Consumer Behavior, 10e (Schiffman/Kanuk)

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Consumer Behavior, 10e (Schiffman/Kanuk)

Chapter 8 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change

1) In a consumer behavior context, ________ are learned predispositions to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way with respect to a given object.

A) attitudes

B) beliefs

C) values

D) feelings

E) intentions

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

2) John is conducting research on American attitudes toward European car brands, particularly Volkswagen, Volvo, Mercedes, and BMW. This research is said to be ________.

A) experientially directive

B) attitude-changing

C) object specific

D) attributional

E) cognitive

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 228

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

3) Attitudes might propel consumers toward a particular behavior or repel them away from a particular behavior, therefore attitudes have a ________ quality.

A) behavioral

B) motivational

C) threatening

D) driving

E) defensive

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 229

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

4) Which of the following is true of attitudes and their relationship with behavior?

A) Attitudes are permanent, but the behaviors they reflect change over time.

B) Consumers always demonstrate consistency between their attitudes and their behaviors.

C) There is no demonstrable link between attitudes and behavior.

D) When consumers are free to act as they wish, we anticipate that their actions will be consistent with their attitudes.

E) Attitude change is always followed by behavior change.

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 229

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

5) According to the ________, attitudes consist of three major components: a cognitive component, an effective component, and a conative component.

A) dual mediation model

B) tricomponent attitude model

C) self-perception theory

D) multiattribute attitude model

E) functional approach

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 231

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

6) ________ include the knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from varied sources.

A) Affectations

B) Emotions

C) Cognitions

D) Objectives

E) Conations

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 231

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

7) The ________ component of the tricomponent attitude model includes a consumer's emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand.

A) conative

B) objective

C) cognitive

D) affective

E) situational

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

8) Roy is looking to buy a new HDTV set. He knows from friends that LCD set screens reflect less light than plasma set screens, but that LCD sets are also more subject to blurring than plasma sets. This is an example of the ________ component of his attitude toward HDTVs.

A) conative

B) objective

C) cognitive

D) affective

E) situational

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 232

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

9) Paula is a regular at Gino's Italian Bistro. She likes going there because the staff always recognizes her, greets her by name, and makes her feel welcome at the restaurant. This is an example of the ________ component of her attitude toward Gino's.

A) cognitive

B) conative

C) situational

D) perspective

E) affective

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 232

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

10) ________ is concerned with the likelihood or tendency than an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object.

A) Cognition

B) Affectation

C) Situation

D) Perspective

E) Conation

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 233

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

11) In marketing and consumer research, the conative component of the tricomponent attitude model is frequently treated as an expression of the consumer's ________.

A) attitude

B) level of familiarity

C) intention to buy

D) attitude toward the object

E) ego-defensive function

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 233

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

12) ________ assess(es) the likelihood of a consumer purchasing a product or behaving in a certain way.

A) Cognitive dissonance theory

B) Buyer intention scales

C) Attitude-change strategies

D) Emotionally charged states

E) Self-perception theory

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 233

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

13) ________ portray consumers' attitudes with regard to an attitude object as a function of consumers' perceptions and assessment of the key attributes or beliefs of that object.

A) Multiattribute attitude models

B) Functional models

C) Dual mediation models

D) Cognitive dissonance theories

E) Tricomponent attitude models

Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 233

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

14) Attitude-toward-object, attitude-toward-behavior, and theory-of-reasoned-action models are examples of ________.

A) tricomponent attitude models

B) buyer intention scales

C) attitude-change strategies

D) self-perception theories

E) multiattribute attitude models

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 233

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

15) According to the attitude-toward-object model, the consumer's attitude toward a product is a function of ________.

A) price

B) communication messages the consumer receives

C) the presence or absence of certain product-specific beliefs or attitudes

D) the consumer's intention to behave in a certain way

E) consumers' subjective norms

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 233

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

16) Microsoft wants to measure public attitudes toward the default media-playing software included in its Windows operating system. Which of the following types of multiattribute attitude models would be most appropriate for Microsoft to use?

A) theory-of-reasoned-action model

B) trying-to-consume model

C) attitude-toward-object model

D) attitude-toward-behavior model

E) attitude-toward-the-ad model

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 234

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

17) The ________ model is designed to capture the individual's attitude toward acting with respect to an object rather than the attitude toward the object itself.

A) theory-of-reasoned-action model

B) trying-to-consume model

C) attitude-toward-object model

D) attitude-toward-behavior model

E) attitude-toward-the-ad model

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 235

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

18) Jake feels that shopping in thrift shops shows a lack of class and sophistication. This attitude would be captured by which of the following multiattribute attitude models?

A) theory-of-reasoned-action model

B) trying-to-consume model

C) attitude-toward-object model

D) attitude-toward-behavior model

E) attitude-toward-the-ad model

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 235

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

19) According to the ________, to understand consumers' intentions we also need to measure the subjective norms that influence an individual's intention to act.

A) theory-of-reasoned-action model

B) trying-to-consume model

C) attitude-toward-object model

D) attitude-toward-behavior model

E) attitude-toward-the-ad model

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 235

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

20) ________ involve both the beliefs that the consumer attributes to relevant others, such as friends and parents, and the consumer's motivation to comply with the beliefs held by those relevant others.

A) Niche markets

B) Subjective norms

C) Direct experiences

D) External attributions

E) Foot-in-the-door techniques

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 235

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

21) If an undergraduate student was considering getting a tattoo and stopped to ask herself what her parents would think of such behavior, such a reflection would constitute her ________.

A) internal attribution

B) subjective norm

C) direct experience

D) external attribution

E) niche

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 236

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

22) Which of the following are considered to be underlying factors that are likely to produce a subjective norm?

A) conative predispositions and cognitions

B) normative beliefs and motivation to comply with relevant others

C) affective predispositions toward the behavior and motivation to comply with others

D) intrinsic and extrinsic attributions

E) intention and normative beliefs

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 236

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

23) An extension of the theory-of-reasoned-action model is the ________, which includes an ads the construct of perceived behavioral control, which is a consumer's perception of whether the behavior is or is not within his or her control.

A) trying-to-consume model

B) theory of planned behavior

C) attitude-toward-object model

D) attitude-toward-behavior model

E) attitude-toward-the-ad model

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 236

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

24) The ________ is designed to account for cases in which the action or outcome is desired but not certain, and reflects the consumer's attempts to consume, whether or not they are successful.

A) theory-of-reasoned-action model

B) trying-to-consume model

C) attitude-toward-object model

D) attitude-toward-behavior model

E) attitude-toward-the-ad model

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 237

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

25) In the theory of trying to consume, the consumer's attempts to consume may be a result of ________ or ________ impediments that prevent the desired action or outcome.

A) personal; social

B) personal; environmental

C) social; environmental

D) physical; economic

E) economic; environmental

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 237

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

26) According to the attitude-toward-the-ad model, the consumer forms various feelings and judgments as a result of exposure to an ad. If the consumer likes the ad, ________.

A) he is more likely to buy the product

B) he is less likely to buy the product

C) he is less likely to encounter environmental impediments to consumption

D) his like or dislike has no relevance to their likelihood of purchasing the product

E) he is more likely to attribute satisfaction with the product internally

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 237

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

27) The shift from no attitude to an attitude is a result of ________.

A) biological pressures

B) environment

C) learning

D) genetic predisposition

E) self defense

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 239

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

28) The primary means by which attitudes toward goods and services are formed is through ________.

A) vicarious learning

B) environment

C) direct experience

D) genetic predisposition

E) self defense

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

29) Marketers that offer coupons and free samples of new products to entice consumers to try them understand the importance of ________ in attitude formation.

A) subjective norms

B) indirect experience

C) ego defense

D) attribution

E) direct experience

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 240

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

30) Niche marketing is also sometimes called ________.

A) attitude research

B) attribution

C) value expression

D) micromarketing

E) dual mediation

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

31) Direct marketing efforts have an excellent chance of favorably influencing target consumer's attitudes because ________.

A) direct marketing is favorably looked upon

B) the mass scale of direct marketing makes it a dominant player

C) the products and services offered are highly targeted to the individuals' needs and concerns

D) Internet advertising is too cluttered

E) direct marketing is more likely to result in external attribution of positive experiences with the product to the product itself

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 240

AACSB: Communication

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

32) Attitudes that develop through ________ tend to be more confidently held, more enduring, and more resistant to attack than those developed via ________.

A) direct experience; indirect experience

B) internal attribution; external attribution

C) utilitarian function; knowledge function

D) cognition; emotions

E) direct marketing; niche marketing

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 240

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

33) Consumers who have a high need for cognition are likely to ________.

A) form positive attitudes in response to ads that feature an attractive model or a celebrity

B) form a positive attitude in response to ads or direct mail that are rich in product-related information

C) form negative attitudes towards ads that are rich in product information

D) feel neutral towards ads that feature attractive models or product information

E) feel neutral toward ads that are rich in product-related information

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 241

AACSB: Communication

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

34) Which of the following types of companies is most likely to go after an attitude change market strategy?

A) the industry leader

B) a major competitor of the leader

C) a small start-up business

D) a large firm in a small industry

E) a company with significant consumer goodwill

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 242

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

35) Ben has a positive attitude toward Nova Hiking Gear because a pair of Nova hiking boots he owns have proven to be very durable and to provide good support during long hikes. Ben has formed this attitude based on the boots' ________.

A) ego-defensive function

B) utilitarian function

C) value-expressive function

D) knowledge function

E) intention function

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

36) With its slogan "Because self-confidence is priceless," Iron Band Deodorant is trying attract customers by emphasizing the brand's ________.

A) ego-defensive function

B) utilitarian function

C) value-expressive function

D) knowledge function

E) intention function

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242

AACSB: Communication

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

37) Ads for cosmetics and personal care products acknowledge the fact that people want to protect their self-images from inner feelings of doubt. This is consistent with which basic motivational functions?

A) the ego-defensive function

B) the knowledge function

C) the utilitarian function

D) the value-expressive function

E) the intention function

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

38) If a consumer segment generally holds a positive attitude toward owning the latest designer jeans, then that segment's attitude toward new brands of designer jeans are likely to reflect that orientation. This is an example of the ________ of attitude.

A) ego-defensive function

B) utilitarian function

C) value-expressive function

D) knowledge function

E) intention function

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

39) An example of the ________ function of motivation is for Crest to point out how its new toothbrush is superior to all other toothbrushes in controlling gum disease by removing more plaque.

A) ego-defensive

B) knowledge

C) utilitarian

D) value-expressive

E) intention

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242

AACSB: Communication

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

40) Tom is looking to lose weight by cutting carbohydrates out of his diet, particularly from regular sodas, but has a negative attitude towards diet sodas and does not drink them because he believes they do not taste as good. What strategy can a company use to ensure Tom that their diet tastes just like regular?

A) changing the relative evaluation of attributes

B) associating the product with a special group, event or cause

C) changing the basic motivational function

D) changing consumer beliefs about competitor brands

E) changing consumers' subjective norms

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 247

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

41) Which of the following is true of consumer brand beliefs in the context of changing consumer attitudes?

A) Consumers tend to interpret ambiguous information in ways that challenge their preexisting attitudes.

B) Consumers frequently resist evidence that challenges strongly held attitudes or beliefs.

C) The easiest way to change consumer attitudes is to attack long-standing brand beliefs.

D) Consumers generally embrace evidence that challenges strongly held attitudes and beliefs.

E) Brand loyalty is very rare and so it is relatively easy for marketers to change brand beliefs.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 248

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

42) When HP challenges the notion that computers do not have to be difficult to use by stating that their product "is as simple as duh," it is altering a component of the multiattribute model to change attitudes. Which attitude change strategy is it using?

A) changing the relative evaluation of attributes

B) changing brand beliefs

C) adding an attribute

D) changing the overall brand rating

E) changing consumers' subjective norms

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 248

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

43) If Yoplait decides to point out that their yogurt has more potassium than a banana, which strategy of attitude change are they following?

A) changing the relative evaluation of attributes

B) changing brand beliefs

C) adding an attribute

D) changing the overall brand rating

E) changing consumers' subjective norms

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 248

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

44) "The largest selling brand" and "the one all others try to imitate" are claims used by companies trying to change attitudes by using the following strategy:

A) changing the relative evaluation of attributes

B) changing brand beliefs

C) adding an attribute

D) changing the overall brand rating

E) changing consumers' subjective norms

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 248

AACSB: Communication

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

45) When Advil makes a dramatic assertion that it has product superiority over Tylenol by claiming it lasts longer and is gentler, what attitude change strategy is it using?

A) changing the relative evaluation of attributes

B) changing brand beliefs

C) changing beliefs about competitor brands

D) changing the overall brand rating

E) changing consumers' subjective norms

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 249

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

46) The Elaboration Likelihood Model proposes that consumers' attitudes are changed by two distinctly different routes to persuasion: _________ routes and _________ routes.

A) central; logical

B) main; secondary

C) central; peripheral

D) rational; emotional

E) direct; indirect

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 250

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

47) When consumers are willing to exert the effort to comprehend, learn, or evaluate the available information about the attitude object, learning and attitude change occur via the ________ to persuasion.

A) central route

B) celebrity endorsement

C) peripheral route

D) functional approach

E) dual mediation model

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 250

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

48) When a consumer's motivation or assessment skills are low, learning and attitude change tend to occur via the ________ to persuasion.

A) central route

B) tricomponent route

C) functional route

D) primary route

E) peripheral route

Answer: E

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 250

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

49) The ________ acknowledges the possibility that the central route to persuasion can be influenced by a peripheral cue.

A) multiattribute attitude model

B) tricomponent attitude model

C) trying-to-consume model

D) functional approach

E) dual mediation model

Answer: E

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 251

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

50) According to ________, discomfort occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object.

A) attitude-change strategies

B) cognitive dissonance theory

C) attribution theory

D) self-perception theory

E) attitude research

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 252

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

51) Matthew recently purchased a new laptop for $1,500. He subsequently saw an advertisement for what appeared to be a similar model being sold for only $1,350. In order to resolve his ________, Matt decided that the cheaper model must not have as many attractive features as the model he purchased.

A) indirect experience

B) attitude formation

C) subjective norm

D) postpurchase dissonance

E) situational influence

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 253

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

52) In order to reduce ________, consumers can rationalize their purchase decision as being wise, seek out advertisements that support their choice, try to "sell" friends on the positive features of the brand, or look to known satisfied owners for reassurance.

A) postpurchase dissonance

B) emotionally charged states

C) defensive attribution

D) subjective norms

E) attitude formation

Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 253

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

53) ________ attempts to explain how people assign blame or credit to events on the basis of either their own behavior or the behavior of others.

A) Self-perception theory

B) Cognitive dissonance theory

C) Attribution theory

D) Buyer intention theory

E) Attitude theory

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 254

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

54) ________ suggests that attitudes develop as consumers look at and make judgments about their own behavior.

A) Self-perception theory

B) Cognitive dissonance theory

C) Attribution theory

D) Buyer intention theory

E) Attitude theory

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 254

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

55) If a student observes that she routinely purchases the Des Moines Register on her way to class, she is apt to conclude that she like the Des Moines Register. This is an example of how the ________ helps make inferences about one's behavior.

A) elaboration likelihood model

B) attribution theory

C) self-perception theory

D) defensive attributions theory

E) formation theory

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 253

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

56) When consumers give themselves credit for the outcome of a behavior, they are engaging in ________.

A) subjective attribution

B) internal attribution

C) objective attribution

D) defensive attribution

E) external attribution

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 254

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

57) According to the principle of ________, consumers are likely to accept credit personally for success and to attribute failure to others or to outside events.

A) subjective attribution

B) internal attribution

C) objective attribution

D) defensive attribution

E) external attribution

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 255

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

58) Someone who donates $10 to Amnesty International might be persuaded to donate a much larger amount when properly approached because that person may decide that he or she is the kind of person who makes such charitable donations. This demonstrates the basic premise of the ________.

A) door-in-the-face technique

B) consensus technique

C) foot-in-the-door technique

D) attribution technique

E) dual mediation technique

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 255

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

59) One of the criteria used by consumers to confirm their initial attributions about objects is ________, which means that the reaction (the prior inference) is perceived in the same way by other consumers.

A) distinctiveness

B) consistency over time

C) consistency over modality

D) consensus

E) self-defense

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 256

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

CAR MINI CASE: Carl is looking to buy a new car because he needs more space for driving his kids to and from their after-school activities and for transporting all their gear. His wife has suggested that the family buy a station wagon, but Carl has a negative attitude toward station wagons because he feels that they are "Mom-mobiles" that consign their drivers to a life of car pools and PTA meetings. He then sees an ad for Subaru with a beautiful outdoor setting and attractive young people using a Subaru station wagon. The voice-over discusses the physical attributes of the car and the demographics of its owners. After seeing a Subaru ad portraying its station wagon as a trendy automotive option for exciting young people looking for more cargo room than a sedan and better fuel-efficiency than an SUV, Carl finds himself to be much more enthusiastic about his wife's station wagon suggestion. He purchases a Subaru, but later begins thinking that he probably should have purchased a Volvo for its reputation of greater safety.

60) In the CAR MINI CASE, Carl's initial attitude toward station wagons is best described by which of the following multiattribute attitude models?

A) attitude-toward-behavior model

B) trying-to-consume model

C) theory-of-reasoned-action model

D) attitude-toward-object model

E) attitude-toward-ad model

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 233

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

61) In the CAR MINI CASE, Subaru's method for changing Carl's attitude is an example of ________?

A) changing the relative evaluation of attributes

B) changing brand beliefs

C) adding an attribute

D) changing the overall brand rating

E) changing consumers' subjective norms

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 248

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

62) In the CAR MINI CASE, Subaru's advertising most closely adheres to the ________.

A) elaboration likelihood model

B) trying-to-consume model

C) dual mediation model

D) attitude-toward-the-ad model

E) buyer intention model

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 251

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

63) In the CAR MINI CASE, Carl's reconsideration of brand choice after he buys a Subaru constitutes ________.

A) buying intention

B) niche marketing

C) indirect experience

D) defensive attribution

E) postpurchase dissonance

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 253

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

64) In the CAR MINI CASE, Subaru's portrayal of its station wagon as a car designed for young people who need extra cargo space to accommodate their active lives. This appeals to Carl because that is how he sees himself. In this way, Subaru is appealing to the ________ function to change attitudes toward station wagons.

A) utilitarian

B) knowledge

C) ego-defensive

D) competitive

E) value-expressive

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

COFFEE MINI CASE: Linda is a heavy coffee drinker and a friend recommends that she try Sunrise Coffee, a new coffee house in town, because it sells delicious coffee. Linda replies that she really prefers to drink her coffee in the peace and quiet of her own home. One morning, Linda is running late and doesn't have time to make herself a cup of coffee, so she stops by Sunrise and is greeted by a cheerful staff and a great-tasting coffee, all of which put Linda in a good mood. Upon arriving at work, a co-worker comments on her alert, up-beat attitude that morning. Linda replies that it must be the great weather that day, sunshine after a week of solid rain. The following morning, Linda recalls what a pleasant experience she had at Sunrise and decides to go again.

65) In the COFFEE MINI CASE, Linda's friend has a positive attitude toward Sunrise coffee as a result of which of the following multiattribute attitude models?

A) attitude-toward-behavior model

B) trying-to-consume model

C) attitude-toward-object model

D) attitude-toward-consumer model

E) attitude-toward-the-ad model

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 233

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

66) In the COFFEE MINI CASE, Linda's initial resistance to the idea of trying Sunrise Coffee arises from which of the following multiattribute attitude models?

A) attitude-toward-behavior model

B) trying-to-consume model

C) attitude-toward-object model

D) attitude-toward-consumer model

E) attitude-toward-the-ad model

Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 235

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

67) In the COFFEE MINI CASE, Linda attributes her upbeat attitude and alertness to the change in the weather. This is an example of ________.

A) internal attribution

B) utilitarian attribution

C) conative attribution

D) external attribution

E) defensive attribution

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 254

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

68) In the COFFEE MINI CASE, Linda's new attitude toward, and repeat patronage of Sunrise Coffee is a function of the ________ component of the tricomponent attitude model.

A) utility component

B) affective component

C) defensive component

D) cognitive component

E) conative component

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 232

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

69) In the COFFEE MINI CASE, Linda's attitude toward Sunrise changes as a result of ________.

A) word-of-mouth

B) direct experience

C) a change in her environment

D) advertising

E) cognitive dissonance

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

PUB MINI CASE: Sean and his friends, most of whom are Irish immigrants or have Irish parents, enjoy drinking at The Celtic Knot, a small New York pub that serves many Irish beers, is decorated with genuine Irish paraphernalia, and holds weekly traditional Irish music sessions . Like many of his friends, Sean enjoys the feeling the pub gives him of connection with his Irish heritage. The pub advertises at community centers and churches in predominantly Irish areas of the city. On its posters, underneath a photo of a group of attractive young people in a cozy corner of the pub drinking and laughing together, is the pub's slogan: "Because being Irish is about more than just St. Paddy's Day."

70) In the PUB MINI CASE, ________ is the attitude object.

A) the pub

B) the Irish community

C) the advertising message

D) Sean

E) the price point

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

71) In the PUB MINI CASE, by targeting such a specific market, The Celtic Knot is engaging in ________.

A) attitude research

B) external attribution

C) niche marketing

D) defensive attribution

E) attitude formation

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 240

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

72) In the PUB MINI CASE, by targeting people with strong attachments to their Irish heritage, The Celtic Knot is taking advantage of the ________ function of their target market's attitudes.

A) utilitarian

B) value-expressive

C) knowledge

D) attribution

E) ego-defensive

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 242

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

73) In the PUB MINI CASE, Sean enjoys the feeling the pub gives him of connection with his Irish heritage. This is the ________ of his attitude toward the pub.

A) affective component

B) effective component

C) cognitive component

D) conative component

E) prospective component

Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 232

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

74) In the PUB MINI CASE, Sean feels comfortable perceiving The Celtic Knot as a genuine Irish pub because many of his friends believe the same thing. He is using ________ to affirm his attitude.

A) distinctiveness

B) consistency over modality

C) consistency over time

D) the central route to persuasion

E) consensus

Answer: E

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 256

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

75) In addition to being inferable from what people say or what they do, attitudes are also directly observable.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 228

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

76) Attitudes are learned from direct experience with the product, word-of-mouth information acquired from others, or exposure to mass-media advertising, the internet and various forms of direct marketing.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.1: Understand what attitudes are, how they are learned, as well as their nature and characteristics

77) The affective component of the tricomponent attitude model is treated by consumer researchers as capturing an individual's direct or global assessment of the attitude object.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 232

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

78) Emotionally charged states can enhance or amplify positive or negative experiences and impact later recollections of such experiences and future behavior.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 232

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

79) In marketing and consumer research, the conative component of the tricomponent attitude model is frequently treated as an expression of the consumer's intention to buy.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 233

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

80) Responding positively to an intention to buy question with regard to a brand will increase the likelihood of that consumer purchasing the brand.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 233

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

81) Consumers generally have favorable attitudes toward those brands that they believe have an adequate level of attributes that they evaluate as positive, and they have unfavorable attitudes toward those brands they feel do not have an adequate level of desired attributes or have too many negative or undesired attributes.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 234

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

82) The appeal of the attitude-toward-behavior model is that it allows researchers to understand consumers' subjective norms and the factors that form them.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 235

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

83) Consumers' attitudes toward a particular brand's advertising are independent of their beliefs about the brand and do not influence their attitudes toward the brand itself.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 237

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

84) If consumers like the ad they see, they are more likely to buy the product.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 237

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

85) The purchase and consumption of a product are necessary for the formation of attitudes.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

86) In general, the more information consumers have about a product or service, the more likely they are to form attitudes about it, either positive or negative.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

87) Direct-marketing efforts have an excellent chance of favorably influencing target consumers' attitudes because the products and services offered and the promotional messages conveyed are very carefully designed to address the individual segments' needs and concerns.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 240

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

88) Emotional appeals most effectively influence attitude formation in consumers who have product experience.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 240

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

89) For market leaders that enjoy a significant amount of consumer goodwill and loyalty, the overriding marketing goal is to fortify the existing positive attitudes of consumers so that they will not succumb to competitors' special offers and other inducements designed to win them over.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

90) The knowledge function of the functional approach to attitude change relies on the fact that most people want to protect their self-images from inner feelings of doubt.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

91) Attitudes are an expression or reflection of the consumer's general values, lifestyle, and outlook.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

92) Attitudes toward companies can be altered by communicating the civic and public acts that the companies sponsor and letting the public know about the good they are trying to do, but attitudes toward the company's products can only be altered through the products themselves.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 244

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

93) Consumers frequently resist evidence that challenges a strongly held attitude or belief and tend to interpret any ambiguous information in ways that reinforce their preexisting attitudes.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 248

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

94) Marketers can help consumers relieve their dissonance by including messages in their advertising specifically aimed at reinforcing consumers' decisions by complimenting their wisdom, offering stronger guarantees or warranties, increasing the number and effectiveness of its services, or providing detailed brochures on how to use its products correctly.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 253

AACSB: Communication

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

95) Jill was recently complemented on her piano playing skills. She attributed her skill to the quality and skill of her instructor. This is an example of defensive attribution.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 255

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

96) Individuals who try a brand without any inducements or individuals who buy a brand repeatedly are more likely to consider that they buy the brand because they like it, rather than because it was free or on sale.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 255

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

97) When cognitive dissonance occurs after the purchase it is called postpurchase dissonance.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 253

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

98) If new product users internalize positive experiences with the product, it is more likely that they will repeat the behavior and become a satisfied regular user.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 254

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

99) Bob used PowerPoint to give a presentation to his Consumer Behavior class. The professor was particularly impressed with the clarity of Bob's viewgraphs. Bob attributes his success with the presentation to his skill at using PowerPoint. This is an example of external attribution.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 254

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

100) Discuss the three components of the tricomponent attitude model.

Answer: The first component of the model is the cognitive component–the knowledge and perceptions that are acquired through direct experience with the attitude object. This knowledge takes the form of beliefs about the attitude object.

The second component, the affective component, is the consumer's emotions or feelings about a product or brand. These emotions capture the consumer's global assessment of the attitude object.

The third component is the conative component. It is concerned with the likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 231 - 233

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

101) One of the multiattribute models is the attitude-toward-behavior model. Explain the model and give an example.

Answer: This model tells about the individual's attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object rather than the attitude toward the object itself. For example, Tom's attitude about the act of purchasing a BMW reveals more about the potential act of purchasing than does simply knowing his attitude toward BMWs. Tom may have a positive attitude toward BMWs but a negative attitude toward the act of purchasing one.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 235

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

102) What is the theory of trying to consume? Give an example from your own experience.

Answer: The theory of trying to consume is designed to account for the many cases in which the action or the outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer's attempts to consume.

Here the student can give an example of how a personal or environmental impediment deterred her from the act of consumption.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 237

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

103) To help marketers understand the impact of advertising on consumer attitudes, they use a certain model to help measure attitudes. Talk about this model.

Answer: The model used to measure consumer attitudes towards ads is the attitude toward the ad model. Consumers form various feelings and judgments as the result of an exposure to an ad. These feelings and judgments turn into beliefs about the brand that influences attitudes toward the brand.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 237

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.2: Understand the composition and scope of selected models of attitudes

104) What are the four main influencers of attitudes?

Answer: The primary influencer of consumer attitudes is the consumer's direct experience while trying and evaluating products.

Another major influencer is family and friends and admired individuals. The family provides us with our basic values and beliefs that we refer to as adults.

The third influencer is highly focused direct marketing. These programs target smaller consumer niches with carefully personalized offerings and messages that understand their specific needs and desires.

The final influence on consumer attitudes is mass media. TV, magazines, newspapers and radio expose people to new ideas, products and opinions which provide an important source of information that influences consumer attitudes.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 240

AACSB: Communication

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.3: Understand how experience leads to the initial formation of consumer-related attitudes

105) Differentiate between the marketing objectives of market leaders versus those of competitors and identify five strategies that competitors can pursue to accomplish their objective.

Answer: For marketers who are fortunate enough to be market leaders and to enjoy a significant amount of customer goodwill and loyalty, the overriding goal is to fortify the existing positive attitudes of customers so that they will not succumb to competitors' special offers and other inducements designed to win them over. Most competitors take aim at the market leaders when developing their marketing strategies. Their objective is to change the attitudes of the market leaders' customers and win them over. Among the attitude-change strategies that are available to them are:

a. changing the consumers' basic motivational function

b. associating the product with an admired group or event

c. resolving two conflicting attitudes

d. altering components of the multiattribute model

e. changing consumer beliefs about competitors' brands

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 242

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

106) How can marketers utilize the knowledge function to influence the basic motivational function?

Answer: Individuals have a strong need to know and understand the people and things they encounter. The consumer's need to know is a cognitive need, so marketers need to focus on how they position the product in an attempt to satisfy that need to know and improve the consumer's attitude toward the brand. Marketers need to point out how their product is superior to other products and point out the attributes in comparison with other brands.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

107) How is it possible for marketers to persuade regular cola drinkers to become diet cola drinkers by changing the relative evaluation of attributes?

Answer: Marketers can try to change the relative evaluation of attributes. When a product category is divided according to distinct product features or benefits, in this case, taste and calorie differences, marketers should take the opportunity to persuade consumers to cross over, or prefer the one version of the product, the diet cola, over the other version by bringing out the new features and benefits of that product choice.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 247

AACSB: Communication

Skill: Application

Objective: 8.4: Understand the various ways in which consumers' attitudes are changed

108) What is cognitive dissonance and when does it happen?

Answer: Cognitive dissonance is discomfort that occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object. Usually consumers make purchase decisions and then feel that other brands could have satisfied their needs better. Cognitive dissonance can happen before or after the purchase. When it happens after the purchase takes place, it is known as postpurchase dissonance.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 253

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

109) What is the foot-in-the door technique? Give an example.

Answer: Theorists believe that the foot in the door technique occurs in situations in which consumer compliance with a minor request affects subsequent compliance with a more substantial request. This strategy is based on the premise that individuals look at their prior behavior and conclude that they are the kind of person who says yes to such requests.

An example would be someone who donates five dollars to cancer research might be persuaded to donate a much larger amount when properly approached.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 255

AACSB: Analytic Skills

Skill: Concept

Objective: 8.5: Understand how consumers' attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to attitudes

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