# AP Environmental Science Math Prep

AP Environmental Science Summer AssignmentGo APES this Summer!!!Welcome to APES class at Freedom High School. AP Environmental Science is rigorous class that will require time outside of school hours. ?The AP Environmental Science course is designed to be the equivalent of a one-semester, introductory college course in environmental science, through which students engage with the scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world. The course requires that students identify and analyze natural and human-made environmental problems, evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and examine alternative solutions for resolving or preventing them. Environmental Science is interdisciplinary, embracing topics from geology, biology, environmental studies, environmental science, chemistry, and geography. This is a laboratory class so it will be important to keep up with the reading and laboratory assignments.The following assignments must be completed and turned in on September 11 (B day classes) and 12 (A day classes). Directions for submission will be given on the first day of class. If you have any questions, please email Mrs. Pajazetovic (kimberly.pajazetovic@) or Mrs. Savage (debra.savage@). Go APES!!Part A: Math PracticeThis year in APES you will hear the two words most dreaded by high school students…NO CALCULATORS! That’s right, you cannot use a calculator on the AP Environmental Science exam. Since the regular tests you will take are meant to help prepare you for the APES exam, you will not be able to use calculators on regular tests all year either. The good news is that most calculations on the tests and exams are written to be fairly easy calculations and to come out in whole numbers or to only a few decimal places. The challenge is in setting up the problems correctly and knowing enough basic math to solve the problems. With practice, you will be a math expert by the time the exam rolls around. So bid your calculator a fond farewell, tuck it away so you won’t be tempted, and start sharpening your math skills! RemindersWrite out all your work, even if it’s something really simple. This is required on the APES exam so it will be required on all your assignments, labs, quizzes, and tests as well.Include units in each step. Your answers always need units and it’s easier to keep track of them if you write them in every step.Check your work. Go back through each step to make sure you didn’t make any mistakes in your calculations. Also check to see if your answer makes sense. For example, a person probably will not eat 13 million pounds of meat in a year. If you get an answer that seems unlikely, it probably is. Go back and check your work.DirectionsRead each section below for review. Look over the examples and use them for help on the practice problems. When you get to the practice problems, write out all your work and be sure to include units on each step. Check your work.DecimalsPart I: The basicsDecimals are used to show fractional numbers. The first number behind the decimal is the tenths place, the next is the hundredths place, the next is the thousandths place. Anything beyond that should be changed into scientific notation (which is addressed in another section.) Part II: Adding or Subtracting DecimalsTo add or subtract decimals, make sure you line up the decimals and then fill in any extra spots with zeros. Add or subtract just like usual. Be sure to put a decimal in the answer that is lined up with the ones in the problem. Part III: Multiplying DecimalsLine up the numbers just as you would if there were no decimals. DO NOT line up the decimals. Write the decimals in the numbers but then ignore them while you are solving the multiplication problem just as you would if there were no decimals at all. After you have your answer, count up all the numbers behind the decimal point(s). Count the same number of places over in your answer and write in the decimal.Part IV: Dividing Decimals56959559944037223708890Scenario One: If the divisor (the number after the / or before the ) does not have a decimal, set up the problems just like a regular division problem. Solve the problem just like a regular division problem. When you have your answer, put a decimal in the same place as the decimal in the dividend (the number before the / or under the ). Scenario Two: If the divisor does have a decimal, make it a whole number before you start. Move the decimal to the end of the number, then move the decimal in the dividend the same number of places. Then solve the problem just like a regular division problem. Put the decimal above the decimal in the dividend. (See Scenario One problem).AveragesTo find an average, add all the quantities given and divide the total by the number of quantities. Example: Find the average of 10, 20, 35, 45, and 105. Step 1: Add all the quantities. 10 + 20 + 35 + 45 + 105 = 215 Step 2: Divide the total by the number of given quantities. 215 / 5 = 43PercentagesIntroduction:Percents show fractions or decimals with a denominator of 100. Always move the decimal TWO places to the right go from a decimal to a percentage or TWO places to the left to go from a percent to a decimal.Examples: .85 = 85%. .008 = .8%Part I: Finding the Percent of a Given NumberTo find the percent of a given number, change the percent to a decimal and MULTIPLY. Example: 30% of 400 Step 1: 30% = .30 Step 2: 400 x .30 12000 Step 3: Count the digits behind the decimal in the problem and add decimal to the answer. 12000 120.00 120Part II: Finding the Percentage of a NumberTo find what percentage one number is of another, divide the first number by the second, then convert the decimal answer to a percentage.Example: What percentage is 12 of 25? Step 1: 12/25 = .48 Step 2: .48 = 48% (12 is 48% of 25)Part III: Finding Percentage Change & Increase or DecreaseTo find percent change: (New - old)/ Old x 100Example: The iphone has decreased from $650 to $515. What is the percent change in the price?Step 1: 515 - 650 = - 135 We use absolute value in this class. You can ignore the negative.Step 2: 135 / 650 = .208Step 3: .208 X 100 =20.1%To find a percentage increase or decrease, first find the percent change, then add or subtract the change to the original number.Example: Kindles have dropped in price 18% from $139. What is the new price of a Kindle? Step 1: $139 x .18 = $25 Step 2: $139 - $25 = $114Part IV: Finding a Total ValueTo find a total value, given a percentage of the value, DIVIDE the given number by the given percentage.Example: If taxes on a new car are 8% and the taxes add up to $1600, how much is the new car? Step 1: 8% = .08 Step 2: $1600 / .08 = $160,000 / 8 = $20,000 (Remember when the divisor has a decimal, move it to the end to make it a whole number and move the decimal in the dividend the same number of places. .08 becomes 8, 1600 becomes 160000.)Metric UnitsKilo-, centi-, and milli- are the most frequently used prefixes of the metric system. You need to be able to go from one to another without a calculator. You can remember the order of the prefixes by using the following sentence: King Henry Died By Drinking Chocolate Milk. Since the multiples and divisions of the base units are all factors of ten, you just need to move the decimal to convert from one to another. 6985073660Example: 55 centimeters = ? kilometers Step 1: Figure out how many places to move the decimal. King Henry Died By Drinking… – that’s six places. (Count the one you are going to, but not the one you are on.) Step 2: Move the decimal five places to the left since you are going from smaller to larger.55 centimeters = .00055 kilometersExample: 19.5 kilograms = ? milligrams Step 1: Figure out how many places to move the decimal. … Henry Died By Drinking Chocolate Milk – that’s six places. (Remember to count the one you are going to, but not the one you are on.) Step 2: Move the decimal six places to the right since you are going from larger to smaller. In this case you need to add zeros.19.5 kilograms = 19,500,000 milligramsScientific NotationIntroduction: Scientific notation is a shorthand way to express large or tiny numbers. Since you will need to do calculations throughout the year WITHOUT A CALCULATOR, we will consider anything over 1000 to be a large number. Writing these numbers in scientific notation will help you do your calculations much quicker and easier and will help prevent mistakes in conversions from one unit to another. Like the metric system, scientific notation is based on factors of 10. A large number written in scientific notation looks like this:1.23 x 1011The number before the x (1.23) is called the coefficient. The coefficient must be greater than 1 and less than 10. The number after the x is the base number and is always 10. The number in superscript (11) is the exponent.Part I: Writing Numbers in Scientific NotationTo write a large number in scientific notation, put a decimal after the first digit. Count the number of digits after the decimal you just wrote in. This will be the exponent. Drop any zeros so that the coefficient contains as few digits as possible.Example: 123,000,000,000 Step 1: Place a decimal after the first digit. 1.23000000000 Step 2: Count the digits after the decimal…there are 11. Step 3: Drop the zeros and write in the exponent. 1.23 x 1011Writing tiny numbers in scientific notation is similar. The only difference is the decimal is moved to the left and the exponent is a negative. A tiny number written in scientific notation looks like this:4.26 x 10-8To write a tiny number in scientific notation, move the decimal after the first digit that is not a zero. Count the number of digits before the decimal you just wrote in. This will be the exponent as a negative. Drop any zeros before or after the decimal.Example: .0000000426 Step 1: 00000004.26 Step 2: Count the digits before the decimal…there are 8. Step 3: Drop the zeros and write in the exponent as a negative. 4.26 x 10-8Part II: Adding and Subtracting Numbers in Scientific Notation To add or subtract two numbers with exponents, the exponents must be the same. You can do this by moving the decimal one way or another to get the exponents the same. Once the exponents are the same, add (if it’s an addition problem) or subtract (if it’s a subtraction problem) the coefficients just as you would any regular addition problem (review the previous section about decimals if you need to). The exponent will stay the same. Make sure your answer has only one digit before the decimal – you may need to change the exponent of the answer.Example: 1.35 x 106 + 3.72 x 105 = ?Step 1: Make sure both exponents are the same. It’s usually easier to go with the larger exponent so you don’t have to change the exponent in your answer, so let’s make both exponents 6 for this problem. 3.72 x 105 .372 x 106 Step 2: Add the coefficients just as you would regular decimals. Remember to line up the decimals.1.35+ .3721.722 Step 3: Write your answer including the exponent, which is the same as what you started with. 1.722 x 106Part III: Multiplying and Dividing Numbers in Scientific NotationTo multiply exponents, multiply the coefficients just as you would regular decimals. Then add the exponents to each other. The exponents DO NOT have to be the same.Example: 1.35 x 106 X 3.72 x 105 = ? Step 1: Multiply the coefficients. 1.35x 3.72 270 9450 40500 50220 5.022 Step 2: Add the exponents.5 + 6 = 11 Step 3: Write your final answer.5.022 x 1011To divide exponents, divide the coefficients just as you would regular decimals, then subtract the exponents. In some cases, you may end up with a negative exponent.Example: 5.635 x 103 / 2.45 x 106 = ? Step 1: Divide the coefficients.5.635 / 3.45 = 2.3 Step 2: Subtract the exponents.3 – 6 = -3 Step 3: Write your final answer.2.3 x 10-3Dimensional AnalysisIntroductionDimensional analysis is a way to convert a quantity given in one unit to an equal quantity of another unit by lining up all the known values and multiplying. It is sometimes called factor-labeling. The best way to start a factor-labeling problem is by using what you already know. In some cases you may use more steps than a classmate to find the same answer, but it doesn’t matter. Use what you know, even if the problem goes all the way across the page! In a dimensional analysis problem, start with your given value and unit and then work toward your desired unit by writing equal values side by side. Remember you want to cancel each of the intermediate units. To cancel a unit on the top part of the problem, you have to get the unit on the bottom. Likewise, to cancel a unit that appears on the bottom part of the problem, you have to write it in on the top.Once you have the problem written out, multiply across the top and bottom and then divide the top by the bottom.Example: 3 years = ? seconds Step 1: Start with the value and unit you are given. There may or may not be a number on the bottom.29317957556500346011575565003 years Step 2: Start writing in all the values you know, making sure you can cancel top and bottom. Since you -8305801143000 have years on top right now, you need to put years on the bottom in the next segment. Keep going, canceling units as you go, until you end up with the unit you want (in this case seconds) on the top.66484516192500893445161925001831975133350041414701333500287020013335003 years 365 days 24 hours 60 minutes 60 seconds53035201143000401764511430002960370114300018319751143000 1 year 1 day 1 hour 1 minute Step 3: Multiply all the values across the top. Write in scientific notation if it’s a large number. Write units on your answer.3 x 365 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 9.46 x 107 secondsStep 4: Multiply all the values across the bottom. Write in scientific notation if it’s a large number. Write units on your answer if there are any. In this case everything was cancelled so there are no units.1 x 1 x 1 x 1 = 1 Step 5: Divide the top number by the bottom number. Remember to include units.9.46 x 107 seconds / 1 = 9.46 x 107 secondsStep 6: Review your answer to see if it makes sense. 9.46 x 107 is a really big number. Does it make sense for there to be a lot of seconds in three years? YES! If you had gotten a tiny number, then you would need to go back and check for mistakes.In lots of APES problems, you will need to convert both the top and bottom unit. Don’t panic! Just convert the top one first and then the bottom.Example: 50 miles per hour = ? feet per second Step 1: Start with the value and units you are given. In this case there is a unit on top and on bottom.281368599060003550920990600050 miles1 hour Step 2: Convert miles to feet first.11220450003707765226060002622550000 50 miles 5280 feet1 hour 1 mile Step 3: Continue the problem by converting hours to seconds.36512502540004888865254000136969525400050 miles 5280 feet 1 hour 1 minute142240063500365125063500244157563500 1 hour 1 mile 60 minutes 60 seconds Step 4: Multiply across the top and bottom. Divide the top by the bottom. Be sure to include units on each step. Use scientific notation for large numbers.50 x 5280 feet x 1 x 1 = 264000 feet1 x 1 x 60 x 60 seconds = 3600 seconds264000 feet / 3600 seconds = 73.33 feet/secondPractice: Using the review above, answer each problem showing every step of your work, and indicate the cancellation of all units…No Calculators!!Scientific Notation—All APES students should be able to work comfortably with numbers in scientific notation.Place the following numbers into scientific notation. No Calculators!!1) one billion2) twenty three thousand3) 70 trillion4) three hundred5) 0.000256) 7,310,000Perform the following calculations in scientific notation. No Calculators!!7) five hundred billion times thirty five thousand8) six thousand divided by 300 billion9) 3.4 x 10-2 1.7 x 10-310) 1.0 x 105 2.0 x 103 11) (3.5 x 10-2) x (2.0 x 10-5)12) (1.11 x 10-5) x (6.0 x 109) Metric Conversions—All APES students should be comfortable converting between common metric prefixes. Below are common prefixes, and the number of base units each represents. For example, 1 teraWatt = 109 Watts; 1 millimeter = 10-3 metersn = nano = 10-9? = micro = 10-6m = milli = 10-3k = kilo = 103M = mega= 106T = Tera = 109G = Giga = 101213) 2.8 mm = ____________ m 14) 1.3 nm = ____________ ?m15) 300 mg = ____________g16) 12 ?g = ____________ng17) 250 mL = ____________ L18) 400 GW = ____________W19) 5 x 104 kg= ____________MgUnit conversions—All APES students should be able to convert from one system of units to another.Use the information below to complete the following. Show all of your work including the canceling of all units. No Calculators!!1 mi2 = 640 acres1 acre = 0.405 hectares1 barrel oil = 42 gallons1 L = 0.264 gallons1 kilowatt-hour = 3.4 x 104 BTU= 8.6 x 105 calories1 metric ton (tonne) = 1 x 103 kg20) A 100 square mile area of national forest is how many acres? how many hectares?21) A city that uses ten billion BTUs of energy each month is using how many kilowatt-hours of energy?22) Fifty eight thousand kilograms of solid waste is equivalent to how many metric tons?23). If one barrel of crude oil provides six million BTUs of energy, how many BTUs of energy will one liter of crude oil provide? How many calories of energy will one gallon of crude oil provide?24) For crude oil, if 150 pounds of CO2 is released per million BTUs of energy, how much CO2 is produced by each barrel of crude oil? (use information from the previous problem)Percentages—All APES students should be able to work comfortably with percentages. 25) Calculate the percentage growth rate for a country with a population of 6 million in a year in which it had 100,000 births, 70,000 deaths, 30,000 immigrants, and 50,000 emigrants.26) If the concentration of mercury in a water supply changes from 65 parts per million (ppm) to 7 ppm in a ten-year period, what is the percentage change of the mercury concentration? How much per year?27) A natural gas power plant is 60% efficient. If one cubic meter of natural gas provides 1000 BTUs of electricity. How many BTUs of waste heat were produced?28) If 35% of a natural area is to be developed, leaving 500 acres untouched, how many acres are to be developed?29) How many gallons are in 15 L of gasoline? What would that cost in 1987, when gas was $0.89/gal? In 2012, when gas is $3.60/gal?30) What is the percent change in gasoline prices from 1987 to now?Data Presentation--All APES students must be comfortable constructing tables, graphs and charts.Tables: Tables should be used to present results that have relatively few data points. Tables are also useful to display several dependent variables at the same time. There is a title on top that describes the contents of the table, including experimental conditions. Column or Row headers include units of measure.Graphs: Numerical results of an experiment are often presented in a graph rather than a table. A graph is literally a picture of the results, and trends in the data can be more easily interpreted. Generally, the independent variable is on the x-axis (horizontally) and the dependent variable is graphed on the y-axis (vertically). The effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable can then be determined.When drawing a graph use a straight-edge or ruler, and preferably graph paper to plot points accurately. Label each axis with the name of the variable and the units it is measured. The title is descriptive of the experiment or the data shown. The intervals labeled on each axis should be appropriate for the range of the data, and must be evenly spaced. Line graphs are used to represent continuous data, those that have an unlimited number of values between data points. Data are plotted as separate points on the axes, and the points are connected together. Examples include growth over time, amounts of chemical used or changes in concentrations.Bar graphs are used to represent discrete variables, those that have a limited number of possible values. These can include things like specific locations, species of plant or animal, or types of growing conditions.Pie Charts are used when all of the parts are percentages of the whole, equaling 100%. Examples include all the types of fuels used globally, or the uses for land in the US.Use the temperature and precipitation data provided in Table 1 to complete the following questions.Table 1: Average Monthly High Temperature and Precipitation in Four Cities(T = Temperature in oC; P = Precipitation in cm)JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecFairbanks, AlaskaT-19-12-5615222219122-11-17P2.31.31.80.81.53.34.55.33.32.01.81.5San Francisco, CaliforniaT131516171719181821201714P11.99.77.93.81.80.3000.82.56.411.2San Salvador, El SalvadorT323334343331323231313132P0.80.51.04.319.632.829.229.730.724.14.11.0Indianapolis, IndianaT24916222830292518104P7.66.910.29.19.910.29.9848.17.18.47.631) Compare monthly temperatures in Fairbanks with temperatures in San Salvador.Can data for both cities be plotted on the same graph?What will go on the x-axis?How should the x-axis be labeled?What should go on the y-axis?What is the range of values for the y-axis?How should the y-axis be labeled?What type of graph should be used?32) Compare the average September temperature for the four cities in the table.Can data for all four cities be plotted on the same graph?What will go on the x-axis?How should the x-axis be labeled?What should go on the y-axis?What is the range of values on the y-axis?How should the y-axis be labeled?What type of graph should be used?33) Using graph paper, graph the temperature and precipitation data for San Francisco.Can both sets of data be plotted on the same graph?What will go on the x-axis?How should the x-axis be labeled?What should go on the y-axis?What is the range of values on the temperature axis?How should this axis be labeled?What is the range of values on the precipitation axis?How should this axis be labeled?What type of graph should be used?Interpreting Data--APES students must be able to read and interpret the information presented in a variety of ways, including graphs and tables.Once you understand how graphs are constructed, it is easier to get information from the graphs in your textbook as well as to interpret the results you obtain from experiments. Use the information presented in the graphs to answer the questions that follow them.788670762000034) a. Describe what the graph shows. (Describing means to look at the overall picture presented or trend in the data. What’s happening? Interpret the graph; don’t just repeat the title.)What was the world’s population in 1900? 2010?Assuming that the population trend continues, predict the world population in 2025. Do you think this is likely to occur? Defend your answer.center00035) a. Describe what the graph shows.b. At what latitude does the least variation occur?c. Miami is at approximately 26o N latitude. From the information on the graph, what is the range in mean monthly temperature there?d. Moorestown is at approximately 40o N latitude. From the information on the graph, what is the range in mean monthly temperature there?e. Sydney, Australia is at approximately 33o S latitude (-33o on the graph). From the information on the graph, what is the range in mean monthly temperature there?f. Which hemisphere, the northern or the southern, has the greatest range in monthly temperatures? Why does this occur? 37509450Part B: Plate Tectonics Web QuestObjectives:-to learn about types of Plate Boundaries-to learn about Plate Boundary Interactions-to familiarize yourself with the Plate Tectonic Map of the World-to understand and familiarize yourself with past Plate Movement and the supercontinent Pangea-to understand the Hot Spots of Hawaii and YellowstonePart 1. Types of Plate BoundariesThere are 3 types of plate boundaries and a fourth called a “plate boundary zone” in which the type of plate boundary is not clearly defined. Go to the website: learn about the three types of plate boundaries and answer the questions below.1. What are the three types of plate boundaries?2. What directions do the plates move relative to one another in a divergent plate boundary?3. What is a spreading center and what is made at one?4. Name one spreading center (or divergent plate boundary).5. What are the three types of convergent plate boundaries?6. What two kinds of crust are involved in a subduction zone?7. What type of convergent boundary is the Himalaya Mountains formed by?8. What happens along a transform plate boundary?9. Name a famous transform fault in western North America.10. Which plates are sliding past each other along the San Andreas Fault?Part 2. Plate Boundary InteractionsNow go to the website: and click on “Go directly to Plate Tectonics Activity”11. Drag each of the arrows in the activity to see the plate interactions. List from left to right each type of plate boundary shown in the activity.Now, go to and scroll down to the “Seafloor Spreading” picture and click on the picture. Wait a few seconds for it to load, and there should be a movie.12. What is happening to the plates at the red line in the center of the screen?13. What is the red line?Now, go to and click on the picture labeled “Subduction”. Wait for it to load, and there should be another movie.14. What two kinds of convergence are shown in the movie?Part 3. Plate Tectonic MapsNow open . How does the plate boundary along the west coast of the United States change over time?Now go to for the movie to download. This is a movie showing how the plates looked around 150 million years ago, when all the continents were together forming the “supercontinent” Pangea, and how the plates moved through time to their present configuration.18. What continents did North America used to be attached to during Pangea time?Part 4. Earthquakes, Volcanoes and Mountain RangesGo to the following website: . Click on the “Latest Earthquake” link and zoom to world. 19. Where do most of the earthquakes occur?Go to the following website: 20. Where do most volcanoes occur? (Hint: you may need to look at a plate boundary map) 21. What type of plate boundary do most volcanoes occur along? 22. Are there any mountain ranges associated with the locations of earthquakes and volcanoes? If so, list 2 examples. 23. How is the theory of plate tectonics supported by the presence of these events? Part 5. Hot SpotsNow, go to the website: to read and learn about hot spots.24. What are hotspots and how did they form the Hawaiian Islands?25. How can hotspots be used to predict plate movement?26. Where are some other hotspots located?Part C. “Considering the Evidence for Mass Extinctions”Adapted from hhmiIntroduction:At least five times in Earth’s past, the vast majority of plant and animal species have been annihilated in a geologic instant. What triggered these dramatic events, and what might they tell us about the fat of our world? What do we know about Earth’s past history, and what does science tell us about the coevolution of Earth’s systems and life?DirectionsLaunch the EarthViewer app: . Click, hold, and drag to rotate the planet.2. Click, hold, and drag down the horizontal silver slider on the timeline; watch what happens to the planet and the data indicators as you move backward and forward in time.3. Position the silver timeline slider at 0 MYA (top of the timeline). Click on the left ‘play’ button at the bottom of the timeline; watch what happens. When the silver bar stops at the bottom, click on the right “play” button and watch again.4. Position the silver timeline slider at 0 MYA. Click on “Charts” at the bottom of the screen. Choose a chart. Now click on the left “play” button at the bottom of the timeline. Watch what happens on your chosen chart as the slider moves down the timeline. 5. Click “pause” before the slider reaches the bottom of the timeline. Note that your chosen chart will show a demarcation in the data for that point in time.6. Close your chart in EarthViewer by clicking on the “X” in the upper right-hand corner.7. Record all your answers on the data sheet provided.Part 1: Geologic Time1. In the lower left corner, click on the “Ancient Earth” tab.2. Click on “Archean” Eon and fill in the information on the chart. Repeat for the “Proterozoic” Eon.3. Move the slider up and down and note changes in the earth’s crust.4. Click on the “Paleo” Earth tab and then click on Phanerozoic” Eon. Fill in the information on your data table. Complete for all Era’s and Periods in this Eon.Part 2: Mass Extinctions1. Make sure the timeline displays 0 – 540 million years and then click on “View” at the bottom of the screen; turn on “Mass Extinctions.” Click “View” again to minimize the menu.2. Note the five yellow triangles that appear on the right side of the timeline. These correspond to mass extinctions.3. Gather data: Drag the slider to the Ordovician extinction, 440 MYA. Use the EarthViewer features to fill in the following chart. For Biodiversity, you will need to move the slider carefully and record the number of marine genera present just before and just after the extinction event. Gather data in the same manner for the remaining four mass extinctions. Fill in your data table.4. Answer questions a. and b. 5. Return to EarthViewer. Move the slider down to “Cretaceous extinction” and click on the link. Read the information about this extinction (formally known as the Cretaceous-Paleogene or sometimes the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction)6. The information tells you that “overwhelming evidence suggests that the extinction was caused by a 10-km diameter asteroid that struck Earth. Answer letter c: Suggest at least 3 lines of evidence that might have led scientists to this conclusion.7. Return to EarthViewer. Move the slider down to “Permian extinction” and click on the link. Read the information about this extinction (formally known as the Permian-Triassic extinction).8. The information tells you that “it is thought that massive eruptions of Siberian volcanoes caused catastrophic global warming, ocean acidification, and widespread lack of oxygen in the oceans. Answer letter d: “Predict what kinds of evidence might have led scientists to this conclusion. What kind of evidence would suggest the existence of volcanoes? What kinds of evidence might suggest global warming, ocean acidification, or lack of oxygen in the oceans?9. Click on ‘Ancient Earth’ tab and the go to “View” and uncheck mass extinctions and check “geologic events”. Scroll down to each of the following and explain the environmental impact of the event, include date of the event for e - h:10. Go to “View” and uncheck geologic events and then check “impact events”. Find the Chesapeake impact event. Answer i. -71610-236863“Considering the Evidience for Mass Extinctions” Data SheetPart 1: Click on Ancient Earth tab, click on each heading for information, slide the bar to get oxygen, carbon dioxide and day length data or, click on the “chart” tab (use this to get temperature data)EonEras includedMYA begin-ning to endbrief description of EonAve. surface temp inoC% O2CO2 (ppm)Length of DayAncient EarthArcheanProterozoicPaleo EarthEon with brief descriptionEra with brief descriptionPeriod with brief descriptionMYAAve. Surface temp. in oC%O2CO2 (ppm)Length of DayPhanerozoic:Paleozoic:Cambrian:Ordovician:Devonian:Carboniferous:Permian:Mesozoic:Triassic:Jurassic:Cretaceous:Part 2: Mass Extinctions: follow the direction on the directions sheetMass ExtinctionMYAWhat was Earth’s surface like? Landmasses? Proportion of land to water? What happened?Average Surface Temp.oCO2 (%)CO2 (ppm)Day LengthBiodiversity% genera loss,# species lossOrdovicianDevonianPermianTriassicCretaceousPresentAnswer:a. Do any patterns and correlations emerge from your chart? Does any of the data suggest an explanation for the occurrence of mass extinctions?b. Predict what kinds of evidence might have led scientists to this conclusion. What kind of evidence would suggest the existence of volcanoes? What kinds of evidence might suggest global warming, ocean acidification, or lack of oxygen in the oceans?Geologic Events: describe when the event occurred and its significancec. Oxygen increased. Rodiniae. Great oxygenationf. liquid waterg. Chesapeake Impact Event: date, diameter of crater, significance of impact: ................

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