources

Growth of Cities Quiz (link)

Student Timelines

Strategies:

1. Warm-up: Assign presentation order

2. Students will present their timelines while others take notes

Wrap-up: Growth of Cities Quiz (link)

Assessment:

50% Timeline Grade

5 points title, centered and neat

5 points 10 inventions

5 points correct order

5 points correct dates

5 points spacing reflects dates

5 points labels are correct

10 points explanations reflect understanding of change in industry

10 points illustrations and graphics

50% Presentation

10 points notes on other students presentations

10 points participation

10 points knows what is on the timeline

10 points can tell students why the inventions impacted cities

10 points poise, fluency, additional information about inventions

Differentiation: Let students present in pairs or groups. Students who have difficulty have already been accommodated by allowing them to use pre-selected inventions and pre-printed photos.

Appendix: Lesson Worksheets and Supplements

Lesson 1

Student City Research Sites

City Analysis Worksheet

City Report Worksheet

Lesson 2

Immigration Notes Graphic Organizer

Cartoon Assignment & Rubric

Differentiated Cartoon Assignment

Lesson 3

Terms Worksheet

Invention Notes

Patent Data

Patent Data Worksheet

Lesson 4

Invention Timeline Instructions and Rubric

Newspaper Project Instructions and Rubric

Lesson 5

Mac Fat Financial Statement

Captains of Industry Notes I

Captains of Industry Differentiated Notes II

Lesson 6

Growth of Cities Review Notes: Key

Growth of Cities Review Notes: Graphic Organizer I

Growth of Cities Notes: Differentiated Graphic Organizer II

Lesson 7

Dates for Timeline Practice

Lesson 8

Growth of Cities Quiz

Lesson 1

Student city research sites

Group I: New York City, New York

New York City 1776

1856 color lithograph of NYC

New York City 1876

New York City 1882

New York Waterfront 1909 ,

1903, Elevated railroad, New York,

1903, Skyscrapers of New York City, from the North River

Group II: Los Angeles, California

Map of Los Angeles, 1871

Birds eye view of Los Angeles, 1877

View of Los Angeles from the east, 1877, Brooklyn Hights in the foreground; Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica Mountains in the background.

Los Angeles, 1888

Los Angeles, Cal., population of city and environs 65,000.1891

South Spring Street, Los Angeles, California, 190??

Building a Harbor in San Pedro, Los Angeles 1909.

Group III: Chicago, Illinois

The City of Chicago, 1892

Bird's-eye-view of Chicago as it was before the great fire, 1871.

Rascher's birds eye view of the Chicago packing houses.1890

Bird's eye view of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893.

Chicago, central business section, 1916

Chicago Stock Yards, 1897 (film)

Extra credit:

Group IV: Alexandria Virginia

George Washington's survey of the site of Belhaven (Alexandria)

Washington's Plan of Alexandria, 1749

Birds eye view of Alexandria, Va.,1863

District of Columbia and Alexandria, the seat of war, 1863

Fairfax County Soil Types, 1877

Atlas of fifteen miles around Washington, including Alexandria, 1879

Coolidge at Alexandria, 1923

City Analysis Worksheet

| |Describe the types of Transportation |Describe the people and population (many |Describe the location: Rivers, mountains, |Describe the buildings and industries you |

|Name of City: __________ |(roads, horse & carriage, canals, |buildings, densely populated, few people,|flat, bay, harbors, why was the city built|see. Are the buildings tall (skyscrapers)? |

|Student Name: __________ |railroads, cars, sailing ship, |dress of people, color & race, |here? |what are they built of (wood, stone, |

|Mod: _________ |steamers, ferries?) |nationality) | |concrete, brick?) What industries do you see?|

|Web Address: | | | | |

|Date of Document: | | | | |

|Document Description: Map, Lithograph, | | | | |

|Panoramic Photo, Other | | | | |

|Web Address | | | | |

|Date of Document: | | | | |

|Document Description: Map, Lithograph, | | | | |

|Panoramic Photo, Other | | | | |

|Web Address | | | | |

|Date of Document: | | | | |

|Document Description: Map, Lithograph, | | | | |

|Panoramic Photo, Other | | | | |

|Web Address | | | | |

|Date of Document: | | | | |

|Document Description: Map, Lithograph, | | | | |

|Panoramic Photo, Other | | | | |

City Report Worksheet

Student Name: _____________________ City Name: ____________________

| |Earliest Document |1870-1880 Document |Latest Document |Explanation and Questions |

|What changes in Transportation occurred in | | | | |

|the years covered by your documents? | | | | |

|How did the population of your city change? | | | | |

|How did the location change? Did the city | | | | |

|expand? Build over rivers. Fill in marshes?| | | | |

|Are there still farms and open space? | | | | |

|How did the buildings in the city change? | | | | |

|Taller? More factories? | | | | |

Lesson 2

Immigration Notes Graphic Organizer

|Who Came |How did they Come? |When did they Come? |Where did they come to? |Why |

| | | | | |

Immigrants provided the huge labor force necessary for the cities and industry to grow

Immigration Cartoon Assignment

1. Draw 4 heads around the outline map of the US

2. Draw a dialogue bubble for each head

3. Label each head with one of the 4 reasons (from your notes) that immigrants came to the US

4. Write a statement in each dialogue box that illustrates the reason the person came. For example: “I came because I heard you could get rich! I heard there’s gold in the streets. I heard there’s free land.”

5. Draw an arrow from each head to the area of the country they might have come to.

Grading Rubric

1. Has drawn heads, labeled them, and completed statements in the dialogue

bubbles showing why each character came. C

2. Drew faces and clothing for cartoon characters which indicate B

country of origin, labeled cities they came to.

3. Cartoon is colored. Sentences are creative and show and understanding of A

the country the character came from.

[pic]

Immigration Cartoon

1. Draw 4 heads around the outline map of the US

2. Draw a dialogue bubble for each head

3. Label each head with one of the 4 reasons (from your notes) that immigrants came to the US

4. Write a statement in each dialogue box that illustrates the reason the person came. For example: “I came because I heard you could get rich! I heard there’s gold in the streets. I heard there’s free land.”

5. Draw an arrow from each head to the area of the country they might have come to.

[pic]

Lesson 3 Terms Worksheet Student Name

|Illustration |Term |Who or What |When |So What |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

Invention Notes

|Invention |Inventor |Results |

| | | |

Inventors and their Inventions Helped Industry and Cities Grow

|Year |Utility Patent |Design Patent |Invention Patents |Design Patents |Patent Grants to |Total Patents |

| |Applications |Applications |Issued |Issued |Foreign Residents |Issued |

|1910 |63,293 |1,155 |35,130 |639 |3,719 | |

|1905 |54,034 |781 |29,777 |486 |3,292 | |

|1900 |39,673 |2,225 |24,656 |1,758 |3,483 | |

|1895 |39,145 |1,463 |20,855 |1,115 |2,049 | |

|1890 |39,884 |1046 |25,308 |886 |2,105 | |

|1885 |34,697 |862 |23,282 |773 |1,549 | |

|1880 |21,761 |634 |12, 926 |515 |786 | |

|1875 |21,638 |Not available |13,291 |915 |563 | |

Patents From 1875 to 1910

Lesson 4

Make a Timeline: Inventions and Industry Change the Nation 1840 – 1920

You will be making and illustrating a timeline for the period 1840 – 1920. This is a project grade. The finished timeline is due: ________________

1. Research and choose inventions for the 1850’s, 1860’s, 1880’s, and 1890’s. Use your text, the internet, and the library. Check with me if you have trouble.

1845-Cyrus McCormick – The Reaper

1850’s – choose 1

1852-Henry Bessemer – The Bessemer Steel Process

1860’s – choose 2

1876-Alexander Graham Bell – The Telephone

1877-Thomas Alva Edison – The Light Bulb and Movie Projector

1880’s – choose 2

1890’s – choose 1

1892 – The Homestead Strike

1898 – The Spanish American War

1903-Wilbur and Orville Wright – The Airplane

1909- WEB Dubois helps start NAACP

1913-Henry Ford – The Assembly Line

1917-Eighteenth Amendment

1920-Nineteenth Amendment

2. Put these inventions in order

3. Research the importance of each event or invention. Why did it matter?

4.. Illustrate each invention or event. (Yes, you may print out illustrations from the internet neatly on your time line.)

3. Write an explanation for each event. What the invention or event is and how it changed the United States. (Yes, you may type and print out your explanations and paste them on your timeline.) Explanations may be found in your book, AND in your class notes!

4. Paste your illustrations and your explanations on a timeline. Be sure your spacing of events shows the amount of time between events. It should not be even! Do not paste anything until you have worked out how you will fit everything in on your timeline.

5. Put in your title

6. Color your illustrations

7. Ink your explanations neatly in black ink.

Example: -|--------------------------|------------------------------|---------------------- 1865 1870 1875

[pic]

Grading Rubric: points points

Possible earned

Titled 10

Decades labeled 10

Inventions dated correctly 10

Inventions in order, earliest to most recent 10

Explanations accurate and reflect an understanding of the era 20

Neatness (writing is in neat, in black ink or typed) 10

Spacing on timeline reflects year of invention 10

Illustrations accurately depict the invention 10

_______ ____________

Total 100

Timeline Project Worksheet

I. Put the inventions you have chosen in order.

1. _________ ___________________________________________________

2. _________ ___________________________________________________

3. _________ ___________________________________________________

4. _________ ___________________________________________________

5. _________ ___________________________________________________

6. _________ ___________________________________________________

7. _________ ___________________________________________________

8. _________ ___________________________________________________

9. _________ ___________________________________________________

10. _________ ___________________________________________________

11. _________ ___________________________________________________

12. _________ ___________________________________________________

13. _________ ___________________________________________________

14. _________ ___________________________________________________

15. _________ ___________________________________________________

16. _________ ___________________________________________________

17. _________ ___________________________________________________

II. Write a sentence that tells why each is important, (the “so what.”) Hint: Most are important because they helped industry expand and cities grow in some way.

1. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

2. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

3. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

4. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

5. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

6. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

7. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

8. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

9. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

10. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

11. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

12. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

13. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

14. _________ ____________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

15. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

16. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

17. _________ ____________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

IV. Draft your time-line. How will your spacing look? Does it look neat? Did you put in your title?

V. Make your timeline. Turn it in. Raise the roof. You’re Awesome!!

OH YEAH!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Put your name and mod on it!

Newspaper project for US History – Mrs. Dille

As our first project for this year, our class will design and write a newspaper from 1898! Working in pairs, (yes, you make work 3 together if you check with me) students will write articles, ads, letters to the editor, and cartoons for their paper.

A newspaper is published in sections, the Front Page covering national and international news, the City or Metro section covering local city news, the Business section covering commercial news, the Sports section covering sporting events, and the “Style” or “Life” section covering human interest and entertainment news. In addition, a newspaper from 1898 would have ads, letters to the editor, columns by editors, and political cartoons. There were very few cartoons or comics at this time. You and your partner(s) will need to write at least 1 article for each section. Below is a list of events or new ideas for each section.

Front Page: Write about:

A New Invention

A Railway disaster

An Immigration Problem

A Factory

The Homestead Strike

The Spanish American War

The Temperance Movement

The Women’s Suffrage Movement

Metro:

Urban Problems: for example, articles on poverty, immigration, overcrowded, unsafe tenements, disease epidemics, unsafe work conditions, child labor, strikes, demonstrations, political corruption and crime

Urban Solutions: laws to reform government, shorten the workday, limit child labor, stop political corruption, and improve education for children

Business:

Inventions

Formation of Corporations or Trusts

Stock Offerings in new companies

Take Overs and Buy Outs

Trust Busting legislation and lawsuits

Sports:

Baseball and Football became popular

Ads:

Mass produced goods

New inventions

Help Wanted Ads for the factories

Opinion/Editorial:

Spanish American War

Unions

Urban Problems

Need for immigration laws

Need for business and political reform laws

Temperance

Women’s Suffrage

Political cartoons on any of the above

Your articles should be typed. You may use the computers in my room, the computer lab or the library to produce your articles. Insofar as possible, the finished product should look like a real newspaper, with headings, different type sizes and illustrations. A list of good web sites to visit is on the back board in my room. Use your imagination. This is not a research paper. It will be graded as follows:

Contents reflect an accurate understanding of the urbanization and industrial growth that took place in the United States by 1898

Contents reflect an accurate understanding of the United States recognition as a World Power after the Spanish American War

Contents reflect an accurate understanding of the problems caused by industrialization and the reform movement to address these problems in 1898.

Each paper should have a minimum of 10 separate pieces, 2 from each main group above, (5 produced by each student in the group.) If a student chooses to include more than 5 articles, I will base the grade on the best of those submitted. The student’s name should appear on each article in some form (author, cartoonist, editor, advertiser, business owner, etc.).

Rubric:

Historical accuracy 10 points per article/or piece (50 points)

Coverage of 5 different issues 25 points

Graphics and illustrations 15 points

Neat, visually appealing layout 10 points

Lesson 5

MAC FAT Corporation

Assets: (in thousands)

Cash 100

Receivables 50

Inventory 500

Equipment 10000

Buildings 300

Total Assets 10850

Liabilities: (in thousands)

Current Payables 15000

Loans 4000

Total Liabilities 19000

Net Assets: (in thousands) (8150)

3 Ingredients for Industrial Growth Controlled by 3 Very Powerful Men 1

I. What did Vanderbilt Build?

[pic]

II. What did Carnegie “Steal?”

[pic]

III. Why was Rockefeller an “Oily” fellow?

[pic]

3 Ingredients for Industrial Growth Controlled by 3 Very Powerful Men II

I. What did Vanderbilt Build?

[pic]

II. What did Carnegie “Steal?”

[pic]

III. Why was Rockefeller an “Oily” fellow?

[pic]

Lesson 6 Graphic Organizer I

Lesson 6 II

Lesson 6 Key

Lesson 8

Industrialization and the Growth of Cities

1. What city became known as the center of the meat-packing industry?

Chicago

Detroit

New Orleans

Houston

2. What city became known for the production of automobiles after Henry Ford built his assembly line factory there?

Chicago

Detroit

New Orleans

Houston

3. What change in communication made industries grow?

Railroads

Bessemer Steel Process

Alexander Bell’s Telephone

Edison’s electric light

4. What grew and transported goods quickly and cheaply after 1869?

Railroads

Bessemer Steel Process

Alexander Bell’s Telephone

A. Edison’s electric light

5. What produced goods cheaply and efficiently leading to the growth of industry?

Mass production

Specialized factories

Cheap labor provided by immigrants

Investment capital from corporate financing to build new factories

E. All of the above

6. Which analogy for “captains of industry” and their business is correct?

Vanderbilt: Oil and Carnegie: Steel

Carnegie: Steel and Rockefeller: Oil

Rockefeller: Oil and Vanderbilt: Steel

Carnegie: Oil and Rockefeller: Steel

7. Which of the below shows the many inventions that helped industry grow?

The rise in urban population

Patents Issued

Miles of railroad track

“Captains of Industry”

8. Which is the best description of a monopoly?

A game

A viral disease

A product is available from only one source (business, corporation)

A product is available from many sources (businesses, corporations).

9. When immigrants came to the United States, they often:

Worked long hours for low wages in factories

Provided the labor that would help industry grow

Faced discrimination and prejudice

All of the above

10. Most immigrants to the United States during the period 1850 – 1920 came from:

Europe and China

South America and Vietnam

Belgium and France

England and Portugal

11. Which is NOT a reason immigrants came to the United States?

A. A new beginning for former slaves

B. Adventure

C. Opportunity

D. Religious freedom

12. – 20. Make a time line. Label the segments of the line in 5 year increments, starting in 1865. (8 points) Place the following events on the line (watch both order and spacing.) (32 points)

A. Haymarket Square strike - 1882

B. End of the Civil War - 1865

C. First car assembly line - 1913

D. Spanish American War – 1898

E. 15th Amendment - 1869

F. 18th Amendment - 1917

G. Invention of the phone – 1876

H. Invention of the light bulb - 1879

-----------------------

• Vanderbilt Transportation

Steamships

Railroads

• Most famous for Railroads

New York Central and Hudson River

• Controls access to National Markets

New York to Chicago

• Ruthless business tactics to establish control

• Dies 1877

• Carnegie financed and used the new “Bessemer” Process of turning iron ore into much harder steel

• Steel would be the construction material for the new railroads, machines, bridges and skyscrapers of Industrial America

• Invested and developed oil refining – Standard Oil of America

• Controls 90% of oil refining through ruthless business practices

• Expands corporation by controlling many corporations together in a single “Trust”

• Controls the most common form of energy for a growing American Industrial economy.

I came because

I came because

I came because

I came because

Patent Data Worksheet

1. How many total patents were issued in each year?

2. Make a bar graph which shows the number of patents issued for each year in the chart.

3. Extra Credit: Make a line graph which shows the total patents applied for AND the total patents issues for eash year shown in the data.

4. What was the percentage increase between 1875 and 1910 in patents insured?

5. What do you think the data for 1915 showed?

6. What does this data demonstrate?

Picture

Here

1869 George Westinghouse

The airbrake meant trains were safer, longer and transported more goods even more cheaply than before.

• Vanderbilt _______________

______________

______________

• Most famous for ____________

New York Central and Hudson River

• Controls access to __________ ____________

New York to Chicago

• ___________ business tactics to establish control

• Dies 1877

• Carnegie financed and used the new “____________” __________ of turning iron ore into much harder _______.

• Steel would be the ____________ __________ for the new railroads, __________, machines, and _______________ of Industrial America

• Invested and developed _____ __________ – Standard Oil of America

• Controls 90% of Oil Refining through __________ business practices

• Expands his corporation by controlling many corporations together in a single “_______”

• Controls the most common form of ________ for a growing American Industrial economy.

Immigration

Transportation

The Growth of Cities – 1860 to 1910

Inventions

Financing and Production Methods

Big ____________

National _________

_______________

A Nation of :

________________

The Growth of Cities – 1860 to 1910

Transportation

Immigration

______________ knit the nation together quickly after _____________. They carry raw materials such as _____, ____, ______,and _______ to factories in the cities.

Detroit will become known for ________

Chicago will be the center of ______ ______ ___________ _____________.

______ ___________ for the _________ (cloth) industry.

1. ________ from ____________________

_______________________

2. ____________________

3. ____________ of _________________

4. ___________________ (wealth & land)

They came from ____________________:

________________, _________________,

and later from ___________ and _________, _________________Italy, Poland Also from ____________ to work on Railroads.

Big _Business__

National _Markets_

__Advertising__

A Nation of ___Consumers___

Giant powerful ___________________

And __________ control industry.

_______________ controls _______ _________.

John D. _____________ controls ______

and Andrew ____________ controls __________.

Low Cost, Mass__________________ produces goods __________ and _________________.

Inventions

Financing and Production Methods

1. Electric Power: ___________and __________________

2. Electric Light: _______________

3. Telephone: ____________________

4. __________________ Steel Process

5. Air Brake: ____________________

6. refrigeration

7. air brake

8. Kodak camera

9. Elevator

10. Electric trolley

The Growth of Cities – 1860 to 1910

Immigration

Transportation

__Railroads__ knit the nation together quickly after _the civil war, 1865_. They carry raw materials such as __iron_, _coal_, __lumber_ to factories in the cities.

Detroit will become known for _autos_

Chicago will be the center of _the_ _meat packing_ industry.

New _England___ for _the textile__ (cloth) industry.

Big _Business__

National _Markets_

__Advertising__

A Nation of ___Consumers___

1.__Escape_____ from __Oppressive_

governments

2. __Adventure_____

3. __Freedom__ of ___Religion___

4. Opportunity____ (wealth & land)

They came from __Northern Europe____:

__England__, _Ireland____,

__and later from, Southern & Eastern Europe,___, Italy, Poland_, ________________.

Inventions

Financing and Production Methods

1. Electric Power: _Thomas Edison___

2. Electric Light: _Thomas Edison___

3. Telephone: __Alexander G. Bell__

4. Bessemer Steel Process

5. cash register

6. refrigeration

7. air brake

8. Kodak camera

9. Elevator

10. Electric trolley

Giant powerful __Corporations___

And _trusts__ control industry.

William Vanderbilt_ controls _Rail_ _Roads__.

John D. _Rockefeller_ controls _Oil_

and Andrew__Carnegie___ controls _Steel_.

Low Cost, _Mass_ Production produces goods __cheaply__ and __efficiently__.

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