First Semester Exam Review - Marcus Reid

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Texas History

First Semester Exam Review

GEOGRAPHY

1. Identify what a person’s culture includes (Culture Keys)

Culture, skills, ideas, beliefs, clothing, housing, food

2. Identify the five themes of Geography and what they mean.

Location (absolute-exact, and relative- compared to another location) , place- (human and physical characteristics of a spot), movement- the actual movement of people or ideas) region (grouping together because of similar characteristics), interaction (adapting to or changing the environment)

3. Identify the four Geographical Regions of Texas.

Coastal Plains, North Central Plains, Great Plains, Mountains and Basins

4. Identify landmarks, cities, and climate from each region.

Galveston, Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Laredo and Beaumont are in the Coastal Plains. Llano Estacado and Palo Duro Canyon are in the Great Plains. El Paso is the Mountains and Basins.

NATURAL TEXAS & IT’S PEOPLE

1. Identify the four categories of Native Americans tribes that originated in Texas.

Western Gulf, Southeastern Plains, Plains and Pueblo Indians

2. Identify the Native Texan tribes from each region / category.

Pueblo – Jumano, Concho and Tiguas

Plains – Comanche, Apache, Kiowas and Tonkowas

Southeastern – Caddo, Atakapans, Wichita

Western Gulf – Karankawas, Coahuitecans

3. Identify the housing for each Native Texan tribe.

Pueblo – adobe

Plains – tipis

Southeastern – tipis, wickiups and large cone shaped huts

Western Gulf - wickiups

4. Know the process by which the land bridge was formed and people entered North America.

The ice age caused glaciers and ice, which caused the water level to fall, allowing an actual bridge made of land allowing people to walk from Asia to North America.

5. Be familiar with the legacy each group of Native Americans left behind.

Pueblo – pottery and oldest living group of Native Americans still living in Texas

Plains – great horseman, skillful warriors, pottery

Southeastern – pottery, the Confederacy, the naming of Texas

Western Gulf – Cabeza de Vaca’s book The Relacion

5. Identify the three periods of prehistory in Texas and their characteristics.

Paleolithic Era – high plains region, hand held spears, hunted the mammoth, nomadic people, end of the Ice Age

Archaic Era – plains region, atlatl, knives, awls, hunted buffalo, hunter-gatherer

Late Prehistoric Era – all of Texas, Bow and arrows, pottery, hunted buffalo, deer and farmed, hunter-gatherer and early farmers

EUROPEAN EXPLORATION

1. Explain why Spanish explorers were first sent to explore Texas. Gold, Glory, and God

2. Explain the goals and actual results of the following explorers:

Cortes- Goal: to find gold. He conquered the Aztecs and took their gold.

Pineda- Goal: to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean. He provided a detailed map of the Texas coast

Narvaez- Goal: To conquer land north of Mexico. He was killed by hostile Indians.

Cabeza de Vaca – Goal: To survive. He was a survivor of the Narvaes expedition, he traveled throughout

Texas as a trader, shaman, and slave. He returned to Spain and wrote a book about his journey.

Coronado – Goal: to find gold. He searched for Cibola, found nothing and reported that Spain quit

exploring Texas.

Moscoso – Goal: To find gold. He came across the Caddo Indians, and found petroleum.

La Salle – Goal: find the mouth of the Mississippi River. He was the only French explorer to land in Texas.

He built Fort St. Louis and increased Spain’s interest in Texas.

3. Explain what advantages Spaniards had over Native Texans in battle. Better weapons, armor and horses.

SPANISH SETTLEMENT

1. Identify the type of work Native Texans did on missions.

Farming, ranching, making soap and bricks, they learned how to sew and work with iron (blacksmith)

2. Explain why Native Texans came to missions. Protection, food, shelter and gifts

3. Identify the purpose of the mission-presidio system in Texas. To convert Native American to Christianity

4. Explain why Spain started the Mission-Presidio system. To show they controlled Texas

5. Explain the purpose of constructing the Presidio, San Antonio de Béxar It was a halfway point between east

Texas and New Spain

6. Explain the problems that presidios faced. Indian raids, unfair wages for soldiers, conflict between soldiers and friars about how to treat Native Americans

7. Explain the contributions (legacies) that missions and Spain made to Texas Spanish names for towns and rivers, cattle ranching, branding, fiestas, rodeos, food, clothing, architecture and religion

ANGLO SETTLEMENT

1. List the empresarios who came to Texas to settle land. Stephen F. Austin, Moses Austin, Green DeWitt, Haden Edwards, Martin de Leon

2. Explain which empresarios were successful and those who were not.

Successful: Stephen F. Austin, Martin de Leon, Green DeWitt Unsuccessful: Haden Edwards

3. Explain the men who began the Empresario system. Moses and Stephen F. Austin father died of pneumonia and asked his son to carry out his dying wish to bring Anglos to Texas.

4. Explain how and why Moses Austin got his land grant from Spain. Baron de Bastrop helped him with the people he knew in the Spanish government.

5. List the three occupations that Moses Austin had before he became an empresario. Dry-goods store owner, lead miner, and a banker

6. Explain what the Neutral Ground Agreement tried to accomplish and how the United States and New Spain become neighbors. This tried to settle the land dispute between the U.S. and New Spain. The Louisiana Purchase allowed these countries to become neighbors

7. Identify the names of the filibusters. Nolan, Magee, Kemper, Gutierrez, Long,

8. Identify the names of ranks of society in Mexico.

Peninsulares – High class

Criollos - Middle Class

Mestizos – Low Class

9. Explain the problems Stephen F. Austin (SFA) faced when forming his colony, as well as the nickname for his original settlers.

The first problem was that his original permission came from Spain. He then had to travel to Mexico City to obtain permission. While gone, drought and Indian attacks were problems the colony faced. His colony was the “Old 300”

COLONIZATION

1. Explain the importance of the Law of April 6, 1830 and what it said. It outlawed immigration; it canceled empresario contracts, and placed a tax on goods from the United States. It was Mexico’s attempt to tighten their control over the Anglos in TX.

2. List the recommendations made by Meir Y Teran after his tour of Texas. He wanted to send more Mexican troops to Texas, Send more Mexican and European settlers and increase trade between Mexico and Texas

3. Explain why Mier Y Teran toured Texas. He was to write a report about what he saw in Texas

4. List and explain the differences in culture between Mexico and the Texans settlers from the United States.

Mexican settlers had to be Catholic and did not have power in government. The U.S. settlers had freedom of religion and a voice in government

5. Be able to explain each and tell significance of the following events:

Turtle Bayou Resolution- state the cause of the revolt in which Texans supported the Constitution of 1824, but not the action of Juan Davis Bradburn

Anahuac – Juan Davis Bradburn threw Patrick Jack and William Travis in jail

Velasco – John Austin is order to stop along the Brazos River while transporting cannons, a fight broke out

Convention of 1832– met at San Felipe de Austin to discuss problems. The requests were not heard because the meeting was held illegally.

Convention of 1833 Austin thrown in prison for writing a letter to the Texans instructing them to start a government without the permission of Mexico and Santa Anna seizes the government, he switched from a federalist to a centralist (dictator)

Know the following vocabulary terms and there importance

|agriculture |title |

|climate |absolute location |

|region |escarpment |

|empresario |human geography |

|militia |latitude |

|partnership |longitude |

|sitio |physical geography |

|speculator |relative location |

|conquistador |petroleum |

|shamans |viceroy |

|tribute |mutiny |

|friar | |

|indigenous | |

Skills to Know

Primary sources Secondary sources

Reading a chart Reading a graph

Reading a time line Reading a map

Summarizing Cause / Effect

Compare / Contrast

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