Specifications for Pervious Concrete Pavement

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Section 03010

NOTE TO SPECIFIER:

This Specification is incorporated by reference in the Project Specification using the wording in P3 of the Preface and including information from the Mandatory Requirements, Optional Requirements, and Submittals Checklists following the Specification.

PREFACE

P1. This specification is intended to be used by reference or incorporation in its entirety in the Project Specification. Do not copy individual Parts, Sections, Articles, or Paragraphs into the Project Specification, because taking them out of context may change their meaning.

P2. If Sections or Parts of this specification are copied into the Project Specification or any other document, do not refer to them as a 03010 Specification, because the specification has been altered.

P3. A statement such as the following will serve to make a part of the Project Specification:

“Work on (Project Title) shall conform to all requirements of a 03010 Specification for Pervious Concrete Pavement”.

P4. Each technical Section of this 03010 specification is written in the three-part Section format of the Construction Specifications Institute, as adapted for 03010 requirements. The language is imperative and terse.

P5. The Specification is written to the Contractor. When a provision of this Specification requires action by Contractor, the verb “shall” is used. If Contractor is allowed to exercise an option when limited alternatives are available, the phrasing “either...or...” is used. Statements provided in the Specification as information to Contractor use the verbs “may” or “will.” Informational statements typically identify activities or options that “will be taken” or “may be taken” by Owner or Engineer.

Section 03010

Section 1 — General requirements

1.1 — Scope

1.2 — Definitions

1.3 — Reference organizations

1.4 — Reference standards

1.5 — Submittals

1.6 — Quality assurance

Section 2 — Products

2.1 — Concrete

2.2 — Isolation joint material

2.3 — Forms

Section 3—Execution

3.1 — General

3.2 — Acceptance

3.3 — Protection of in-place concrete

NOTES TO SPECIFIER

Foreword to Specification Checklists

Mandatory Requirements Checklist

Optional Requirements Checklist

Submittals Checklist

SECTION 03010

PERVIOUS CONCRETE

SECTION 1—GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1.1 — Scope

1.1.1 This guide specification covers the construction and placement of pervious concrete pavement.

2. The provisions of this guide specification shall govern unless otherwise specified in the Contract Documents. In case of conflicting requirements, the Contract Documents shall govern.

1.2 — Definitions

1.2.1 These definitions are to assist in interpreting the provisions of this specification.

accepted — accepted by or acceptable to the architect/engineer.

architect/engineer — the architect, engineer, architectural firm, engineering firm, or architectural and engineering firm issuing project drawings and project specifications or administering the work under the contract documents.

cold weather — a period when for more than three successive days the average daily outdoor temperature drops below 40 °F (5 °C). The average daily temperature is the average of the highest and lowest temperature during the period from midnight to midnight. When temperatures above 50 °F (10 °C) occur during more than half of any 24 hour duration, the period shall no longer be regarded as cold weather.

construction joint — a joint constructed from two separate placements where the first has undergone final setting before the next placement.

contraction joint — formed, sawed, or tooled groove in a concrete structure to create a weakened plane and regulate the location of cracking resulting from the dimensional change of different parts of the structure.

Contractor — the person, firm, or corporation with whom the owner enters into an agreement for construction of the work.

contract documents — documents, including project drawings and project specifications, covering the required work.

hot weather — any combination of the following conditions that tend to impair the quality of freshly mixed or hardened concrete by accelerating the rate of moisture loss and rate of cement hydration, or otherwise resulting in detrimental results.

a. high ambient temperature;

b. high concrete temperature;

c. low relative humidity;

d. wind velocity; and

e. solar radiation.

isolation joint — a separation between adjoining parts of a concrete structure, usually a vertical plane, at a designed location such as to interfere least with performance of the structure, yet such as to allow relative movement in three directions and avoid formation of cracks elsewhere in the concrete.

mild exposure condition — absence of exposure to freezing and thawing or to deicing agents.

moderate exposure condition — exposure to a climate where the concrete will not be in a saturated condition when exposed to freezing and will not be exposed to deicing agents or other aggressive chemicals.

Owner — the corporation, association, partnership, individual, or public body or authority with whom the contractor enters into an agreement and for whom the work is accomplished.

panel — an individual concrete slab bordered by joints or

slab edges.

parking lot — an area used to park automobiles, trucks, or both.

pavement (pervious concrete) — a layer of pervious concrete over areas such as roads, sidewalks, canals, playgrounds, and those used for storage or parking.

permitted — permitted by the architect/engineer.

placing contractor — the person, firm, or corporation with whom owner or contractor enters into an agreement for placement of the work.

project drawings — the drawings that, along with the project specifications, addenda, bulletins, and change orders, constitute the descriptive information for constructing the work required or referred to in the contract documents.

project specifications — the written documents that specify requirements for a project in accordance with service parameters and other specific criteria established by the owner.

reference standards — standardized mandatory language documents of a technical society, organization, or association, including the building codes of local or state authorities, which are referenced in the contract documents.

severe exposure condition — exposure to deicing chemicals or other aggressive agents or where the concrete can become saturated by continual contact with moisture or free water before freezing.

sub-base (also called base) — a layer in the pavement system between the sub-grade and the concrete pavement.

sub-grade — the soil prepared and compacted to support the pavement system.

submittal — documents that are required by the contract documents to be turned in to the architect/engineer for action as described in the contract documents.

tolerances — as applied to Section 3.10—plus (+) tolerance increases the amount or dimension to which it applies or raises a level alignment. Minus (–) tolerance decreases the amount or dimension to which it applies or lowers a level alignment. A non-signed tolerance means + or –. Where only one signed tolerance is specified (+ or –), there is no limit in the other direction.

un-reinforced concrete pavement—concrete pavement that does not contain distributed deformed steel reinforcing bars or welded wire fabric.

work — the entire construction of separately identifiable parts that are required to be furnished under the contract documents.

1.3 — Reference Organizations

1.3.1 ACI:

American Concrete Institute

P.O. Box 9094

Farmington Hills, MI 48333-9094

1.3.2 ASTM:

ASTM International

100 Barr Harbor Drive

West Conshohocken, PA 19428

1.3.3 NRMCA

National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

900 Spring Street

Silver Spring, MD 20910

1.4 — Referenced Standards

1.4.1 ACI standards

301 Specifications for Structural Concrete

305.1 Standard Specification for Hot Weather Concreting

306.1 Standard Specification for Cold Weather Concreting

308.1 Standard Specification for Curing Concrete

522.1 Pervious Concrete

1.4.2 ASTM standards

ASTM C 29, Test for Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate

ASTM C 33, Specifications for Concrete Aggregates

ASTM C 42, Test Methods for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete

ASTM C 94, Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete

ASTM C 117, Test Method for Material Finer than 75 µm (No. 200) Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing

ASTM C 138, Test Method for Unit Weight, Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete

ASTM C 140, Methods of Sampling and Testing Concrete Masonry Units

ASTM C 150, Specifications for Portland Cement (Types I or II only)

ASTM C 172, Practice of Sampling Fresh Concrete

ASTM C 260, Specification for Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete

ASTM C 494, Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete

ASTM C 595, Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Cements (Types IP or IS only)

ASTM C 618, Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Portland Cement Concrete

ASTM C 989, Specification for Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete and Mortars

ASTM C 1077, Practice for Laboratories Testing Concrete and Concrete Aggregates for Use in Construction and Criteria for Laboratory Evaluation

ASTM C 1602, Standard Specification for Mixing Water Used in the Production of Hydraulic Cement Concrete

ASTM C 1688 Standard Test Method for Density and Void Content of Freshly Mixed Pervious Concrete

ASTM D 448, Specification for Standard Sizes of Coarse Aggregates for Highway Construction

ASTM D 698, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))

ASTM D 994 Specification for Preformed Expansion Joint Filler for Concrete (Bituminous Type)

ASTM D 1557, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3(2,700 kN-m/m3))

ASTM D1751 Standard Specification for Preformed Expansion Joint Filler for Concrete Paving and Structural Construction (Non-extruding and Resilient Bituminous Types)

ASTM D1752 Standard Specification for Preformed Sponge Rubber Cork and Recycled PVC Expansion Joint Fillers for Concrete Paving and Structural Construction

ASTM D3385 Standard Test Method for Infiltration Rate of Soils in Field Using Double-Ring Infiltrometer

ASTM E 329, Standard Recommended Practice for Inspection and Testing Agencies for Concrete, Steel and Bituminous Materials as Used in Construction

1.5 Submittals

1.5.1 Submit drawings and documentation as required in this specification.

1.5.2 Obtain written acceptance of submittals before using the materials or methods requiring acceptance.

1.5.3 Responsibilities of Contractor

1.5.3.1 Placing contractor — Submit data on qualifications of pervious concrete installer for acceptance in accordance to paragraph 1.6.1.1.

1.5.3.2 Before construction, placing contractor shall:

1.5.3.2.a Furnish a proposed mix design with proportions of materials for acceptance, said design to accommodate at minimum a permeability of 30 gal/hr and a minimum loading of H-20.

1.5.3.2.b Provide in-site pavement test results including void content and unit weight of proposed mix design.

1.5.3.2.c Provide a sample of product (test panels). Place, joint and cure two test panels, each to be a minimum of 225 sq. ft. at the required project thickness to demonstrate to the architect’s satisfaction that in-place unit weights can be achieved and a satisfactory pavement can be installed at the site location.

1.5.3.3 Testing agency—Submit data on qualifications of proposed testing agency for acceptance. Use of testing services will not relieve Contractor of the responsibility to furnish materials and construction in full compliance with the Contract Documents.

1.5.3.4 Pre-Placement Conference – A mandatory pre-placement conference will take place including at a minimum engineer, general contractor, pervious concrete contractor, concrete supplier, and field testing agency. As a guide for the meeting, a copy of the document Checklist for the Concrete Pre-Construction Conference (co-published and available from the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA), 900 Spring Street, Silver Spring, MD, (301) 587-1400), will be used to review all materials and personnel qualifications, concrete production, preparation, placing, curing, and testing procedures.

1.6 Quality Assurance

1. General — Concrete materials and operations may be tested and inspected by Owner as work progresses. Failure to detect defective work or material early will not prevent rejection if a defect is discovered later nor shall it obligate Engineer for final acceptance.

1. Contractor qualification—Unless otherwise approved by Engineer, Contractor shall provide evidence of:

1. employment of one (1) NRMCA certified Pervious Concrete Craftsman who must be on site, overseeing each placement crew, during all concrete placement, or

2. the contractor shall provide evidence of employment of three (3) NRMCA certified Pervious Concrete Technicians, who have received hands-on training in the construction of pervious concrete pavements, and who must be on site, working as members of each placement crew, during all concrete placement, or

3. the contractor must obtain the services of a consultant who has the required NRMCA certification and who will be on site throughout the concrete placement

2. Concrete Producer qualification – Unless otherwise approved by Engineer, ready mixed pervious concrete shall be produced and provided by an NRMCA Certified personnel employed at the plant.

3. If, rather than ready mixed pervious concrete, a volumetric mobile mixer is used to produce the pervious concrete, the mixer(s) must conform to the standards of the Volumetric Mixer manufacturers Bureau (VMMB), to be verified by a current VMMB conformance plate affixed to the volumetric mixer equipment.

4. The contractor may contact the PCA/Northeast Cement Shippers Association for information on qualified/NRMCA certified contractors and personnel. Contact Director Kenneth Justice, P.E. at (610) 828-5119.

1.6.2 Test Panels — Test panels may be placed at any of the specified pervious concrete pavement placement locations. Test panels shall be tested for thickness in accordance with ASTM C 42; void structure in accordance with ASTM C 138; and for core unit weight in accordance with ASTM C 140, Paragraph 6.3.

1.6.2.1 Satisfactory performance of the test panels will be determined by:

1.6.2.1a Compacted thickness no less than 1/4" of specified thickness.

1.6.2.1b Void Content ± three (3) percent of the of the design void content.

1.6.2.1c Unit weight ± five (5) pcf of the design unit weight.

1.6.2.2 If measured void structure is outside specified limits or if measured thickness is greater than 1/4" less than the specified thickness or if measured unit weight is less than five (5) pcf below design unit weight, the test panel shall be removed at contractor’s expense and disposed of in an approved landfill.

1.6.2.3 If the test panel meets the above-mentioned requirements, it can be left in-place and included in the completed work.

3. Testing agencies — Agencies that perform testing services on concrete materials shall meet the requirements of ASTM C 1077. Testing agencies performing the testing shall be accepted by Architect/Engineer before performing any work. Field tests of concrete required in 1.6.4 shall be made by an individual certified as an :

1. NRMCA Certified Pervious Concrete Technician, and

2. ACI Concrete Field Testing Technician Grade 1 in accordance with ACI CP1 or equivalent. Equivalent certification programs shall include requirements for written and performance examinations as stipulated in ACI publication CP1.

1.6.4 Testing responsibilities of Contractor

1.6.4.1 Submit data on qualifications of proposed testing agency for acceptance. Use of testing services will not relieve Contractor of the responsibility to furnish materials and construction in full compliance with the Contract Documents.

1.6.4.2 Duties and responsibilities — Unless otherwise specified in the Contract Documents, Contractor shall assume the following duties and responsibilities:

1.6.4.2.a Qualify proposed materials and establish mixture proportions.

1.6.4.2.b Furnish any necessary labor to assist Owner’s testing agency in obtaining and handling

samples at the project site or at the source of materials.

1.6.4.2.c Advise Owner’s testing agency at least 24 hr in advance of operations to allow for completion of quality tests and for assignment of personnel.

1.6.5 — Testing and Acceptance:

1.6.5.1 A minimum of one test for each delivery truck of pervious concrete in accordance with ASTM C 1688 to verify unit weight shall be conducted. Delivered unit weights are to be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1688 using a 0.25 cubic foot cylindrical metal measure. The measure is to be filled and compacted in accordance with ASTM C 1688, jigging procedure. The unit weight of the delivered concrete shall be ± five (5) pcf of the design unit weight.

1.6.5.2 Test panels shall have two cores taken from each panel in accordance with ASTM C 42 at a minimum of seven (7) days after placement of the pervious concrete. The cores shall be measured for thickness, void structure, and unit weight. Untrimmed, hardened core samples shall be used to determine placement thickness. The average of all production cores shall not be less than the specified thickness with no individual core being more than 1/4inch less than the specified thickness. After thickness determination, the cores shall be trimmed and measured for unit weight in the saturated condition as described in Paragraph 6.3.1 "Saturation" of ASTM C 140, Standard Methods of Sampling and Testing Concrete Masonry Units. The trimmed cores shall be immersed in water for 24 hours, allowed to drain for one (1) minute, surface water removed with a damp cloth, then weighed immediately. The range of satisfactory unit weight values are ± five (5) pcf of the design unit weight.

1.6.5.3 After a minimum of seven (7) days following each placement, three cores shall be taken in accordance with ASTM C 42. The cores shall be measured for thickness and unit weight determined as described above for test panels.

1.6.5.4 Core holes shall be filled with concrete meeting the pervious mix design or grout.

SECTION 2 — PRODUCTS

2.1 — Concrete—Comply with ASTM C94 and the following requirements:

2.1.1 Aggregates — Maximum aggregate size shall not exceed one-third of the pavement thickness.

2.1.2 Submit documentation describing concrete mixture proportions in accordance with ACI 301.

2.2 — Isolation joint material

2.2.1 For isolation joint materials, comply with ASTM D 994, D 1751, or ASTM D 1752.

2.3 — Forms

2.3.1 Forms shall be made of steel or wood or other material capable of supporting concrete and mechanical concrete placing equipment that is sufficiently rigid to maintain the specified tolerances.

2.3.2 Forms shall be clean and free of dirt, rust, and hardened concrete.

SECTION 3 — EXECUTION

3.1 — Sub-grade preparation

3.1.1 Prepare sub-grade as required in the contract documents.

3.1.2 Construct sub-grade to ensure that the required pavement thickness is obtained in all locations.

3.1.3 Re-grade and re-compact sub-grade disturbed by concrete delivery vehicles or other construction equipment.

3.1.4 Do not use loose material to obtain final sub-grade elevation.

3.1.5 Sub-grade permeability shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 3385 before concrete placement to ensure conformance with contract documents

3.2 — Sub-base

3.2.1 Use only when required by contract documents. If used, prepare subbase in accordance with Section 3.1, Sub-grade preparation.

3.3 — Setting forms

3.3.1 Set, align, and brace forms so that the pavement will meet the tolerances specified in Section 3.10, Tolerances.

3.3.2 Apply form release agent to inside face of forms before placing concrete.

3.3.3 The edge of previously placed concrete may be used as a form. Do not apply form release agent to previously placed concrete.

3.3.4 Placement width shall not exceed twenty (20) feet unless successfully demonstrated otherwise and accepted by the Engineer.

3.4 — Batching, mixing, and delivery

3.4.1 Comply with ASTM C 94 except that discharge shall be completed within sixty (60) minutes of the introduction of mix water to the cement -- this time can be increased to 90 minutes when utilizing a hydration stabilizer. Further, water addition is permitted at the point of discharge provided the design w/c ratio is not exceeded.

3.5 — Placing and finishing fixed-form pavement

3.5.1 Deposit concrete directly from the transporting equipment onto the sub-grade or sub-base as appropriate. Wet the sub-base or sub-grade immediately prior to placement.

3.5.2 Do not place concrete on frozen sub-grade or sub-base.

3.5.3 Other methods of conveying the concrete may be used when specified or permitted by the engineer.

3.5.4 Deposit concrete between the forms to a uniform height.

3.5.5 Spread the concrete using a come-along, short-handle, square-ended shovel or rake.

3.5.6 Foot-traffic shall not be allowed on the fresh concrete.

3.5.7 Strike off concrete between forms using a form riding paving machine, vibrating screed, or roller screed. Other strike-off devices may be used when accepted.

3.5.8 Do not use steel trowels or power finishing equipment.

3.5.9 Finish the pavement to the elevations and thickness specified in the project drawings and meet the requirements of Section 3.9, Tolerances.

3.6 — Placing and finishing slip-form pavement

3.6.1 When accepted, slip-form equipment may be permitted.

3.6.2 Deposit and finish concrete in accordance with Section 3.5.

3.7 — Final surface texture

3.7.1 Final surface texture shall be achieved by compacting the fresh concrete using a full-width steel roller, that provides a minimum compactive pressure to achieve the requirements of Section 3.9— Tolerances.

3.7.2 Other methods of producing final surface texture may be permitted when specified and accepted.

3.7.3 Hand tools shall be used to compact the concrete along the slab edges immediately adjacent to forms.

3.8—Edging

3.8.1 Edge top surface edges to a radius of 1/4 in. (6 mm).

3.9 Tolerances (see 1.2, Definitions—Tolerances)

3.9.1 Construct pavement to comply with the following tolerances:

Elevation: 3/4 in. (19 mm)

Thickness: +1 in., –1/4 in. (+10 mm, –6 mm)

3.9.1.1 Pavement must be mechanically swept before testing for compliance with tolerances.

3.9.2 Joint spacing (see Paragraph 3.12)

Contraction joint depth (d = slab thickness): +1/4 in. (6 mm), –0 in.

3.10 — Curing

3.10.1 Curing procedures shall begin immediately after the final placement operations.

3.10.2 Begin curing within twenty (20) minutes of concrete discharge unless longer working time is approved by the architect/engineer.

3.10.3 The pavement surface shall be covered with a minimum six (6) mil thick polyethylene sheet. Sheeting shall be cut to a minimum the full lane width.

3.10.4 A fog shall be sprayed above the surface, before covering, when required due to hot weather conditions.

3.10.5 Cover all exposed edges with curing material.

3.10.6 Curing material shall be secured without using dirt.

3.10.7 Cure pavement uninterrupted for a minimum of 7 days, unless otherwise specified.

3.11 — Hot- and cold-weather construction

3.11.1 In hot weather, protect fresh concrete with windbreaks, shading, or fog spraying to prevent cracking at locations other than contraction joints.

3.11.2 If required, submit detailed procedures for the production, transportation, placement, protection, curing, and temperature monitoring of concrete during hot weather.

3.11.3 In cold weather, comply with ACI 306.1. Never place pervious concrete unless the ambient outside temperatures remain above 40o F for seven (7) consecutive calendar days.

3.12—Jointing

3.12.1 Construct joints at the locations, depths, and with dimensions indicated on the project drawings or accepted drawings submitted by the contractor.

3.12.2 If jointing requirements are not indicated on the project drawings, the contractor shall submit drawings describing proposed jointing in accordance with Section 1.4, Submittals, and the requirements of 3.13.2.1 through 3.13.2.9. Contractor shall not proceed with work until the jointing requirements are accepted by Engineer.

3.12.2.1 Indicate locations of contraction joints, construction joints, and isolation joints. Spacing between contraction joints shall not exceed 15 feet unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

3.12.2.2 The larger dimension of a panel shall not exceed 125% of the smaller dimension.

3.12.2.3 The minimum angle between two intersecting joints shall be 80 degrees, unless otherwise specified or permitted.

3.12.2.4 Joints shall intersect pavement free edges at 90-degree angles and shall extend straight for a minimum of 1-1/2 ft (0.5 m) from the pavement edge, where possible.

3.12.2.5 Align joints of adjacent panels.

3.12.2.6 Align joints in attached curbs with joints in pavement when possible.

3.12.2.7 Ensure joint depths, widths, and dimensions are as specified.

3.12.2.8 Minimum contraction joint depth, using a conventional saw, or specialty tools, shall be 1/4 of the pavement thickness. Minimum joint width for saw cutting is 1/8 in. (3 mm).

3.12.2.9 Use isolation joints only where pavement abuts buildings, foundations, manholes, and other fixed objects.

3.12.3 Tool contraction joints in fresh concrete immediately after the concrete has been compacted to the specified depth and width.

3.12.4 Extend isolation joints through the full depth of the pavement. Fill the entire isolation joint with isolation joint material, unless otherwise required by project drawings or by accepted jointing drawings submitted by the contractor. (See Section 2.4.)

3.13 — Opening to traffic

3.13.1 Do not open the pavement to vehicular traffic until the concrete has cured for at least 7 days or until the pavement is accepted by the engineer for opening to traffic.

END OF SECTION

FOREWORD TO CHECKLISTS

F1. This Foreword is included for explanatory purposes only; it does not form a part of the 03010 specification.

F2. The 03010 specification may be referenced by the Specifier in the Project Specification for any 03010 building project, together with supplementary requirements for the specific project. Responsibilities for project participants must be defined in the Project Specification. The 03010 specification cannot and does not address responsibilities for any project participant other than the Contractor.

F3. Checklists do not form a part of the 03010 specification. Checklists assist the Specifier in selecting and specifying project requirements in the Project Specification.

F4. The Specifier shall make adjustments to the needs of a particular project by reviewing each of the items in the checklists and including the items the Specifier selects as mandatory requirements in the Project Specification.

F5. The Mandatory Requirements Checklist indicates work requirements regarding specific qualities, procedures, materials, and performance criteria that are not defined in the 03010 specification.

F6. The Optional Requirements Checklist identifies Specifier choices and alternatives. The checklists identify the Sections, Parts, and Articles of the reference specification and the action required or available to the Specifier.

F7. The Submittal Checklists identifies Specifier choices for information or data to be provided by Contractor before, during, or after construction.

F8. Recommended References—Documents and publications that are referenced in the Checklists of the 03010 specification are listed. These references provide guidance to the Specifier and are not considered to be part of the 03010 specification.

ACI

301 Specifications for Structural Concrete

306 Cold Weather Concreting

308 Standard Practice for Curing Concrete

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