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Practising

English

Grammar

CONTENTS

*Introduction IX

CHAPTER I: ELEMENTS OF BASIC ENGLISH

*Basic Expressions 12

Language in Use 12

*The Alphabet 13

*Grammar Words 14

*Cardinal and Ordinal numbers 16

*Telephone Numbers 18

A typical phone call 19

Telling the time 20

*Days, Months, Seasons 21

Dates 22

*Nouns 24

Uncountable Nouns 28

*Compound Nouns 29

*Articles 30

*Have got/Has got 37

*There is/are 40

*Pronouns 43

*The possessive 45

Whose 52

Double Possessive 52

*The Indefinite Pronouns 53

*Quantifiers 60

*Adjectives and Adverbs 64

*Order of Adjectives 64

*Order of Adverbs 68

Comparative Adjectives 71

The more …. the more (Double Possesive) 73

Superlative Adjectives 74

As-Like 77

CHAPTER II: VERB TENSES

*Tenses in English 83

*Verb ‘ be ‘ 83

*Countries and Nationalities 87

*Interrogative Words 88

*The Simple Present Tense 94

Future with Simple Present 108

*The Present Continuous Tense 110

Non-Continuous Verbs 111

Future with Present Continuous 115

*The Simple Past Tense 117

*The Past Continuous Tense 128

* 'Going to' Future 132

*The Simple Future Tense 134

*The Future Continuous Tense 138

*The Present Perfect Tense 140

Gone-Been 144

*The Present Perfect Continuous Tense 145

*The Past Perfect Tense 148

*The Past Perfect Continuous Tense 153

*The Future Perfect Tense 157

*The Future Perfect Continuous Tense 160

*The Imperative 161

PREPOSITIONS 163

CHAPTER III : MODALS

May-Might 183

Can 183

Can ( Could ( Be able to 187

Must ( Have to ( Have got to 188

Needn’t 190

Should-Ought to 191

*Dare 194

*Need to +Don’t/Doesn’t need to +Needn’t 195

*Had better 196

*Managed to 196

*Be to 197

* Be allowed to 197

* Be obliged to 197

*Used to 197

*Past Modals 200

TAG QUESTIONS 203

CHAPTER IV : VERB PATTERNS

*Gerunds and Infinitives 207

Gerunds 209

Infinitives 210

CHAPTER V : THE PASSIVE

*The Passive……………………………………… 219

CAUSATIVE VERBS…………………………………… 231

CHAPTER VI : THE REPORTED SPEECH

*Reported Speech 237

No Changes in Tenses 241

Changes in expressions of time and place 242

Imperatives in Reported Speech 243

Yes-No Questions 244

WH-Questions 244

Exclamations 248

Mixed Types of sentences in reported speech 249

CHAPTER VII : THE CONDITIONAL

*Conditional Sentences 257

WISH CLAUSES 262

CHAPTER VIII : RELATIVE CLAUSES

*Relative Clauses 267

Defining 274

Non-Defining 279

Leaving out Relative Pronouns 282

Prepositions with Relative Clauses 284

Relative Clauses of Time, Place, and Reason 285

CHAPTER IX : STRUCTURAL ENGLISH

*Noun Clauses 289

*Inversion 291

*Linking Words 293

*Word Order in English 297

*Participle constructions 298

*Reducing Adverb Clauses 301

CHAPTER X: ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

*So … that/Such …. that 305

*Until-Since-Yet-Still-Already-Just 308

*Probably and Likely 308

*Let alone 308

*As ( As soon as 309

*As long as 310

*As if 312

*Quite-Rather-Fairly 313

*Rather than 314

*No sooner than 315

*Hardly … when 316

*Because-Since-In order that-So-In order to 317

*Now that-Seeing that-In as much as 317

*Once 317

*Only if = Not unless 317

*Only too =Extremely 318

*Only to =but then 318

*One and only =Unique 318

*While-Meanwhile 318

*On account of the fact that 318

*Owing to the fact that 318

*In view of the fact that 319

*Because of the fact that 319

*Due to the fact that 319

*If-In case-In the event (that)-Provided / Providing that 319

*Unless-Whether or not-Suppose 319

*Except for-Except for the fact that 325

*Although-However-Yet 325

*Though-Even though-Much as 326

*While-In spite of the fact that-Whereas 326

*No matter +QW- However +Adj, Adv 327

*In spite of +Noun +-ing +the fact that 328

*Despite +Noun +-ing +the fact that 328

*Not only …. but also 330

*Both … and 333

*Instead of + Ving 334

*Also-Too-Either 335

*Either … or / Neither… nor 336

*So-Nor 340

DETERMINERS

All-All of-Another-Any-Both-Both Of-Every-Everything-No-Each-Each of-

Either (...or)-Neither-None-A few-A few of-Few-Few of-A little-A little of-Little-

A lot of-Lots of-Many-Many of- Much-Much of-Most-Most of-More-Neither (...nor)-

None of-Other-Several-Several of-Some-Some of 342

CHAPTER XI : MORE ABOUT FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH

*-Ever words 347

*Enough-Too 348

*Would like 349

*Let’s 350

*Polite questions 350

*Would you mind 350

*Would rather 351

*Degrees of certainty 351

*It’s time +Infinitive 352

*It’s no use +Ving 352

*It’s worth +Ving 352

*Can’t help +Ving 352

EXCLAMATIONS

*What 353

*What a/an 353

*How 353

CHAPTER XII: LANGUAGE IN USE

*American Spelling 357

*Some of the mostly used words in English 359

Get 359

Make 362

Made of-Made from-Made with 362

Made by-Made up of 362

Do 363

Have 363

Take 363

*Word Bank 365

*Learning Vocabulary 380

*Abbreviations 382

*What Animals Do 383

*Glossary of Idioms 384

*Derivatives 389

*Phrasal Verbs 397

*Some common phrasal verbs 397

*Common Irregular VERBS 401

*Proverbs 404

*Punctuation Marks 411

*The English Weights Table 412

*The English Table of Length 412

*Liquid Measure 412

*Ordinal Numbers 413

*Points to notice 413

*Confusing words and expressions 414

*Questions which are mostly asked by

the teachers of English 416

*Review of the grammatical structures 429

*Index 446

*Bibliography 451

*KEY 452

CHAPTER - I

ELEMENTS OF BASIC ENGLISH

*Basic Expressions

Language in Use

*The Alphabet

*Cardinal and Ordinal numbers

*Grammar Words

*Telephone Numbers

A typical phone call

Telling the time

*Days, Months, Seasons

Dates

*Nouns

Uncountable Nouns

*Compound Nouns

*Articles

*Have got/Has got

*There is/are

*Pronouns

*The possessive

Whose

Double Possessive

*The Indefinite Pronouns

*Quantifiers

*Adjectives and Adverbs

*Order of Adjectives

*Order of Adverbs

Comparative Adjectives

The more …. the more

Superlative Adjectives

As-Like

BASIC EXPRESSIONS

Hello Good morning!

Have a nice day Good afternoon!

Thank you Good day!

That’s all right Good evening!

Not at all Good night!

How are you? Fine, thank you.

Don’t mention it. I’m OK. Bye.

See you later. Goodbye!

LANGUAGE IN USE

Please sit down! Listen and repeat!

Come in! Close the door! Stand up!

Put your hand up! Open your book!

Look at page …….. Look at the picture!

Pay attention! Don’t talk!

Stop talking! Answer!

Open the door! What’s your name?

Close the window! What is this in English?

What’s this called? What does ................... mean?

Sit down! How do you say ............. in English?

Stand up! How do you pronounce ..................?

Come here! How do you spell.............................?

Go there! Write your name on the board!

We can say:

Mr John Brown Mrs Mary Brown Miss Jane Brown Ms Jenny Brown

Mr Brown Mrs Brown Miss Brown Ms Brown

We can not say:

Mr John Mrs Mary Miss Jane Ms Jenny

THE ALPHABET

a h j k /eı/

b c d e g p t v /i:/

f l m n s x z* /e/

i y /aı/

o /[pic]/

q u w /u:/

r /(:/

*Americans say "zee", not "zed"

( 1. Complete the following chart;

|GRAMMAR WORD |MEANING |EXAMPLE |IN |

| | | |TURKISH |

|noun |a person or thing |book, girl ,pencil |................. |

|verb |something we do |read, write |................. |

|adjective |describes a person or thing |good, happy, tall |................. |

|adverb |describes a verb |slowly, badly |................. |

|preposition |a little word used before a noun or |in, on, by, at |................. |

| |pronoun | | |

|singular |just one |pencil, house | tekil |

|plural |more than one |pencils, houses |................. |

|phrase |a group of words (not a |in a house, a young man |................. |

| |complete sentence) | | |

|sentence |a complete idea in writing, beginning|The girl went into the room and | |

| |with a capital letter and ending with|closed the door. |................. |

| |a full stop | | |

|paragraph |a short part of a text(one or more |This book has 440 pages. It is a | |

| |sentences)beginning on a new line |good book. |................. |

|dialogue |a conversation between two people |Ali: How is every- | |

| | |thing? |................. |

| | |Ayşe: Everything is | |

| | |OK. | |

|question |a set of words that begin with a |Are you Turkish? |soru |

| |capital letter and end with a |Do you speak Turkish? | |

| |question mark | | |

|answer |reply to a question |Yes, I am. |..................|

| | |No, I don’t. | |

( 2. Grammar Words Match the grammar words and examples :

1. nouns ο a. does, did

2. adjectives ο b. co ffee

3. adverbs ο c. in, for

4. (main) verbs ο d. a, e, i, o, u

5. auxiliary verbs ο e. chair, money

6. prepositions ο f. go, work

7. vowels ο g. b, c, d, f

8. consonants ο h. big, cheap

9. syllables ο i. quickly, sometimes

( 3. Are these phrases, sentences, questions, answers, nouns, verbs,

adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, singular, plural or paragraphs?

1.on the table ……………………

2.I like English. ……………………

3.What’s your name? ……………………

4.He’s writing a book. ……………………

5.a black cat ……………………

6.book ……………………

7.read ……………………

8.in ……………………

9.The boy went into the room and asked for a cup of tea. ……………………

10.Are you German? ……………………

11.Yes,I am. ……………………

12.This is a good book. I wrote it in six months. ……………………

And this is my first experience. I hope it is OK.

13.A.How are you? ……………………

B.I am fine, thanks.

14.slowly ……………………

15.pencils ……………………

CARDINAL NUMBERS

0 ( oh

1-one 11-eleven 21-twenty-one

2-two 12-twelve 22-twenty-two

3-three 13-thirteen 30-thirty

4-four 14-fourteen 40-forty

5-five 15-fifteen 50-fifty

6-six 16-sixteen 60-sixty

7-seven 17-seventeen 70-seventy

8-eight 18-eighteen 80-eighty

9-nine 19-nineteen 90-ninety

10-ten 20-twenty 100-one hundred

ORDINAL NUMBERS

1st- first 11th- eleventh 21st- twenty- first

2nd- second 12th- twelfth 22nd-twenty -second

3rd- third 13th- thirteenth 23rd- twenty-third

4th- fourth 14th- fourteenth 30th- thirtieth

5th- fifth 15th- fifteenth 40th- fortieth

6th- sixth 16th- sixteenth 50th- fiftieth

7th- seventh 17th- seventeenth 60th- sixtieth

8th- eighth 18th- eighteenth 70th- seventieth

9th- ninth 19th- nineteenth 80th- eightieth

10th-tenth 20th- twentieth 90th- ninetieth

100th-hundredth

(not: one time,) once

(not: two times,) twice

three times

four times

I usually eat three times a day.

She telephones her boyfriend five times a day.

Students go to school five days a week.

Students go to school five times a week.

( 4. Write the words for these numbers :

13……………. 23 ……………. 71…………….

27……………. 44 ……………. 91…………….

15……………. 90 ……………. 55…………….

42……………. 99 ……………. 10…………….

89……………. 39 ……………. 53…………….

( 5. Write numbers for these :

seventeen……………... seven…………………. ninety……….

twenty-one……………. thirty-two……………. forty…..…….

eighty-nine……………. sixty-six……………… fifty………….

( 6. Write the words for the numbers :

3rd…………………. 17th…………………. 27th………………….

11th………………….42nd………………….71st………………….

43rd………………… 89th…………………. 26th………………….

( 7. Write the numbers :

twenty-first …………………………….

sixty-third …………………………….

ninety-seventh …………………………….

thirty-third …………………………….

fifth …………………………….

seventy-second …………………………….

eighty-ninth …………………………….

first …………………………….

fourth …………………………….

( 8. Match the dates with the words :

1919 eighteen eighty-one

1881 nineteen oh and three

1213 nineteen sixty-one

2001 nineteen nineteen

1961 twenty oh and one

1903. twelve thirteen

TELEPHONE NUMBERS

A: What’s your telephone number?

B: My telephone number is 418 16 66

It is 418 16 66. ( four one eight one six double six)

A: Who is that, please?

B: This is Ayşe.

***

A: Is that Ayşe?

B: Yes, this is Ayşe.

Yes, speaking.

A typical phone conversation

Erdal : Three two three eight one eight five.

Sue : Hello. It’s Sue here. Can I speak to Serdal, please?

Erdal : I’m sorry, he isn’t here at the moment. Can I take a message?

Sue : Thanks. Could you just tell him Sue called. I’ll call back later.

Erdal : OK. I’ll tell him. Goodbye.

Sue : Bye.

TELLING THE TIME

a. What time is it?

b. What is the time?

c. Have you got the time? (mostly used by Americans, colloquial)

|7.00 : It is 7 o’clock. |9. Exercise: |

|It’s ............... | |

|: It’s 10 minutes past 7. | |

|It’s 7.10. | |

|It’s seven ten. | |

|7.15 : It’s a quarter past 7. | |

|It’s quarter past seven. | |

|It’s seven fifteen. | |

|: It’s seven- thirty. | |

|It’s half past seven. | |

|: It’s (a) quarter to eight. | |

|7.50 : It’s ten (minutes)to eight. | |

|It’s seven-fifty. | |

|What time do you get up? | |

|I get up at 6.30. | |

|What time is it now? | |

|It’s 6.30. | |

|A. O. K. Get up now, then !!! | |

| |1. |[pic] |What is the time? |

| | | |....................... |

| |2. |[pic] |What is the time? |

| | | | |

| | | |....................... |

| |3. |[pic] |What time is it? |

| | | | |

| | | |....................... |

| |4. |[pic] |What time is it? |

| | | | |

| | | |....................... |

DAYS, MONTHS, SEASONS

DAYS OF THE WEEK

Monday (Mon.)

Tuesday (Tues.)

Wednesday (Wed.)

Thursday (Thurs.)

Friday (Fri.)

Saturday (Sat.)

Sunday (Sun.)

MONTHS OF THE YEAR

January (Jan.)

February (Feb.)

March (Mar.)

April (Apr.)

May

June

July

August (Aug.)

September (Sept.)

October (Oct.)

November (Nov.)

December (Dec.)

( 10. Answer these questions:

A: Is January the first month?

B: Yes, it is. (Yes, January is the first month of the year.)

1.Is February the second month?

………………………………………………………

2.What is the fourth month?

………………………………………………………

3.September is the ninth month, what is the next month?

………………………………………………………

4.Is August the eight month?

………………………………………………………

5.Is May the third month?

………………………………………………………

DATES

( 11. Complete the table :

|We write |We say |

|20 June | the twentieth of June |

|1 September |……………………… |

|…………… |the fourteenth of March |

|12 September |……………………… |

|…………… |the sixth of May |

|29 May |……………………… |

|…………… |the eleventh of May |

|26 July |……………………… |

|…………… |the twenty-third of April |

|11 August |……………………… |

May 15 15 May 15th of May

May 15th 15th May May the 15th

Years before Christ = BC (Before Christ)

Years dating from the Christian era = AD (Anno Domini)

SEASONS

Spring (March-April-May) - in Turkey

Summer (June-July-August)

Autumn* (September-October-November)

Winter (December-January-February)

*fall in Canada and some other English speaking countries

NOUNS

SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS:

*s ending

one cat two cats

one dog two dogs

one boy two boys

one apple two apples

one girl two girls

( 12. Make these singular nouns plural:

pencil ........... camera ............. telephone ..............book ...............

bird .............. newspaper ......... banana ................. chair ..............

spoon .......... cup ............

* ies ending :

Words ending in consonant +y: y changes into i + es

one baby two babies

one fly two flies

one city two cities

( 13. Make these singular nouns plural:

lorry .............. family .............. dictionary ...............

*es ending :

Words ending in: ch, x, sh, ss, s

a match two matches

a bus two buses

a glass two glasses

a box two boxes

*We add es to a few words ending in o :

a potato two potatoes

a tomato two tomatoes

( 14. Make these singular nouns plural.

address ................ waitress ...................... dish .................

watch .................. sandwich ................... dress ...............

church ................. beach ........................

*Irregular plurals:

a tooth two teeth a foot two feet

a man two men a mouse four mice

a woman two women an ox two oxen

a child two children a louse two lice

a person two people

( 15. Make these singular nouns plural.

a foot ................ a fish ...............

a goose .............

*If the word finishes with -f, -fe ;we omit -f ,-fe and add -ves :

thief thieves

wolf wolves

( 16. Make these singular nouns plural :

wife .................... life ....................

leaf .................... calf ....................

hoof .................... half ....................

handkerchief ....................

( 17. Write the plurals :

a cup of tea two cups of tea a glass of milk……………………

a pair of socks …………………… a slice of bread……………………

a bottle of milk ……………………

* Some nouns have the same form in singular and the plural;

a) some kinds of animals;

(sheep, deer) and fish; (trout, cod, salmon, etc)

b) the words aircraft, spacecraft, hovercraft, etc.

e.g. One hovercraft was approaching the port.

Two hovercraft were approaching the port.

c) Some nouns ending in (s:

Crossroads, means, series, works, etc.

e.g. A car is a means of transport.

Cars are a means of transport.

THIS, THESE, THAT, THOSE

( 18. Fill in the blanks with this, that, these, those.

1. ………… is a book.

2. ………… are newspapers.

3. ………… are photos.

4. ………… are notebooks.

5. ………… is an umbrella.

6. Look at ……. girls!

7. Come and see ……………. boys over there!

8. ……….. shirt is expensive.

9. ……….. boys over there are students.

( 19. Answer these questions :

1.Is this a book? (+) Yes, it is a book.

2.Is that a pencil? (() …………………………….

3.Is that a girl or a boy? (boy) …………………………….

4.Are these nurses or teachers? …………………………….

5.Are those newspapers or books? …………………………….

( 20. Answer these questions :

1.What is this? (desk)

…………………………………………..

2.What’s your mother’s job? (nurse)

…………………………………………..

3.What are those? (radios)

…………………………………………..

4.What are these? (houses)

…………………………………………..

5.What are those? (apples)

…………………………………………..

( 21. Write questions for these :

1. ………………………………………………………………?

It’s an apple.

2. ………………………………………………………………?

They are cars.

3. ………………………………………………………………?

It is a radio.

4. ………………………………………………………………?

They are maps.

5. ………………………………………………………………?

They are computers.

6. ………………………………………………………………?

They are shirts.

7. ………………………………………………………………?

It is a donkey.

8. ………………………………………………………………?

They are buses.

9. ………………………………………………………………?

They are keys.

10. ………………………………………………………………?

It is an orange.

UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

abstract nouns :

advice-beauty-hope-hunger-information-intelligence-love-poverty-freedom-honesty-justice-business-work-time-news-knowledge-accomodation

activities and sports :

badminton-football-gardening-running-swimming-shopping

collective nouns :

accommodation-equipment-furniture-luggage-traffic

languages :

English-French-German-Russian-Spanish

subjects :

art-geography-history-law- mathematics-music

substances (gases, liquids, materials)

air-bread-coffee-flour-leather-metal-meat-silver

Common uncountable nouns

absence, advice, age, agriculture, anger, atmosphere, baggage, beauty, behaviour, bread, childhood, comfort, company, concern, confidence, countryside, courage, damage, death, democracy, depression, design, duty, earth, education, electricity, energy, environment, equipment, evil, evidence, existence, experience, failure, faith, fear, flesh, food, freedom, fun, furniture, ground, growth, hair, happiness, health, help, homework, ice, industry, information, intelligence, justice, knowledge, love, luck, luggage, machinery, means, money, music, nature, news, nonsense, paper, peace, permission, poverty, pride, progress, reality, research, rubbish, seaside, spaghetti, traffic, training, transport, travel, weather, work.

If we refer to o specific amount with certain uncountable nouns we can use; a bit of, a blob of, bunch of, a cup of, a drop of, a glass of, a loaf a of, a lump of, a piece of, a pile of, a pool of, a portion of, a slice of, a spot of, a touch of.

COMPOUND NOUNS

Compound Nouns consist of two parts. Sometimes second part becomes plural, sometimes first part becomes plural, and sometimes both of them become plural :

e.g.

Noun + noun

reception hall ( reception halls

woman driver ( women drivers

-ing + noun

dining room ( dining rooms

Adjective + noun

greenhouse ( greenhouses

Noun + preposition + noun

sister-in-law ( sisters-in-law

Noun + preposition

passer-by ( passers-by

No noun (e.g. verb + preposition)

a take-off ( take-offs

( 22. What kind of compound nouns are these?

hall door …………… hitch-hiker ……………

river bank …………… weight-lifting ……………

coal-mining …………… surf-riding ……………

waiting list …………… dining-room ……………

driving licence …………… shop window ……………

garden gate …………… college library ……………

a piece of cake …………… summer holiday ……………

Sunday paper …………… Steel door ……………

Tower Bridge …………… A golden handshake ……………

lorry driving ……………

Article + noun

Things seen as : General Indefinite Very definite

Singular noun (1) ( (2) a, an (4) The

Plural noun -- (3) ( (5) The

( : no article

1) ( Patience is a useful thing.

( Bread is cheaper than a meal.

2) A nurse is useful in hospital.

An actor is well paid.

3) ( Nurses are useful in hospital.

( Actors are well paid.

4) The patience that she showed surprised me.

The nurse who lives there is English.

The actor who is speaking to her is Turkish.

The bread that I bought was very good.

5) The nurses who live there are English.

The actors who are speaking to them are Turkish.

Attention : * Something is definite when some particular details are added.

e.g.

that she showed/who lives there/who’s speaking (4)

who live there/who are speaking (5)

Something is indefinite when it is a member of a group with no particular relation with the speaker.

e.g.

a nurse ( means any nurse

an actor(means any actor (2)

nurses ( any nurses

actors ( any actors(

*Abstract nouns can be seen as general or as definite.

e.g.

patience

*Concrete nouns can be seen as general or definite.

e.g.

bread

Additional cases :

1.

a. They called inspector Jones. They called an inspector.

b. They visited Turkey. They visited the U.S.A.

c. I play cards with friends. The cards are on the table.

d. She went to hospital. The hospital is over there.

2.

e. The rich are lucky. Rich people are lucky.

f. I play the piano. There is a piano at home.

3. g. That is such a nice lady. That lady is very nice.

h. They cost one million a dozen. The dozen cost one million T.L.

i. He is an engineer. The engineer is here.

( 23. Complete the following sentences with ( (no article) , a, an or the:

1. ................. cigarette is made of ................. tobacco and .............. paper.

2. The salesman took ................... fish to the market.

3. What ........... good idea you have!

4. She has such .......... lovely eyes.

5. It’s a very effective medicine. However I hate ...... taste.

6. When he was seven his parents made him learn ......... violin.

7. Why don’t you lend him ............ book you bought last week.

8. ............ people say he is ................. very devoted son.

9. I can’t stand ........... people my sister goes out with.

10. Children like playing .......... cowboys.

Indefinite article a, an :

*We use ‘ a ‘ before the words which start with these letters :

b c d f g h j k l m

n p q r s t v w x y z

e.g. : a book a cat a dog a horse etc.

*We use ‘ an ‘ before the words which start with these letters:

a e i o u

e.g. : an apple an elephant an umbrella etc.

EXCEPTIONS

* a university (we pronounce as yuniversity)

* a UFO

*an hour (we don’t pronounce ‘h’)

*an MP

*an herb

*an L.A. minute

( 24. Write these sentences with a or an :

1.I’m ...... English teacher.

2.Are you ..... student?

3.It’s ..... apple.

4.Hacettepe is .... good university.

5.She’s ..... waitress.

6.David is…. mechanic.

7.Gültekin is…….. handsome man.

8.Opel is ……….. economical car.

9.An apple is ….. fruit.

10.Sezen Aksu is …… famous singer.

11.French is ….. difficult language.

12.Is it ……… good newspaper?

13.This is ……… computer.

14.Is that ……… leather bag?

15.Is he …… driver?

16.Is METU ……. university?

17.Am I ………. engineer?

18.Is that ….. useful book?

19.Are you ….. ugly girl?

20.She is …… beautiful girl.

Use of ‘the’

We don’t use ‘the’ with school, work, bed, town and home when we are talking about a person's OWN school, bed, etc. This is because each person usually has only one.

|walk | | | |to university |

|go |to church | | |to sea |

|come |to school | | |to prison |

|get |to work | |go |to bed |

|travel |to market | | |to hospital |

|drive | home | | | |

|cycle | | | | |

go to university : to study

and we say;

go to the university : to visit

go to prison : a criminal

go to the prison : go to the prison for a visit

| |in prison, in bed |

|be |in hospital |

|stay |at school, at work, |

| |at home, at church, |

| |at the sea |

| | | | |

|We use ‘a, an’ |We don’t use ‘a, an’ |We use ‘the’ |We don’t use ‘the’ |

| | | | |

|*Before a singular |*Before plural |*When the object |*Before: |

|noun: |nouns: |or group of |home, church, |

|I need a visa. |an egg-eggs |objects is unique: |hospital, prison, |

|*Before a singular |*Before uncountable nouns:|the earth |school, work, sea, |

|countable noun: |advice, beauty |*Before a noun |town |

|A child needs |*Before names of |which has become |*Before: |

|love. |meals, except when they |definite: |bed, church, court, |

|*With a noun |are |His car struck a |hospital, school, |

|complement: |preceded by an |tree; you can |college, university |

|He is an actor. |adjective: |still see the mark |(when they are |

|*In certain |We have |on the tree. |visited or used for |

|expressions |breakfast at eight |*Before a noun |their primary |

|of quantity: |*Before the name of a |made definite |purpose.) |

|a lot of |lake, a school, college, |by the addition |*Before the name of a |

|*With certain |church, prison, hospital, |of a phrase or |lake, a school, college,|

|numbers: |university, country, |clause: |church, prison, |

|a hundred |county, state, a mountain,|the girl in blue |hospital, university, |

|*In expressions |continent, a street, road,|*Before a noun which by reason of|country, county, state, |

|of price, speed, ratio: |a disease, ilness, a meal,|locality can represent only one |a mountain, continent, a|

|5p a kilo |a church, cathedral, a |particular thing: |street, road, a disease,|

|*In exclamations, |shop or bank named after |Pınar is in the garden. |ilness, a meal, a |

|before singular, |people, an airport or |*Before superlatives and first, |church, cathedral, a |

|countable nouns: |train station and |second: the first, |shop or bank named after|

|what a pretty girl! |adjective (Unless the adj.|*the + singular noun: |people, an airport or |

|*Before Mr, Mrs, |is followed by a noun), |The whale is in danger of |train station and |

|Miss: |the name of a language |becoming extinct. |adjective (Unless the |

|a Mr Brown | |*the + adj: |adj. is followed by a |

| | |the old = old |noun), the name of a |

| | |people in general |language |

| | |*Before certain proper names of | |

| | |seas, rivers, groups | |

| | |of islands, chains of | |

| | |mountains, plural | |

| | |names of countries: | |

| | |the USA, the UK, the Philippines, | |

| | |the Netherlands, | |

| | |deserts, regions | |

| | |the Atlantic, | |

| | |the Kızılırmak, | |

| | |*Before adjectives: | |

| | |the east, the west | |

( 25. Put ‘ the ‘ where it is necessary :

1. We are travelling to ................ north.

2.She always cycles to .................. church.

3.My nephew left ................. school last year.

4.Yesterday he was at ................... office all day.

5.I usually go to ................. bed at about 11 p.m.

6.She likes ...................... tennis, but I prefer ................. swimming.

7.Mr Coşkun teaches .................... geography.

8.............. Belgians speak French and Flemish.

9. Were you at ............... work when you heard the explosion?

10. We drive to ................ market because there is so much to carry.

( 26. Put a / an / the in the banks:

1. I’ve just seen ................ car coming up the drive.

2. There’s ................ spider in the bath.

3. I’ve got two cats, ....... black one is called Bob, .......white one is called Rosie.

4. Which is ................ tallest building in the world?

5. London is ................ capital of Britain.

6. He buys ................ newspaper everyday.

7. ................ power enjoyed by politicians doesn’t interest him.

8. I want to be ................ teacher.

9. ................ United States

10. ................ Alps and ......... Aegean Sea.

11. She’s gone to ................ doctor.

12. Is ................ spider ................ insect?

13. ................ few weeks from now I’ll be in Venice.

14. We drove through ................ night.

15. This area produces ................ fine cheese.

16. There’s ................ Mr Wilkins to see you.

17. Ella’s always complaining about ................ traffic.

18. He punched him on ................ nose.

19. ................ rich never help ................ poor.

20. He stayed at ................ Hilton.

HAVE / HAS GOT

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I have got |I have not got |Have I got? |

|You have got |You haven’t got |Have you got? |

|He has got |He has not got |Has he got? |

|She has got |She hasn’t got |Has she got? |

|It has got |It hasn’t got |Has it got? |

|We have got |We haven’t got |Have we got? |

|They have got |They haven’t got |Have they got? |

( 27. Fill in the blanks using have got or has got :

We use have got / has got to talk about possession. It is not used in formal written English.

Have got (has got) means the same as have (has)

e.g. : He’s got (has got) a car. = He has a car.

1.We ............................. a table and twelve desks in the classroom.

2.I .................................. a bag in my desk.

3.She ............................. two pens in her pencil case.

4.He .............................. a lot of sheep on his farm.

5.They ............................two new cars.

6.It ..................................its food on the dish.

7.My friend ............................. twelve suits.

8. ............ he ........... a sports car?

9. .......... we ................ a small classroom or a big classroom?

10.Why ................. you ................ any money in your wallet?

11. What ............. you ............. in your school bag?

12. What ............. your friend ................ on her desk?

13. .............. she got a message for him?

14. ............. they got messages for her?

15. We ........... the time to dream.

( 28. Put the words in the correct order to make sentences;

e.g. she’s / hair / blonde / got

She has got blonde hair.

1. a / got / Tony’s / red / ball

..........................................

2. goldfish / seven / got / She’s

..........................................

3. a/it’s/kite/yellow/got.

..........................................

4.a/got / they’ve/car/new

..........................................

5. big/a / it’s / house/got.

..........................................

BEWARE !

Americans use the pattern below instead of have got / has got when speaking as WELL as writing:

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I have |I don’t have |Do I have? |

|You have |You don’t have |Do you have? |

|He has |He doesn’t have |Does he have? |

|She has |She doesn’t have |Does she have? |

|It has |It doesn’t have |Does it have? |

|We have |We don’t have |Do we have? |

|They have |They don’t have |Do they have? |

Examples:

* Tony has a red ball.

* She has seven gold fish.

* They have a new car.

* It has a big house.

* I don’t have a big flat.

* She doesn’t have a new car.

* We don’t have the time to dream.

*THERE IS (THERE’S), THERE ARE

There’s a dog in the garden.

There are thirty-six students in the class.

Is there a hospital near here?

Are there a lot of teachers in your school?

( 29. Complete the sentences with there is, there are, is there or are there:

*There is a book on the table.

*There is a book, a notebook and two pens on my desk.

*There are two books and a pen on your desk.

1. .................... a bus to Istanbul?

2. ................... a television in the class?

3. ................... two books in the bag.

4. ................... a girl in the garden.

5. ................... four teachers in the class?

6. .................. five cars in the car park.

7. .................. thirty days in April.

8. .................. fifty-two weeks in a year.

9. .................. a kitchen in the flat?

10. ................ a computer in the room .

( 30. Answer these questions :

1.Is there a doctor in the ambulance?

…………………………………………………………..

2.Are there three books in your bag?

…………………………………………………………..

3.Is there a nurse in the emergency room?

…………………………………………………………..

4.Is there a good film on the Metropol?

…………………………………………………………..

5.Are there 26 letters in the English alphabet?

…………………………………………………………..

( 31. Make sentences :

1.twenty teachers in the school

…………………………………………………………..

2.a bottle of milk on the counter

…………………………………………………………..

3.a lot of bookstores in Ankara

…………………………………………………………..

4.sixty universities in Turkey

…………………………………………………………..

5.five apples in the basket

…………………………………………………………..

( 32. Correct these statements :

1.There are thirty-one letters in the English alphabet.

……………………………………………………………

2.There is only one lake in Turkey. ……………………………………………………………

3.There are 13 universities in Ankara. ……………………………………………………………

4.There is a long river in Konya. ……………………………………………………………

5.There were millions of people in Ankara one thousand years ago. ……………………………………………………………

6.There was a big meeting in Kızılay on July 24, 1999. ……………………………………………………………

7.There was a conference at school last Friday. ……………………………………………………………

8.There are thirty students in this classroom.

……………………………………………………………

9.There was a war between Turkey and Greece in 1974.

……………………………………………………………

10.There are a lot of trees in Ankara.

……………………………………………………………

PRONOUNS

|Subject pronouns |Object | Possessive |Possessive pronouns |Reflexive |

| |pronouns |adjective | |pronouns |

| I | me | my | mine | myself |

| You | you | your | yours | yourself |

| He | him | his | his | himself |

| She | her | her | hers | herself |

| It | it | its | ---- | itself |

| We | us | our | ours | ourselves |

| You | you | your | yours | yourselves |

| They | them | their | theirs | themselves |

| One | one | one’s | ---- | oneself |

Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns :

e.g.

This is my bag. ( my is a possessive adjective.

This bag is mine. ( mine is a possessive pronoun

*Possessive adjectives are followed by the noun they qualify.

*3rd person singular :

If the thing belongs to a woman/girl it will be her

thing,

If the thing belongs to a man/boy it will be his thing

If the thing belongs to a thing(object or animal)

it will be its thing.

|*Possessive pronoun |: possessive adjective + noun | |

This is mine = This is my + jacket.

( 33. Complete with possessive adjectives or pronouns :

1. A: Is this bag Jane’s?

B: No, it isn’t h_______. H_______ bag’s brown.

2. Are these o______ coats? Yes, they’re o________.

3. Those aren’t y_______ keys, they’re m_________.

Y________ are on the table.

4. I don’t know h________ wife. Have you met h________?

5. I invited them to m_______ party, but they didn’t invite me to th_______.

6. O______ flat’s bigger than th______, but th______ flat is more modern.

( 34. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate possessive adjective

or possessive pronoun:

1.Whose car is that? It’s ............ . I bought it last year.

2.I didn’t know you were married ; you’ve finally made up ..........

mind; haven’t you?

3.We’d better leave .......... car and take .......; you’re a better driver.

4.They had a lot of luggage, so did we. But .... was not as heavy as ............. .

We should have helped him.

5.Where’s ......... pen? I can’t use .......... pen (Ayşe). She would not like it.

6.He was surprised she got the job instead of him. He was sure .......................

qualifications were better than ............ .

THE POSSESSIVE

Possessive case :

| Possessor + s + thing (object possessed) |

1.a. This is the school of my sister.

b. This is my sister’s school.

2.a. The film of last year was better.

b. Last year’s film was better.

3.a. That is the beautiful garden of my neighbours.

b. That is my neighbours’ beautiful garden.

2. ‘of ’ is replaced by ‘ ‘s’

3. when the possessor is plural only (‘) is added (e.g. 3)

except with the irregular plurals (people, children, ...)

( 35. Put the following sentences into normal English using

the possessive case :

1.The old books of Tom are on the shelves.

………………………………………………………

2.The problems of last week haven’t all been solved. ………………………………………………………

3.The toys of the children are all broken. ………………………………………………………

4.The clothes of your friends are all over there. ………………………………………………………

*To indicate possessive case for people and animals :

a) when the noun is singular :

Ayşe’s mother

The cat’s food

b) when the noun is plural :

The girls’ father

Her parents’ flat

c) when the noun is an irregular plural :

The men’s attitude

The women’s clothes

*Other possessives :

a) use of :

The smell of cooking

The end of the road

b) for common nouns (house ,car, school, table, etc.) of may not be used:

Car keys

The kitchen door

A bus driver

c) with the words like front, top, bottom ,back ,end you must use of :

The bottom of the box

The back of the house

d) for expressions of time we use ‘s or s’ :

A fortnight’s holiday

Two weeks’ holiday

a year’s break (=a break of a year)

( 36. Fill in the blanks with a suitable pronoun:

1.That is .......... book. It isn’t ....... .

2.This is my uncle. ....... car is a Renault Broadway.

3.Pınar and I are in the classroom. ............... books are in the bags.

4.He is my uncle. .......... name is Mehmet.

5.These are Mr and Mrs Kartal. That’s ............. car.

6.Look at that dog. ......... tail is colourful.

7.Your mother and you are sad today. What’s ............. problem?

8.A.What’s ........... job?

B. I’m a driver.

9.Erdal is going to school. .............. is in Incesu.

10.A.What does your mother do?

B. .................... is a doctor.

( 37. Read and complete the family tree :

[pic]

1.Hediye is Erdal’s grandmother.

2.Ümit is Hüseyin’s grandson.

3.Mehmet is Erdal’s uncle.

4.Sevil is Abidin’s niece.

5.Fadime is Sevil’s mother.

6.Serdal is Senem’s nephew.

7.Ümit is Baki’s son.

8.Meryem is Serdal’s mother.

9.Serdal is Mehmet’s nephew.

10.Abidin is Meryem’s husband.

( 38. Write the correct relative :

1.My sister is my aunt’s …………………………….

2.My brother is my uncle’s …………………………

3.My aunt’s son is my ……………………………...

4.My uncle’s daughter is my ………………………

5.My mother’s mother is my ……………………………..

6.My father’s father is my …………………………

7.My mother’s brother is my ………………………

8.My father’s sister is my ………………………….

( 39. Replace the words in italics by personal pronouns, s or o :

1.Demet and Yusuf work in the same school with Mostafa.

...............................................................................................

2.My cat can’t stand mice.

...............................................................................................

3.Emrah invited Mr Kartal to his home.

...............................................................................................

4.My brother and I gave our small sister a toy.

...............................................................................................

5.Did you know Cemal has moved to the new house?

...............................................................................................

6.The postman delivered that letter a few minutes ago.

...............................................................................................

7.Can Erdal teach my friend John Turkish?

...............................................................................................

8.Zeynep played cards with Şahin and me.

...............................................................................................

( 40. Rewrite these sentences using I,me,my,mine,you,your,yours,he,him,his,she,her,hers,it,its,

we,us,our,ours,they,them,their,theirs.

1.Pınar’s mother is very thin.

.........................................................................

2.Women’s sweaters are very expensive.

.........................................................................

3.Mary’s skirt is very short.

.........................................................................

4.My father and I are from Turkey.

.........................................................................

5.Mr Clinton’s daughter is a student at a college.

.........................................................................

6.The students’ parents are at school today.

.........................................................................

7.This is Ali’s shirt.

.........................................................................

8.I think these are your notebooks. My notebooks are in my bag.

.........................................................................

9.A.Look at these pencils! Are they your pencils?

.........................................................................

B. No, they are not our pencils. They are your sister’s pencils.

.........................................................................

10.Is your sister an artist?

.........................................................................

( 41. Fill in the sentences with Possessive pronouns :

mine,yours,his,hers,its,ours and theirs:

1. A. Whose camera is this?

B. It’s ......................... .( I )

2. Is this your suitcase or ...........? (he)

3. The decision is ......... .(they)

4. My brother hasn’t got a phone, so he uses ............. .( we)

5. Our house is smaller than ................. .( they)

6. Have the dog eaten its food? The cat has already eaten ........... .(it)

7. The police asked me for my address, I gave them. ......... .(you)

8. Have you got your pen, or would you like to borrow ......? (I)

9. Her parents say the decision is ........... .(she)

10. The cat wants its food. It doesn’t want ........... (I)

( 42. Write the correct adjectives:

1.I’ve got ...... watch.(she)

2.Is this ......... car? (you)

3.Do we like ......... new teacher? (he)

4.We changed ............... computer. (we)

5.I like .............. colour. (it)

6.What colour is .............. T-shirt? (I)

7.They’re having a party in .............. garden.(they)

8.There’s something wrong with ............ car. (she)

9.Has he got ............. passport? (he)

10.Where’s ................ house? (they)

( 43. Fill in the blanks with : me, you, him, her, it, us, them

1.He gave..............a present for my birthday .(I)

2.My grand mother used to tell ..... stories when we were small children.(we)

3.Did he phone ....... last night?(you)

4.She let .......... go at last but it was too late.(they)

5.He loves ........ very much.(she)

6.That will cost ........... a lot.(he)

7.The wall is too dirty. Let’s paint .......... .(it)

WHOSE

A: Whose car is this?

B: It’s my car.

A: Whose is this car?

B: It’s mine.

A: Whose cars are these?

B: They’re his cars.

A: Whose are those cars?

B: They’re hers.

DOUBLE POSSESIVE

Some friends of mine are buying that car.

Is he a friend of yours?

( 44. Use of one, ones :

We use one with singular countable nouns,

We use ones with plural form.

1.A.There are a lot of boys in the playground. Which ...... is your boyfriend?

B. The tall ........... .

2.A.Whose are all these story books?

B. This thick ...... is mine, that thin ........ is hers and the old ...............

is Serdal’s.

3.A.What kind of skirt would you like to buy?

B.I wanted to buy that ....... at first but I have changed my mind. I will buy

this ...... .

4.My father grows red roses. The yellow ............ are the neighbour’s.

5.I have loved the green ............ for all my life. So all his work has gone to

the others.

*THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

|some |any |no |every |

|somebody |anybody |nobody |everybody |

|something |anything |nothing |everything |

|somewhere |anywhere |nowhere |everywhere |

|someone |anyone |no one |everyone |

( 45. Fill in the blanks with one of these : some,any,a,an,one,ones,somebody,something,somewhere,anybody,

anything,anywhere,nobody, nowhere,everybody,everything,

everywhere,someone,anyone,no one,everyone.

e.g. I don’t have any apples.

He doesn’t have any oranges.

I know something.

Do you know anything?

(=You know nothing.)

1.A.Which of these books would you like?

B.I would like this ........ .

2.A.Which of these washing machines do you like?

B.I like the front-loading ........ .

3.There are ........ boys in the garden but there aren’t ....... girls at the moment.

4.A.Have you got ........ waste paper in your pocket?

B. I’m afraid I haven’t got ...... .

5.I lost my umbrella yesterday. I asked .......... but nobody knows

where it is.

6.We prepared for the party. ................ is ready.

7.Their parents must ask ............... . They may find ............. to help them.

8.You did not know ........... about this school when you first came here.

Now you know almost .............. .

9.There was ......... bigger than me when I was at primary school, but they were all taller than me.

10............... is perfect.

11........’s duty in life is to help others.

12.A.Have you bought ....................?

B. No, I haven’t bought .................

13.Was there ............ in the waiting-room?

14.Do you know ............ to ask to come and mend the door?

15.A.Is there .......... here who can tell you the time?

B. ............. can tell the time.

16.There was ................ for him to drink so he left the house to find .............

to drink.

17.They were looking for ................ to stay but ............. was good enough .

18.There’s .............. in the big room but there’s ............... in the small ........... .

19. ..................... must have told you the story because you have given correct answers to all the questions.

20. ......... is in the taxi. They must have left before we came here.

|Any / Some / No ............ + body/one/thing/where |

a. Can you hear anybody? ( any in (?) sentences

b. Yes, I can hear somebody ( some in (+) sentences

c. No, I can’t hear anybody. ( any in (-) sentences

when the verb is in negative

No, I can hear nobody. ( no in (-) sentences

when the verb is affirmative

|Meaning |Form |

|- |+ |

e.g. I have no money.

I don’t have any money.

*The same rule applies to ;

-anyone / someone / no one (talking about people)

-anything / something / nothing (talking about things)

-any where / somewhere / nowhere (talking about places)

( 46. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate some/any/no form :

1. I don’t remember where I left it but it must be ................

2. ...... told me that you had been ill.

2. I don’t want .......... from him.

3. Did .................. phone him?

4. They did not go ............ after supper .They stayed at home.

5. There was .......... for us to sleep. We had to spend the night in the bus.

6. ............ had seen that before. We are all greatly surprised.

7. Did you see ............ you knew by sight?

8. I thought I heard a noise but there was ................. in the garden.

9. Come here. I have .............. to tell you.

10. I was really thirsty but they gave me .......... to drink.

11. She’s never seen ............ like me.

12. Is there ............ I can do for you? You look worried.

13. ............... but you can do it. You’re the greatest.

14. The man sitting in front of me was too big. I couldn’t see .................... .

( 47. Fill in the blanks with either some and any:

1.There is ............. tea in this glass but there isn’t ............... in that one.

2.A. Is there ............ coffee in that cup?

B. Yes, there’s ............... coffee in it.

3.Have you got ...... orange juice in the fridge?

4.There are ............ letters on the floor.

5.I’d like ......... soup but I don’t want .......... potatoes.

6.She gave me .......... tea but she didn’t put ........ sugar in it.

7.There are ............ trees in the garden but there aren’t .............. flowers.

8.There is ............. salt in the soup.

9.There are ......... boys in the class but there aren’t ........... girls today.

10.I’m very hungry. Can I have ............ fish, please?

( 48. Answer these questions:

1.Is there any tea in the cup?

..............................................................................

2.Are there any eggs in the fridge?

..............................................................................

3.Is there any water in the jug?

..............................................................................

4.Are there any books in his bag?

..............................................................................

5.Are there any lemons on the table?

...............................................................................

( 49. Put in some, any, a, an

1.There is ......... honey in the jar.

2.There isn’t ......... butter on the plate.

3.There is ......... teacher in the classroom.

4.There ‘s .......... dog in the garden.

5.There are ........... desks in the classroom but there aren’t ........... chairs.

*Much, many, a lot of, lots of, few, a few, little, a little, only a few,

only a little

*How many? How much?

| many + countable plural nouns | much + uncountable nouns |

| | |

|many apples , many books |much butter , much money |

Much: We use much with a big quantity of the uncountable nouns.

e.g.: Is there much coffee in your cup?

There isn’t much bread for dinner.

Many: We use many for large numbers of countable nouns.

e.g.: Are there many eggs for breakfast?

There aren’t many glasses for the guests.

A lot : We use a lot both with countable and uncountable nouns.

e.g.: Are there a lot of tomatoes in the basket?

There are a lot of students in my classroom.

These cars use a lot of petrol.

A lot of time was wasted.

Few : We use few for a small number of countable nouns,

but ‘ a few ‘ for a bit more than ‘ few’.

e.g.: There are few girls who haven’t attended the classes.

There were a few the week before and only a few three weeks ago.

A couple: We use a couple to mean 'two', but in the USA it sometimes

means 'a few'.

e.g.: Are there a couple seats left on the bus?

There were a couple of bullets missing in the gun.

|only a few =not many |

Little : We use little for a small number of uncountable nouns, but

a little for a bit more of them .

e.g.: I drink little milk in the mornings.

My son drank a little milk this morning.

My wife has drunk only a little.

|only a little = not much |

How many : We use how many to ask about countable nouns.

e.g.: How many cassettes have you borrowed from my sister?

How much : We use how much to ask about the amount of uncountable

nouns.

e.g.: How much money did you spend for that car?

Quantifiers

|Countable |Mass |

few little

a few a little

not many not much

some some

many much

plenty (of) plenty (of)

a lot (of) a lot (of)

lots (of) lots (of)

The English make the distinction between :

*What’s countable ? 1 man - 12 chairs (countable words)

*What is uncountable? water - time - money

Countable nouns take “ s “ in the plural form.

e.g.

few books-a few friends - a lot of students - years of war –

miles of road – tons of trash

But be careful! Some countable words have an irregular plural

(with no “s”) .

e.g.

one child /two children

one person /two people

one man /two men

one foot /two feet

*Mass words are always singular.

e.g.

Little time / a little money / plenty of information

( 50. Complete the following sentences with quantifiers expressing

the notion of amount :

1.Will you have ............ more tea?

2.He hasn’t got ....... money left.

3.There’s ......... milk in the bottle. You can have it.

4.There really is ................ choice in this shop. I can’t find anything.

5.She didn’t want many books. She only needed .......... .

6.He’s very popular. He’s got ........... friends.

7.There weren’t ........... cars in the car park.

8.Very ........ of her friends came to the party yesterday.

She was really disappointed.

9.Not everybody agreed but ............... people thought it was terrific.

10.We only have .............. time left. Hurry up or we’ll miss the train.

( 51. Put much or many into the blanks :

1.She smokes ............ cigarettes.

2.There were ............. students absent from class yesterday.

3.There is still ............ snow on the ground.

4.How ........... times a week do you go to the cinema?

5.How ........... time do you spend on your English every day?

6.He has ........ friends in this school.

7.How ........... windows are there in your classroom?

8.There isn’t .............. milk in the glass.

9.There is .................. oil in Iraq.

10.You make ............ mistakes in spelling.

( 52. Fill in the blanks with few, little, how much and how many:

1. ...................... books have you got?

2. ................. butter did you buy?

3. A: How many books has she got?

B: ................................... .

4. A: How much money have you got on you?

B: .................................... .

5. A: ................................. friends have you got in Ankara?

B: ...............................

6. A: How much milk does the baby drink in the mornings?

B: .................................

7. Mike had .................... milk and ................... slices of bread for breakfast.

(only a few/only a little)

8. I have got ...................... money in my wallet.(only a little/only a few)

9. There were ........... lawyers attending the trials.

10.A: How much olive oil did you need for the meal?

B: ............................ .

( 53. Fill in the blanks with How many, How much :

1. ………………………. men are there in the room?

2. ………………………. boys are there in the classroom?

3. ………………………. computers are there in the laboratory?

4. ……………………….cups are there on the table?

5. ……………………….flour do you need?

6. ……………………….potatoes do you eat?

7. ……………………….water is there in the glass?

8. ……………………….cheese does she eat for breakfast?

9. ……………………….milk does he drink every day?

10. ………………………subjects have you got at school?

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

A. ADJECTIVES

*We use adjectives before nouns:

a clever girl .................... clever girls

an expensive restaurant ....... expensive restaurants

a young teacher .................. young teachers

*We use adjectives after some verbs:

be, become, feel, get, look, seem, smell, sound, appear

e.g.

The story is long. Life is difficult.

He looked tired after all that. She feels happy.

What is the order of the adjectives ?

|DETERMINER |

e.g.

I’m bored. → I think there is nothing that interests me at the moment.

I’m boring. → I am a very uninteresting person.

( 57. Circle the correct form :

1.Don’t bother to read that book. It’s boring, bored.

2.I read an interesting, interested article in the newspaper this morning.

3.Pınar bores me. She is a boring, bored girl.

4.I don’t understand the explanations. I’m confusing, confused.

5.Have you heard the latest news? It’s really exciting, excited.

ORDER OF ADVERBS

Adverbs describe * how an action is done :

* where

* when

how : gently

where : here, at the end of the road

when : yesterday, at two o’clock

If there are more than one adverb, they are usually put in this order :

| |

|( how) (where) (when) |

|manner place time |

| She worked hard at the office yesterday. |

( 58. State the correct word:

1.David is a careful/carefully driver. He drives careful/carefully.

2.Our English teacher teaches good/well.

3.Arif isn’t a slow/slowly footballer.

4.It’s dangerous/dangerously to swim in The Kızılırmak .

5.Erdal speaks English good/well.

6.The learners asked intelligent/intelligently questions.

7.They waited patient/patiently for the doctors to tell them about their mother’s health.

8.Please don’t be angry/angrily with the pupils during the class hours.

9.Galatasaray played bad/badly versus Beşiktaş and lost the 1998 Cup.

10.The music was too loud/loudly and the people could not listen to the teacher.

( 59. Choose the correct form of the words in brackets :

1.I’m a very ................... driver. I drive ..................... and every day often

have ............ accidents. (careless/carelessly/bad/badly)

2.It was a .................. day for her and she did .................... on the exam.

(good/well)

3.She always does her homework ......................... . (careful/carefully)

4.Jane is a ..................... girl and she also plays the guitar ..................... (beautiful/beautifully)

5.My pillow is very .................... .(soft/softly)

6.We agree with them ..................... on that matter.(complete/completely)

7.This is a very ................ exercise. I can do all of the sentences .................... .

(easy/easily)

8.You must drive more ........................... along this road.(slow/slowly)

9.We are very .................... .. girls. (beautiful/beautifully)

10.They are ...................... students and they study English .......................

(serious/seriously)

( 60. Use the proper form-adjective or adverb-in the following :

1.She always does her homework ................... (careful).

2.He is a very ....................... (careful) student.

e ...................... (quick) .We need your help.

4.The old man walks very ................. (slow) .

5.Jane is a very ................. (slow) student.

6.Her brother, on the other hand, learns ................ (rapid).

7.Mrs Krueger has a ............... (permanent) visa.

8.She hopes to stay in Turkey ....................(permanent).

9.She acted very ............ (foolish) in that matter.

10.He always speaks ................. (soft) to the child.

COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES

We form comparative adjectives in two ways ;

a. by adding -er than to the positive degree :

e.g. cold colder than

tall taller than

bright brighter than

b. if the adjective has more than two syllables, by using more than and

less than.

e.g. difficult more difficult than

beautiful more beautiful than

handsome more handsome than

difficult less difficult than

expensive less expensive than

c. if the adjective has two syllables :

ends in y doesn’t end in y

lazy-lazier upset-more upset

crazy-crazier

silly-sillier

Note : The adjectives good , bad and far have special comparative forms :

good better than

bad worse than

far farther than

e.g.

They said they had fixed the car, but it’s now running even

worse than before.

d. if the adjective has a negative prefix :

unhappy-(even) less happy

unbelievable-(even) less believable

MAKING COMPARISON

• Complete the chart;

|. Comparative adj. + than |Ankara is cheaper than London |

|. more / less + comp.adj. + than |. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |

|. more + countable / noun + than |Tokyo has more inhabitants than Madrid. |

|uncountable | |

|. fewer + countable noun + than |Madrid has fewer tourists than Rome. |

|. less + uncountable noun + than |Paris has less industry than Milan |

|. as many + countable noun + as |. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |

|. as much + uncountable noun + as |. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |

|. as + adjective + as |. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |

To show equality we use :

as adjective as : for positive sentences

so adjective as : when the verb is negative

e.g.: It is -25 °C in Erzurum. It is -25 °C in Kars.

Erzurum is as cold as Kars.

Erdal is 16 years old. Serdal is 15 years old.

Serdal isn’t so old as Erdal.

We use the same as with nouns.

We use different from to state that two things or persons are not equal.

e.g. : My T-shirt is blue. Your T-shirt is blue. Erdal’s T-shirt is white.

Your T-shirt is the same as my T-shirt. Erdal’s T-shirt is different from

ours.

DOUBLE COMPARATIVE

The more you earn the more you save.

The more you spend the less you save.

The more they cry the more they are paid.

The more you work the more you are liked.

The more she loved the less she was loved.

( 61. Complete the following sentences :

1…….......….(hard) you study, the more you will learn.

2……….(old) she got, ………….(quiet) she became.

3……….(warm) the weather, ….(good) I like it.

4.The more you worked, ………. you are paid in Turkey.

SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES

Remember that we add -er than or more +adjective + than to an adjective to form the comparative :

COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

big bigger than the biggest

small smaller than the smallest

and

beautiful more beautiful than the most beautiful

handsome more handsome than the most handsome

As you see above : -er -est

more the most

Note : The adjectives good , bad and far also have special superlative forms :

good better than the best

bad worse than the worst

far farther than the farthest

Adjectives which are mostly used to explain personality :

adaptable artistic creative careless emotional

sensitive brave enthusiastic dynamic honest

serious bossy calm pessimistic independent

hardworking practical reliable stubborn changeable

impatient intelligent lively selfish talkative

affectionate anxious careful moody romantic

thoughtful generous happy intolerant fussy

meticulous organized shy tidy easy going

friendly greedy lazy optimistic clever

imaginative jealous passionate violent active

relaxed sincere ambitious kind patient

loyal short-tempered

( 62. Write down adjectives to match these descriptions :

|someone who: |adjectives |

|1.is very unhappy |………………………..…… |

|2.likes to work with other people |…………………..………… |

|3.always likes to win |……………..……………… |

|4.doesn’t trust people |………..…………………… |

|5.worries a lot |………………………..…… |

|6.always expects the best |…………………..………… |

|7.doesn’t get excited easily |……………..……………… |

|8.is easily embarrassed |………..…………………… |

|9.talks a lot |…..………………………... |

|10.likes to be with other people |…………………………….. |

Exercise :

Write the character of three members of your family using above adjectives ;

1. your father :

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. your mother :

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. your brother or sister :

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

AS-LIKE

He works as a teacher.(He is a teacher)

He works like a teacher.(He isn’t a teacher)

Complete with as or like :

1.I worked .............a waiter during my holidays.

2.She’s hoping to get a job .............. a taxi driver.

3.My best friend drinks water .............. a horse.

4.Serdal eats bread ................. a cat.

5.Erdal tries to solve the problems ............. a scientist.

[2. as 3. like 4. like 5. like]

ADJECTIVES

( 63. Fill in the chart with the suitable form of the adjectives :

|Base form |Comparative |Superlative |

|astonished | | |

|bad | | |

|big |bigger |biggest |

|boiling | | |

|brave | | |

|careful | | |

|clean | | |

|clever | | |

|cold |colder |coldest |

|confusing | | |

|crowded | | |

|difficult | | |

|disappointing | | |

|embarrassing | | |

|enormous | |most enormous |

| | | |

|easy |easier | |

|exciting | | |

|exhausted | | |

|expensive | |most expensive |

|fascinating |more fascinating | |

|fat |fatter |fattest |

|freezing | | |

|frightened | | |

|frightening | | |

|good | | |

|great | | |

|hot | | |

|huge | | |

|hungry | | |

|interesting | |most interesting |

|large | |largest |

|long |longer | |

|packed | | |

|poor |poorer | |

|pretty | |prettiest |

|rich |richer | |

|short | |shortest |

|small |smaller | |

|starving | | |

|surprised | | |

|tall | | |

|terrified | | |

|tiny | | |

|tired |more tired |most tired |

|tiring | |most tiring |

|warm |warmer | |

|wide | |widest |

|young |younger |youngest |

( 64. Complete the sentences by supplying the comparative form of

the adjectives :

1.She is ......................(young)............. I am.

2.Mrs White is much ............... (old).............. I expected.

3.Istanbul is ................ (big) ................. Ankara.

4.The weather this spring is ..............(good) ............... the weather last spring.

5.This exercise is ................ (easy) ............... the last one.

6.Bo Derek is ..................(attractive) ............... Hülya Avşar.

7.My friend’s car is ................. (expensive) ................ my car.

8.This grammar book isn’t ................ (difficult) ................ the other books.

9.I am ................ (young) ............... my sister.

10.The climate of Adana is ................... (good) ................. that of İzmir.

( 65. Complete the sentences using the superlative form of the adjectives :

1.Istanbul is ................................... city in Turkey. (big)

2.My father is ................................ person in our family.(old)

3.January is ................................... month of the year. (cold)

4.The pacific is .............................. ocean in the world. (large)

5.This chair is ............................... chair in the world. (comfortable)

6.He is ............................................ person that I know. (intelligent)

7.My sister was..............................girl at the party. (attractive)

8.She also wore .............................. dress. (pretty)

9.The Kızılırmak is ........................ river in Turkey. (long)

10.Lake Van is ............................... lake in our country. (large)

( 66. Use comparative adverbs to complete these sentences :

1.I speak English ................................... I speak German. (good)

2.He returned ........................................ I expected. (soon)

3.I get up every morning ....................... you. (early)

4.We go to the cinema .......................... you. (frequently)

5.Our troops fought ............................... anyone expected. (brave)

Check these sentences with superlative adverbs :

the most the least

I work the most of all.

My sister works the least of us all.

( 67. Complete these sentences either with adjectives or with adverbs :

1.The government has acted ................................... than people had

expected.(generous)

2.Teachers aren’t ......................... as they used to be.(thoughtful).

3.Your school is ..................... than mine.(modern)

4.She doesn’t dance ................. as her brother.(good)

5.Do you think ladies drive ................. than gentlemen?(slow)

6.Arif Sağ plays the saz ................... than anyone else in Turkey.(beautiful)

7.This computer is ................... than mine.(expensive)

8.Hagi hits the ball very ................ .(hard)

9.My father is ................... person in our village.(old)

10.Jack is .................. driver in the company.(fast)

CHAPTER - II

VERB TENSES

*Tenses in English

*Verb ‘ be ‘

*Interrogative Words

*The Simple Present Tense

*Future with Simple Present

*The Present Continuous Tense

Non-Continuous Verbs

Future with Present Continuous

*The Simple Past Tense

*The Past Continuous Tense

*Going to Future

*The Simple Future Tense

*The Future Continuous Tense

*The Present Perfect Tense

Gone-Been

*The Present Perfect Continuous Tense

*The Past Perfect Tense

*The Past Perfect Continuous Tense

*The Future Perfect Tense

*The Future Perfect Continuous Tense

*The Imperative

PREPOSITIONS

TENSES IN ENGLISH

a. the simple present tense h. the past perfect continuous tense

b. the present continuous tense i. the simple future tense

c. the simple past tense j. the future continuous tense

d. the past continuous tense k. the future perfect tense

e. the present perfect tense l. the future perfect continuous tense

f. the present perfect continuous tense m. going to future

g. the past perfect tense

*These are the main tenses in English. But h and l are not very common.

‘be’ is used to express different situations and actions in English :

VERB’be’

[pic]

e.g. : We are here now.

We were on holiday last August.

We have been to Antalya on holiday.

There had been a lot of tourists before we went there.

My son will be an engineer.

We will have been living in Ankara for thirteen years by

next April.

( 68. Fill in the blanks using the suitable form of the verb ‘ be ‘ :

1.What ....... your name?

2.Where ....... you from?

3.I ......... from China.

4.My name .......... Pat.

5.Hello, I ...... Johann.

6.Where ........... she from?

7.Pınar and Ali ........... students.

8.My father’s name .......... Hüseyin.

9. ................. they engineers?

10.Mary ....... a housewife.

11.Jack ……. American.

12.Today ……….. Thursday.

13.They ………….. new doctors.

14.It ……….. midnight.

15.Mary …. at the hairdresser’s.

16.Ankara and İstanbul ………. cities.

17.Switzerland …………. small.

18. ……………. Bill Clinton American?

19.We …….. happy.

20.I ………. not a teacher.

( 69. Answer the following questions :

1.Who is the Prime Minister of Turkey now?

………………………………………………………….

2.Who was the first President of Turkish Republic? ………………………………………………………………………..

3.Who was the first man who landed on the moon? ………………………………………………………………………..

4.Where were your parents born? ………………………………………………………………………..

5.Who were you with yesterday afternoon? ………………………………………………………………………..

( 70. Make sentences :

1.I/not/doctor/a

………………………………………..

2.they/cats/are/(?)

………………………………………..

3.Ayşe/from/Ankara/not

………………………………………..

4.you/a/nurse/are/(?)

………………………………………..

5.she/happy/is/(?)

………………………………………..

6.he/from/Germany/is/(+)

………………………………………..

7.they/here/are/(+)

………………………………………..

8.they/bananas/are/(+)

………………………………………..

9.it/ruler/is/not/(?)

………………………………………..

10.we/not/students

………………………………………..

( 71. Answer these questions :

1.Are you a student?

……………………………………

2.Are you 14?

……………………………………

3.Is it a donkey? (

……………………………………

4.Is this a book? (

……………………………………

5.Is he British? (

……………………………………

6.Are they Turkish? (

……………………………………

7.Are you fat?

……………………………………

8.Is he fifteen? (

……………………………………

9.Is snow black?

……………………………………

10.Is today Thursday?

……………………………………

COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES

Complete the chart with countries and nationalities:

|Country |Nationality |

|Brazil |Brazilian |

|Britain |British |

|China | a |

|France | b |

| c |Greek |

|India | e |

| d |Italian |

| f |Japanese |

|Poland | g |

|Portugual |Portuguese |

| h |Spanish |

|Turkey | i |

|The United States | j |

A: Where are you from?

B: I am from Turkey.

A: What nationality are you?

B: I am Turkish.

KEY

|a. Chinese |f. Japan |

|b. French |g. Polish |

|c. Greece |h. Spain |

|d. Italy |i. Turkish |

|e. Indian |j. American |

A. WH- Interrogative words are used to express

interrogation on:

What 1.a selection from an indefinite number.

e.g.

What have you read recently?

What 2.a selection from an indefinite number of precise things.

e.g.

What time did he arrive?

Which 3.a selection from a limited possibility.

e.g.

Which do you want?

Which 4.a selection from a limited possibility of precise things.

e.g.

Which book do you want?

Which of them do you want?

Who 5.a person –identity.

e.g.

Who likes music?

Who are you speaking to?

When 6.time, occasion

e.g.

When can you come?

When did that happen?

Where 7.a place, position, direction

e.g.

Where does he live?

Where are you going?

Whose 8.The identity of the owner of a thing.

e.g.

Whose is it?

Whose 9.The identity of the owner of a precise thing.

e.g.

Whose car is it?

How 10.a way, a manner.

e.g.

How did you escape?

How +(.....) 11.Extent, degree.

e.g.

How old are you?

How often How often do you visit them?

How many How many books did you lend him?

How much How much did you pay for that?

How far How far is it from here?

How long How long will you stay?

Why 12.Reason, purpose.

e.g.

Why was he late?

B. Interrogative phrases used to express interrogation

How (be) sb 1.somebody’s health

e.g.

How’s Jane? She’s fine.

What .... for 2.somebody’s intention

e.g.

A. What did he need the spoon for?

B. To stir the soup with.

What (be) sb like? 3.somebody’s personality

e.g.

A. What’s she like?

B. She’s quite nice.

What (do) sb look like? 4.somebody’s physical appearance

e.g.

A.What does he look like?

B. He’s very tall.

72. Find the interrogative words to which the words in italics

are the answers :

1.They find it impossible to stop the fighting.

..........................................................................................

2.I am fine.

..........................................................................................

3.I met the manager this morning. ..........................................................................................

4.Terry advised John to give up the whole idea. ..........................................................................................

5.They have been studying English for four years now. ..........................................................................................

6.They agreed to meet at the station at 5 sharp. ..........................................................................................

7.I think I’ll take the red one. ..........................................................................................

8.My sister is six.

..........................................................................................

9.I watch television twice a week. ..........................................................................................

10.She’s quite short, with long hair. ..........................................................................................

11.I paid 10 dollars for that. ..........................................................................................

12.She said she would bring four or five records. ..........................................................................................

13.It’s five miles away from the station. ..........................................................................................

14.My parents met her yesterday in the street. ..........................................................................................

15.The result depends on them. ..........................................................................................

16.He was late because he had missed his train. ..........................................................................................

17.They are quite easy-going and cheerful. ..........................................................................................

18.To cut his meat with.

..........................................................................................

19.She preferred the green dress. ..........................................................................................

20.It’s my mother’s bag.

..........................................................................................

Key:

1 - Who finds it impossible to stop fighting?

2 - How are you?

3 - When did you meet the manager?

4 - What did Terry advise John to give up?

5 - How long have they been studying English?

6 - What time did they agree to meet at the station?

7 - Which one do you think they will take?

8 - How old is your sister?

9 - How often do you watch television?

10 - What does she look like?

11 - How much did you pay for that?

12 - How many records did she say?

13 - How far is it from the station?

14 - Where did your parents meet her yesterday?

15 - Who does the result depend on?

16 - Why was he late?

17 - What are they like?

18 - What did he need it for?

19 - Which dress did she prefer?

20 - Whose bag is it?

( 73. Match the items from columns A and B.

|A |B |

|1.Have you ever | a.would you most like to live? |

|2.Do you |b.type? |

|3.How long |c.food do you like best? |

|4.Who |d.are you doing this evening? |

|5.Did you |e.have you known your best friend? |

|6.Where |f.an e-mail address? |

|7.What kind of |g.broken your leg? |

|8.How many |h.did you get up this morning? |

|9.Have you got |i.enjoy primary school? |

|10.Can you |j.brothers have you got? |

|11.Why |k.like to work abroad? |

|12.What |l.like classical music? |

|13.Would you |m.do you want to learn English? |

|14.When |n.phones you most often? |

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Present Simple:

Study the tense in the following examples, all dealing with

b. present time.

a. The sun rises in the east (universal truth)

b. I often travel abroad (habit)

c. They live in a large house (permanent)

This tense is called the present simple.

In the 3rd person singular: verb + -s, (es, (ies

e.g. : live: I live, you live, she lives, we live.

go: I go, you go, she goes, we go.

carry: I carry, you carry, she carries, we carry.

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

| I work | I don’t work |Do I work? |

|You work | You don’t work |Do you work? |

|He works | He doesn’t work |Does he work? |

|She works | She doesn’t work |Does she work? |

|It works | It doesn’t work |Does it work? |

|We work | We don’t work |Do we work? |

|They work | They don’t work |Do they work? |

We use the simple present tense * to describe an action which goes on every day or in general.

* to talk about a general truth such as a fact.

( Half a million people pass through the station daily.

* to talk about something that stays same for a long time such as a state.;

( He lives in Queens.

* to talk about something that is regular such as routines, customs and habits:

( They usually spend Christmas in New York.

Time expressions are :

|Monday |ü | |Monday |ü | |

|Tuesday |ü | |Tuesday |ü | |

|Wednesday |ü | |Wednesday |ü | |

|Thursday |ü |every day |Thursday |ü |on weekdays |

|Friday |ü | |Friday |ü | |

|Saturday |ü | |Saturday | | |

|Sunday |ü | |Sunday | | |

Always, usually, generally, often, occasionally, sometimes, rarely, seldom, hardly ever,never

constantly, forever

[pic]

( 74. Write the correct form, present tense , of the verbs in parentheses :

1.We often............... (read) the newspaper in class.

2.My father .............(speak) two foreign languages.

3.They ..............(attend) the same course every Sunday.

4.I always.....................(travel) to school by bus.

5.Some girls ..............(use) too much make-up.

6.Pınar usually .............(sit) at this desk.

7.My uncle .................(work) for Turkish Airlines.

8.She always ...................(prepare) her homework carefully.

9.I never .....................(watch) TV in the evenings.

10.We sometimes ................. (have) lunch outside.

( 75. Write the third person singular form of these verbs :

carry : ................. come : ......................... do : .........................

dress : ................. finish : ......................... fly : .........................

get : ................. go : ......................... have : .........................

hurry : ................. join : ...............…….. leave : .........................

live : ................. make : .............…….... meet : ....................….

say : ................. stop : ..............……... take : ..............……..

teach : .................. try : ...............…….. wake : .....................…

walk : .................. wash : ...............…….. watch : .........................

work : ..................

( 76. Make sentences according to the information :

| |You |Pınar |Jane |

|go to the cinema | ü |û |ü |

|go to a club |û |ü |ü |

|listen to the radio |û |û |ü |

|do some sport |ü |û |û |

|read a novel |û | ü |û |

|see friends |ü |ü |ü |

|play music |û |ü |û |

|watch television |û |ü |û |

|learn a language |ü |û |ü |

e.g. : I go to the cinema in my free time.

1............................................................................................................................. 2............................................................................................................................. 3.............................................................................................................................

4............................................................................................................................. 5............................................................................................................................. 6.............................................................................................................................

7.............................................................................................................................

8.............................................................................................................................

9.............................................................................................................................

10...........................................................................................................................

11...........................................................................................................................

12...........................................................................................................................

13........................................................................................................................... 14...........................................................................................................................

15...........................................................................................................................

( 77. Make sentences using the words below :

1. wake up : I wake up at seven o’clock every morning.

1. get up :...................................................................................

1. wash/my face :..........................................................................

1. have breakfast :........................................................................

2. brush/my teeth :.......................................................................

6. leave home :...............................................................................

7. catch the bus :...........................................................................

8. buy a newspaper :.....................................................................

9. arrive at work :.........................................................................

9. sing songs :...............................................................................

11. have lunch :.............................................................................

12. finish work :............................................................................

13. return home :...........................................................................

14. have dinner :............................................................................

15. watch TV :.................................................................................

16. drink tea :................................................................................

17. talk to/my family :...................................................................

18.have a shower : .......................................................................

19. put on/my pyjamas :...............................................................

20. go to bed :................................................................................

( 78. Make these sentences negative :

1.I work at Ankara Anatolian High School.

.........................................................................................

2.My son likes to study English.

.........................................................................................

3.They speak German well.

.........................................................................................

4.The bus leaves at ten o’clock every morning.

..........................................................................................

5.I make many mistakes in spelling.

..........................................................................................

6.She knows Turkish perfectly.

..........................................................................................

7.The child plays in the park every afternoon.

..........................................................................................

8.We use many books for prep classes.

..........................................................................................

9.My father wants to visit his hometown.

..........................................................................................

10.We need some fun in this school.

..........................................................................................

( 79. Make questions :

1. She lives in Ankara.

.........................................................................................

2. The students meet in front of the school.

.........................................................................................

3. He smokes a lot.

.........................................................................................

4. They sell newspapers there.

.........................................................................................

5. This book belongs to him.

.........................................................................................

6. You speak English well.

.........................................................................................

7. I always take the red bus to school.

.........................................................................................

8. We go to the cinema once a month.

.........................................................................................

9. The shop closes at eight o’clock in the evening.

.........................................................................................

10.It looks like snow.

.........................................................................................

( 80.Change these sentences according to the sign :

1.My father goes to bed at ten o’clock.

(-).........................................................................

(?)........................................................................

2.Do you study English at weekends?

(-).........................................................................

(+)........................................................................

3.Does your mother cook at home?

(+)........................................................................

(-).........................................................................

4.Does your English teacher speak Turkish in class?

(-)....................................................................................

(+)...................................................................................

5.My brother drinks tea for breakfast.

(-)....................................................................................

(?)...................................................................................

6.The teachers do not smoke cigarettes at school.

(+)...................................................................................

(?)...................................................................................

7.We do our homework at weekend.

(-)...................................................................................

(?)...................................................................................

8.The boys play football in the playground.

(-)....................................................................................

(?)...................................................................................

9.My father reads the newspaper in the evening.

(-)....................................................................................

(?)...................................................................................

10.We listen to English songs in class.

(-)....................................................................................

(?)...................................................................................

( 81. Answer these questions :

1.What time do you usually get up?

.........................................................................

2.When do the students start school in the morning?

.........................................................................

3.Do you always clean your teeth every morning?

..........................................................................

4.When do you have lunch?

..........................................................................

5.Does your brother ever wash his face?

..........................................................................

6.Do you often go to the theatre?

..........................................................................

7.When do you go home after school?

..........................................................................

8.How much money do you spend every week?

...........................................................................

9.What time do you go to bed on weekdays?

...........................................................................

10.When does your mother wash up?

...........................................................................

11.How do you usually get to school?

...........................................................................

12.How long does it take you to get to school?

............................................................................

13.When does your father get up every day?

............................................................................

14.What do you do in your free time?

............................................................................

15.Do you ever walk to school?

............................................................................

16.How often do you go to the theatre?

.............................................................................

17.How often do you have English lessons?

.............................................................................

18.How often do you eat ?

.............................................................................

19.What language do people speak in Turkey?

..............................................................................

20.Do you ever read a newspaper?

..............................................................................

21.What do you often have for breakfast?

..............................................................................

22.How many pages do you read every day?

..............................................................................

23.When do lessons finish on Fridays?

..............................................................................

24.What does your best friend do at weekends?

...............................................................................

25.Which languages do you speak?

...............................................................................

26.Do you usually have a rest?

...............................................................................

27.When does your father have a rest?

...............................................................................

28.What kind of books do you read?

................................................................................

29.How often do you listen to music?

................................................................................

30.Which drink do you drink?

.................................................................................

( 82. Complete the sentences using the words in brackets :

1.She usually .......................................... (have) dinner at 8 p.m.

2.On Saturdays my son .......................... (go) to the theatre.

3.Ice always ........................................... (melt) in warm weather.

4.I always .............................................. (eat) an egg for breakfast.

5.My cousin .......................................... (live) in London.

6.The school ......................................... (close) at five every day.

7.He ...................................................... (visit) his parents once a week.

8.My father always................................ (come) home early in the evening.

9.I never................................................. (do) my homework at night.

10.They often ........................................ (prefer) coffee after a meal.

11.He always ........................................ (choose) the best one.

12.She ................................................... (smoke) a lot.

13.I occasionally .................................. (speak) English in the classroom.

14.She never ......................................... (obey) the rules.

15.People always .................................. (complain) about their lives.

( 83. Correct the mistakes in these sentences if there are any :

1.I never don’t do my homework in the evening.

....................................................................................

2.She always read novels in her free time.

....................................................................................

3.They usually help each other.

....................................................................................

4.My students often listen to Madonna.

....................................................................................

5.Does your sister go to school by bus or car?

....................................................................................

6.She never watches TV at weekends, doesn’t she?

...................................................................................

7.Mike always carry his umbrella in his bag.

...................................................................................

8.The students often doesn’t do the shopping.

...................................................................................

9.He never write clearly.

...................................................................................

10.Why don’t she wait for me on Wednesdays?

....................................................................................

11.On what days do you have P. E. ?

....................................................................................

12.In which month does the school year begin and when does it end? ....................................................................................

13.When does your school day finish?

....................................................................................

14.In which months do you have school holidays? ....................................................................................

15.In what month is your birthday?

....................................................................................

( 84. Answer these questions :

1.What do you do?

....................................................................................

2.Where do you live?

....................................................................................

3.Where do you go on Sunday evenings?

....................................................................................

4.Do you ever watch TV at midnight?

....................................................................................

5.What time do you go to bed?

....................................................................................

6.Where do you usually go for your holidays? ....................................................................................

7.How often do you read a novel?

....................................................................................

8.Do you sometimes go to a club?

....................................................................................

9.What kind of music do you usually listen to? ....................................................................................

10.What time of the day do you do some sport? ....................................................................................

11.Do you ever visit friends during the week? ....................................................................................

12.Do you ever study early in the morning?

....................................................................................

13.Do you ever help the poor?

....................................................................................

14.How much do you spend on food in a month? ....................................................................................

15.What time do you have dinner on Saturdays?

....................................................................................

( 85.Now answer the same questions about your best friend :

1.What does she do?

....................................................................................

2.Where does she live?

....................................................................................

3.Where does she go on Sunday evenings?

....................................................................................

4.Does she ever watch TV at midnight?

....................................................................................

5.What time does she often go to bed?

....................................................................................

6.Where does she usually go for her holidays? ....................................................................................

7.How often does she read a novel?

....................................................................................

8.Does she sometimes go to a club?

....................................................................................

9.What kind of music does she usually listen to? ....................................................................................

10.What time of the day does she do some sport? ....................................................................................

11.Does she ever visit friends during the week? ....................................................................................

12.Does she ever study in the morning early? ....................................................................................

13.Does she ever help the poor?

....................................................................................

14.How much does she spend on food in a month? ....................................................................................

15.What time does she have dinner on Saturdays? ....................................................................................

FUTURE WITH SIMPLE PRESENT

86.We use the present simple for the future when we talk about

*timetables

*programmes

*schedules

1.A:What time does the plane take off?

B: It .....................(take off) at 8.30 a.m. and ......................(land) in London

at 10.30.

2.A. How long ............................(you stay) in London?

B: Three days.

3.A: How long .............................(the journey to Berlin /take) then?

B: It ............................(last) for only two days I think.

FILL IN THE SCHOOL TIMETABLE

SUBJECTS : English-Turkish-Physical Education-German(if any)

| |MON |TUES |WED |THURS | FRI |

|Lesson 1 | | | | | |

|(break) | | | | | |

|Lesson 2 | | | | | |

|(break) | | | | | |

|Lesson 3 | | | | | |

|(break) | | | | | |

|Lesson 4 | | | | | |

| | | | | | |

|Lesson 5 | | | | | |

| | | | | | |

|Lesson 6 | | | | | |

( 87. Answer these questions :

1.How many lessons do you have every day?

...........................................................................................

2.How many subjects do you have?

...........................................................................................

3.Do you have English lessons on Monday?

...........................................................................................

4.Do you go to a public school ?

...........................................................................................

5.How many breaks do you have every day?

...........................................................................................

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Present Continuous:

a. The children are playing at the moment. (temporary)

b. They are living in a rented flat. (temporary)

This is called the present continuous.

|be + verb + |ing. |

e.g.: play: I am playing, you are playing, she is playing, they are playing.

We use the present continuous tense * to describe an action which

is going on at the moment and is not complete.

* to talk about an action which is temporary.

( He is working at the moment.

* to talk about a definite arrangement in the future;

( They’re spending Christmas in Chicago.

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I am working |I am not working |Am I working? |

|You are working |You aren’t working |Are you working? |

|He is working |He isn’t working |Is he working? |

|She is working |She isn’t working |Is she working? |

|It is working |It is not working |Is it working? |

|We are working |We are not working |Are we working? |

|They are working |They aren’t working |Are they working? |

TIME EXPRESSIONS

|now | |

|at present | |

|at the moment | |

| | |

|today | |

|this week | |

|this month | |

NON-CONTINUOUS VERBS

State verbs are verbs which describe a state rather than an action and therefore do not normally have continuous tenses. These include;

Verbs of Thinking, Attitudes, or Opinion :

appear, believe, consider, doubt, feel, forget, guess, know, mean, need,

prefer, realize, remember, seem, sound, think, understand

e.g. I expect they will be late.

(Not: I am thinking they will be late.)

Verbs Expressing Possession :

belong, have, own, posses

e.g. My uncle owns a hotel.

(Not: My uncle is owning a hotel.)

Verbs Expressing Emotion :

care, desire, forgive, hate, like, love, refuse, want, wish

e.g. I love chocolate ice cream.

Verbs Expressing Sense Perceptions :

feel, hear, see, smell, taste

e.g. Mike must be at home. I can see his car parked outside.

(not: I am seeing his car parked outside.)

Some of the above verbs are used in continuous tenses when they describe actions not states.

e.g. I think he’s lying. (= believe)

I’m thinking about the plan. (= am considering.)

The food tastes delicious. (= has a delicious flavour)

He is tasting the food. (=is tasting the flavour of)

The chicken weighs 2 kilos. (= has a weight of)

The butcher is weighing the meat. (is measuring how heavy it is)

I can see some people. (= perceive with my eyes)

I see what you mean. (=understand)

I am seeing my doctor tomorrow. (=am meeting)

Note: The verbs look (when we refer to a person’s appearance), feel, (=experience a particular emotion), hurt and ache can be used in either the continuous or simple tenses with no difference in meaning.

e.g. You look/are looking great today.

( 88. Supply the present continuous tense form of the verbs in parenthesis :

1.They ......................... (wait) for us in front of the school now.

2.Be quiet! The teacher ............................. (watch) you.

3.Look! The children .................................(dance).

4.Mehmet ............................ (have) lunch in the cafeteria now.

5.Please be quiet! The patients ............................ (sleep).

6.At present the teachers ..................................... (have) a meeting .

7.Pınar ............................... (wear) her new dress today.

8.We ................................... (prepare) for the exam at the moment.

9.My son ............................ (make) good progress at English at present.

10.Look at that cat there! It ......................... (clean) its feet.

( 89. Make negative :

1.The telephone is ringing.

......................................................................................

2.All the birds are flying south.

......................................................................................

3.They are travelling in Africa at present.

......................................................................................

4.I am working on the computer now.

......................................................................................

5.The students are laughing at each other now.

......................................................................................

6.They are having lunch in the cafeteria at the moment.

......................................................................................

7.The baby is playing with her baby doll.

......................................................................................

8.She is taking her medicine at present.

......................................................................................

9.The monkeys are climbing the trees.

......................................................................................

10.He is reading a novel now.

......................................................................................

( 90. Fill in the blanks and answer the questions :

Tonight, Pınar .....… wearing a long, blue coat, a green sweater, and dark

red trousers. She ......... wearing any shoes or socks, and she’s carry........

some flowers. But she is not look.....at me at all. Because I ......going to the

cinema with her.

Serdal

1.What is Pınar wearing tonight?

...........................................................................

2.Is she wearing any shoes?

...........................................................................

3.What is she carrying?

...........................................................................

4.Is she looking at Serdal?

...........................................................................

5.Why isn’t she looking at him?

...........................................................................

( 91. Fill in the blanks using either the present continuous or the simple present

Greetings from Alanya! Erdal and I ................(do) something different this summer. We’re on Palm Beach. Most of the people here are the tourists. They .................. (come)from different countries and they ..................(speak) many foreign languages. We ..................(serve) the tourists at the beach part time. And we .......... (enjoy) ourselves when we are free after work. Erdal ...........(practise) his English and I ................(try) to learn some more English. We ............... (get up) very early every morning. We ..................(work) eight hours and then .....................(finish) work and the day for us starts. But we ......(spend) a lot of money here. I .............(hope) you come with us next year. See you soon.

Love,

Serdal

( 92. Correct the mistakes, if there are any :

1.She going to the cinema at seven p.m.

...............................................................

2.They are come to visit their friends now.

................................................................

3.We are try to doing our homework.

................................................................

4.The cat drinking milk at the moment.

................................................................

5.What you doing there?

................................................................

( 93. Choose the correct word or structure :

1.This can’t be right! I don’t believe / I’m not believing it.

2.She can’t go to work today. She has/is having a cold.

3.I can’t talk to you now. I leave/I’m leaving .

4.You are trying to tell me, but I don’t understand/ I’m not understanding you.

5.I’ll stop talking with you. You are / are being rude.

FUTURE WITH PRESENT CONTINUOUS

( 94. Make sentences :

1.She/see/the doctor

.......................................................................................

2.We/have dinner/at 7.30 p.m.

.......................................................................................

3.I/not go/to the dentist/until next month

.......................................................................................

4.The new school/open/on 13th September

.......................................................................................

5.You/fly/to İzmir/tomorrow/?

........................................................................................

6.What time/they/leave Berlin/?

........................................................................................

7.She/have/an English lesson/tomorrow morning

........................................................................................

8.We/not play/football/on Saturday

........................................................................................

9.He/come/for tea/tomorrow afternoon

........................................................................................

10.I/meet/my parents/at the bus stop

........................................................................................

( 95. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or present continuous tense:

1.A:We ………………. (go) to Paris tomorrow.

B: Oh, yes. Where ……………….. you …………………(stay)?

A: At a hotel in Montmartre. We always ………………...(stay) there.

2.A: Hi. I’m Işık. I’m from Turkey.

B: Hello. What ……………(do) here in England? Are you on holiday?

A: No, I ……………(study) English at a language school.

B: Where …………..you …………(live)? With a family?

A: No, I ………….(share) a room at the school with another girl.

B: Where ………you ………….(live) in Turkey?

A: In Ankara. I …………….(have) a flat in my parent’s house.

3.A:What ……………. you ……….(do)?

B: Well I’m a student actually, but I’ve got a temporary job for the summer.

A: Oh, yes. What …………….. you ………(do)?

B: I …………. (work) at a shoe factory.

THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

Past Simple:

a. They saw me yesterday.(finished action +time reference: yesterday)

b. I met him at school. (finished action +place reference: at school)

This tense is called the past simple.

When the verb is a regular one, just add - ed (to repair: repaired)

When it is an irregular one, check on the list... (to sing: sang)

Examples of use with- to make (irregular verb);

I made/he made/they made

( 96. Exercise:

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. Be careful and

check whether there is a time reference or not and whether the

verb is regular:

1.Yesterday I (go) to Antalya.

…………………………………………………………….

2.They (be) in Toronto last month. …………………………………………………………….

3.She (buy) this pen in Antalya. …………………………………………………………….

4.I (visit) my parents last week? …………………………………………………………….

5.You (see) Peter when you (be) in London last month?(be careful) …………………………………………………………….

6.We (come) at nine.(past) …………………………………………………………….

7.You (type) the letter I (tell) you to type yesterday ! …………………………………………………………….

Key :

1.went (time reference: yesterday)

2.were (time reference: last month)

3.bought (place reference: Antalya)

4.visited (time reference: last week)

5.did you see (time reference: last month)

6.came (time reference: at nine)

7.have you typed (no time reference)

told (time reference: yesterday)

We use the simple past tense* to talk about the actions in the past.

We use the simple past for actions which happened immediately one after the other in the past.

With verbs such as think, hope, mean, expect, etc, past simple, past continuous or past perfect can be used without any difference.

Time expressions

yesterday last night

yesterday morning last week

yesterday afternoon last month

yesterday evening last summer

last year

three days ago in 1985

two weeks ago in 1986

a month ago

four years ago

etc.

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I worked |I didn’t work |Did I work? |

|You worked |You didn’t work |Did you work? |

|He worked |He didn’t work |Did he work? |

|She worked |She didn’t work |Did she work? |

|It worked |It didn’t work |Did it work? |

|We worked |We didn’t work |Did we work? |

|They worked |They didn’t work |Did they work? |

Simple past form of the verb ‘be’ :

Now in 1975

I am a teacher. I was a student.

I am 37 years old. I was 14 years old.

We are in Ankara. We were in Zonguldak.

Students are taller. They were short.

( 97. Fill in the blanks using the appropriate form of ‘be’ :

1.We ................. at home yesterday evening but we ............. in the classroom

now.

2.Our teacher ................. happy last Friday, now he ............. sad.

3.The boys ................. short last year. They ............ tall this year.

4.My best friend ............... with me last night.

5.Our cat ............ five years old two years ago. How old ........ it now you think?

( 98. Use the simple past form of the verbs :

1.I.....................(work) in my grandfather’s garden yesterday.

2.We .................(study) English all day yesterday.

3.Erdal and Serdal .............(watch) TV.

4.I....................(visit) my aunt last week.

5.We ................(wait) at the station for two hours at the bus stop.

6.It ...................(rain) last night.

7.She ................(paint) our house last summer.

8.He ..................(listen) to the radio yesterday evening.

9.Her friends ....................(talk) on the telephone for ten minutes last week.

10.She ..................(post) the letters two weeks ago.

( 99. Make these sentences negative :

1.We worked in the garden all day yesterday.

..........................................................................................

2.They listened to the radio last night.

..........................................................................................

3.Pınar and I watched TV yesterday afternoon.

..........................................................................................

4.I studied English last year.

..........................................................................................

5.She waited at the bus stop for two hours this morning.

..........................................................................................

( 100. Fill in the blanks using the simple past tense form of the verbs :

1.I......................(have) breakfast at seven o’clock this morning.

2.My sons and I ......................(eat) cheese for breakfast.

3.We .........................(leave) home early.

4.Mrs Coşkun ..................(buy) a newspaper.

5.We ....................(read) it quickly.

( 101. Make questions :

1.I helped my mother with the breakfast.

.........................................................................................

2.We had lunch all together.

.........................................................................................

3.My father went to work early.

.........................................................................................

4.He returned home late yesterday evening.

..........................................................................................

5.We watched TV until 10 o’clock.

..........................................................................................

( 102. Make questions using the question words :

1.We had breakfast all together.

.............................................................................................

2.My brother practised his English.

..............................................................................................

3.We listened to the radio.

..............................................................................................

4.They stayed at home yesterday.

..............................................................................................

5.She walked to school last week.

...............................................................................................

6.We did our homework together.

...............................................................................................

7.She ate a cheese sandwich yesterday morning.

...............................................................................................

8.We spent a lot last summer.

...............................................................................................

9.We stayed at a hotel.

.................................................................................................

10.She listened to the radio with her girlfriend.

.................................................................................................

( 103. Correct the mistakes, if there are any :

1.She did made a cake for her friends.

...................................................................................................

2.They smiled all together.

...................................................................................................

3.Did you bought those magazines?

...................................................................................................

4.What time did he finish his project?

...................................................................................................

5.We didn’t borrowed money from our parents.

...................................................................................................

( 104. ANSWER THESE YES / NO QUESTIONS :

1.Did you have breakfast yesterday morning?

.................................................................................................

2.Did you brush your teeth?

.................................................................................................

3.Did you have cheese for breakfast?

.................................................................................................

4.Did you go to school yesterday?

.................................................................................................

5.Did you have an exam last week?

.................................................................................................

6.Did you help your friends last month?

.................................................................................................

7.Did your parents go anywhere last week?

.................................................................................................

8.Did you go to the cinema last week?

.................................................................................................

9.Did you watch TV last night?

.................................................................................................

10.Did your mother prepare breakfast yesterday?

.................................................................................................

11.Did your father help your mother to prepare breakfast?

.................................................................................................

12.Did you buy anything last week?

.................................................................................................

13.Did you leave home early yesterday morning?

.................................................................................................

14.Did you do any housework yesterday ? .................................................................................................

15.Did your friends visit you yesterday?

.................................................................................................

( 105. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS :

1.When did you get up yesterday?

...................................................................................................

2.What time did you have breakfast?

...................................................................................................

3.What did you have for breakfast?

...................................................................................................

4.What time did you clean your teeth?

...................................................................................................

5.When did you leave home?

...................................................................................................

6.What time did you catch the bus?

...................................................................................................

7.When did you have lunch?

...................................................................................................

8.Where did you have lunch?

...................................................................................................

9.What did you have for lunch?

...................................................................................................

10.Who did you have lunch with?

...................................................................................................

11.When did you get home?

...................................................................................................

12.How did you get home?

...................................................................................................

13.How long did it take you to get home?

...................................................................................................

14.Who did you see first when you got home?

...................................................................................................

15.What did you do first when you got home?

...................................................................................................

16.Did you have dinner at home?

...................................................................................................

17.Who did you have dinner with?

...................................................................................................

18.Did you drink tea or coffee after dinner?

...................................................................................................

19.What did you do before you went to bed?

...................................................................................................

20.Did you sleep well last night?

...................................................................................................

( 106. Fill in the life line :

1961 : I was born.

1966 : I started primary school.

1971 : ............................................................... (finish primary school)

1974 : ............................................................... (start high school)

1977 : I.............................................................. (finish high school)

1981 : I....................................................... ( graduate from university)

1983 : I....................................................... (complete military service)

1983 : ................................................................ (get married)

1985 : We........................................................... (move to Ankara)

( 107. Now ask questions using question words :

what, who, why, where, when, which, whose, whom,

what time, How, How long, How many, etc.

e.g. : Where were you born?

When were you born?

1. ........................................................................................................

2. . ........................................................................................................

3. ........................................................................................................

4. ........................................................................................................

5. ........................................................................................................

6. ........................................................................................................

7. ........................................................................................................

8. ........................................................................................................

9. ........................................................................................................

10. ........................................................................................................

Do and Did with positive sentences :

As you will remember we do not use do, does and did with positive sentences.

But there are cases when we do this. These are the cases that we want to stress

the situation.

e.g. : I do like the cakes you make.

(You may think that I do not like the cakes you make, but for sure;

I like them very much.)

I did study hard but I still could not pass the exam.

(You may think that I did not study hard, but for sure; I studied

very much, but even in this case I could not pass the exam.)

Read this text and do the following activities :

|‘One day I had a crazy idea. Why didn’t Eloise go with us to the White Mountains? But then I discovered by chance|

|that she was already Capped. She seemed younger than me. But a Cap was hidden under her thick black hair. All |

|Capped people belonged to the Tripods. And I very nearly told her our secrets! |

|I was getting stronger every day. Soon I was strong enough to ride a horse. We rode out every day through the |

|castle gate, and into the country. |

|We spent our evenings with the Count and Countess. It was clear that they liked me. They missed their own sons, |

|and they were happy to have a boy in the tower. The other boys only joined us for dinner. The dining room was |

|very large, with one table which forty people could sit around.’ |

( 108. Underline all the past form of the verbs

( 109. Write their infinitive form :

| |

|have- ……… |

( 110. Answer these questions about the text :

1.Who was already Capped?

…………………………………………………………………………………

2.Was she younger than the author?

…………………………………………………………………………………

3.Where was the Cap hidden?

…………………………………………………………………………………

4.Did the author tell her about their secret?

…………………………………………………………………………………

5.Who rode out every day through the castle gate?

…………………………………………………………………………………

6.Where did they spend their evenings?

…………………………………………………………………………………

7.Who missed their sons?

…………………………………………………………………………………

8.Why did the other boys join them?

…………………………………………………………………………………

9.How many people could sit around the table?

…………………………………………………………………………………

10.Did the Count and Countess like the author?

…………………………………………………………………………………

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Past continuous :

a. Last week my friend rushed in.(1)

We were having dinner.(2)

b. My friend rushed in(1) while we were having dinner.(2)

*Both actions (rushed in)/(were having) belong to the past and the time

reference is apparent in example (a): last week.

*But action 2(were having) is interrupted and contrasts with a sudden

and completed action.(rushed in)

The tense that shows that an action located in the past is interrupted is called the past continuous.

| |was/were + verb + ing |

*The time reference doesn’t have to be apparent ; in sentence (b) it doesn’t

appear but the speaker knows when it happened : It’s enough.

*Sentences (1) and (2) can be joined with words like;

|when – while - as. |

( 111. Exercise :

Join the following sentences using the words in brackets and put the verbs in the correct tense ; (past simple/ past continuous) :

1.I (water) the lawn. The postman (arrive). (when)

...................................................................................................

2.He (hurt) his foot. He (climb )the ladder. (while) ...................................................................................................

3.The gas (be cut off). I (cook) the dinner. (as) ...................................................................................................

4.They (find) your tie. They (sweep) the floor. (while) ...................................................................................................

5.She (be run over) by a lorry. She (cross) the street. (as) ...................................................................................................

6.My mother (do the shopping). It (start) to rain.(when) ...................................................................................................

7.Everybody (watch) TV. The rocket (be launched). (when) ...................................................................................................

We use the past continuous tense * to describe an action in the past which

was going or continuing when another action took place. In other words;

* to talk (about) something that was in progress at a specific time in the past.

( He was feeling particulary lonely and suffering from culture shock.

* to talk about something that was in progress at the time something else happened.

( He was staying with Cathy Kelly when he first met Josephine Wilson.

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I was working |I wasn’t working |Was I working? |

|You were working |You weren’t working |Were you working? |

|He was working |He wasn’t working |Was he working? |

|She was working |She wasn’t working |Was she working |

|It was working |It wasn’t working |Was it working? |

|We were working |We weren’t working |Were we working? |

|They were working |They weren’t working |Were they working? |

( 112. Read the text and make sentences :

‘We were at Erdal’s birthday party yesterday evening. Suddenly we heard a big noise outside.’

What were these people doing when we heard the noise?

1.Serdal/eat a piece of cake.

.................................................................................................

2.Pınar/dance.

.................................................................................................

3.The other boys/sing a song.

.................................................................................................

4.Erdal’s parents/watch TV in the living room.

.................................................................................................

5.Erdal’s cat/sit on the sofa.

.................................................................................................

( 113. Fill in the blanks using the past continuous tense :

1.I .................................(play) football at 4 o’clock yesterday afternoon.

2.My father ...............................(read) a newspaper at 8 yesterday evening.

3.She ........................(do) her homework at 5 last night.

4.It ..........................(work) last week.

5.We .......................(study) Maths with her sister yesterday morning.

BEWARE !

|The past continuous tense is almost always used |

|with some other action in the past , not alone . |

e.g.

I was watching TV when the phone rang.

( 114. Fill in the blanks using the simple past or the past continuous :

1. I .......................... (talk) on the phone when the bell ..................(ring).

2. They ........................(eat) in the restaurant when I ........................(see) them.

3. I.......................(study) English while you...............(listen) to music.

4. We .......................(live) in Ankara when the war ..................(start).

5. When I ................(get) up this morning, the sun ...................(shine) brightly.

6. When his mother ...................(die) he ........................(work) in Antalya.

7. I ...............(get) sick while we ........................(drive) to Istanbul.

8. It ..............(rain) when I ....................(leave) home.

9.The accident ................(happen) while they ................ (travel) in Germany.

10 .She ...................(fall) while she ....................(get) into a taxi.

( 115. Choose the correct word or phrase :

1.How did you felt/did you feel yesterday evening?

......................................................................................................

2.While I take / was taking a shower, the telephone rang / ringed.

......................................................................................................

3.She didn’t saw/didn’t see where the bus stop was, so we were missing / missed the bus.

......................................................................................................

4.Last winter I was going / went to school every day.

......................................................................................................

5.When I was arriving / arrived there , they were waiting / waited for me.

......................................................................................................

‘GOING TO’ FUTURE

We use ‘ going to ‘ future

* to talk about a plan or an intention

* to make a prediction

* to talk about a fact in the future

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I am going to work |I am not going to work |Am I going to work? |

|You are going to work |You are not going to work |Are you going to work? |

|He is going to work |He is not going to work |Is he going to work? |

|She is going to work |She isn’t going to work |Is she going to work? |

|It is going to work |It isn’t going to work |Is it going to work? |

|We are going to work |We aren’t going to work |Are we going to work |

|They are going to work |They aren’t going to work |Are they going to work? |

( 116. Fill in the blanks using going to future :

1.Pınar..............................(be) very pleased with her present.

2.I.....................................(meet) my parents tomorrow evening.

3.The boys ...............................(help) their parents with the housework.

4..................... you ................... (make) dinner ?

5.He lost his job. He .......................................(look for) a new job soon.

6.My mother ..........................................(live) in the Netherlands next year.

7.They ...................................(build) a swimming pool in the city next year.

8.The sky looks very grey. It......................................(rain).

9.Erdal.......................................(buy) a bottle of perfume for his mother.

10.We ..............................................(move) to another town next month.

( 117. Make sentences with going to :

1.She/read/a book.

...............................................................................

2.They/not go/to the party

..................................................................................

3.It/rain

..................................................................................

4.He/not play/basketball

..................................................................................

5.I/do/my homework

...................................................................................

6.You/do/your homework/?

...................................................................................

7.They/not visit their parents

...................................................................................

8.I/write/the letters

...................................................................................

9.She/make/a cake/?

....................................................................................

10.It/eat/its food

....................................................................................

THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I will work |I will not work |Will I work? |

|You will work |You won’t work |Will you work? |

|He will work |He won’t work |Will he work? |

|She will work |She won’t work |Will she work? |

|It will work |It won’t work |Will it work? |

|We will work |We won’t work |Will we work? |

|They will work |They won’t work |Will they work? |

We may also use;

I shall ( I shan’t

We shall ( We shan’t

Time expressions

tomorrow in five days

tonight soon

next week later

next month next year

next summer

( 118. Fill in the blanks using the future simple tense :

1.Tom ..................(leave) tomorrow.

2.Mary........................(fly) to France next week.

3.Paul ...........................(watch) TV this evening.

4.Sally and Anne ......................(come) to class tomorrow.

5.They ..............................(study) hard tonight.

FUTURE WITH TIME CLAUSES

When I’ll tell him when I see him.

As soon as We’ll buy it as soon as we receive the money.

Before She’ll let us know before she leaves town.

By the time It’ll be too late by the time we get there.

The moment He’ll solve the problem the moment he faces it.

Until She’ll sing until she gets very old.

119. Match A sentences with B sentences :

A B

1.We’ll go for a walk a.the moment he enters the country.

2.When she arrives, b.until the mechanic comes.

3.Before he ends the class, c.the teacher will tell us the answer.

4.The engine won’t work d.she will telephone her parents.

5.The man will be put in prison e.when it stops raining.

( 120. Think about learning English in the future in Turkey. Which of these predictions do you ,your mother and your best friend agree with and which of them you and they do not agree with?

Put ( if you agree and ( if you disagree :

| |You |Mum |Friend |

|Children will learn English from the age of seven | | | |

|There will be few adults who won’t speak English | | | |

|Fewer lessons at school will be in English | | | |

|Everyone will need English for their job | | | |

|It will be more important to speak English than Turkish | | | |

( 121. Complete the following sentences using will or going to :

1. A: I’ve got to phone a number in Bolu. Do you know the code?

B: No,......................................................... in the directory for you.

2. A: What are you doing during Ramadan?

B: Absolutely nothing. We .............................................. rest.

3. A: Did you hear the weather forecast?

B: Yes......................................... cold at first, then ...............................

a little warmer this afternoon.

4. A: Why did you buy a house in such a terrible condition?

B: It was cheap. We ....................................... modernize it from top to the

bottom, and change it into a restaurant. What do you think?

5. A: What are you doing here? Jane is expecting you for lunch.

B: I completely forgot ! I ............................................ give her a ring, and

tell her I ................................ be late. Thanks for reminding.

( 122. Write the questions and negatives :

1.What time ………………………………………………….?

They’ll be here by 8.00.

2.When ………………………………………………………?

We’re leaving tomorrow.

3.What ………………………………………... at university?

She’s going to study History. ……………………….. Geography.

4.When …………………………………………. Mr Brown?

She’s meeting him at 10.00.

5.How long …………………………………………………?

I’ll be away for three days.

6.Where ……………………………………………………?

They’re going to live in Australia.

7.When ……………………………………………………?

I’ll move within two weeks.

8.We …………. next week. We’re sure it’s going to start tomorrow.

9.I …………… go for a walk. I’ll study instead.

10.It is going to be cold. But I don’t think it ………. snow.

THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

We use the future continuous tense * to describe an action which will be going on or continuing at some point in the future.

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I will be working |I won’t be working |Will I be working? |

|You will be working |You won’t be working |Will you be working? |

|He will be working |He won’t be working |Will he be working? |

|She will be working |She won’t be working |Will she be working? |

|It will be working |It won’t be working |Will it be working? |

|We will be working |We won’t be working |Will we be working? |

|They will be working |They won’t be working |Will they be working? |

( 123. Supply the future continuous tense form of the verbs :

1.At this time tomorrow morning, I .........................(buy) my daily newspaper.

2.At this time next year, they ....................(work) in Germany for a better life.

3.Don’t telephone him now. He..................................(make) his usual visit.

4.Tomorrow afternoon at this time, we ..........................(travel) to Istanbul.

5.It probably ..................................(rain) when he gets back.

GOING TO vs WILL FUTURE

10:30 A: Where will you go for your holidays this summer?

B: I’ll go to Bodrum.

10:31 C: Where will you go for your holidays this summer?

B: I’m going to go to BODRUM.

(It’s planned before the time of speaking.)

|We use the future simple |We use be going to |

|· When we make a prediction based on what we think, |· When we make a prediction based on what we can see |

|believe or imagine: |(evidence) or what we know: |

|→ In the year 2010 people will drive electric cars. |→ She is going to cut the flowers. |

|· for on ( the ( spot decisions: |· for actions we have already decided to do in the |

|→ I like this one better than the other. I’ll take it. |future: |

| |A: Do you like this blouse? |

| |B: Yes, why? |

| |A: I am going to give it to my son as a gift. |

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

We use the present perfect tense;

*to describe an action in the past which is connected in one way

or another with the present time.

*to explain an action which happened at an indefinite time in the past

*to explain a repeated action which happened in an indefinite time

in the past

Present Perfect:

a. They have lived in the flat for 2 years.

(They still live + indication of duration: 2 years.)

b. My sister has been an invalid all her life.

(She still is + indication of duration: all her life.)

This is called the present perfect.

|Have/has + verb III (past participle) |

e.g. to repair: I have repaired, she has repaired, they have repaired.

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I have worked |I haven’t worked |Have I worked? |

|You have worked |You haven’t worked |Have you worked? |

|He has worked |He hasn’t worked |Has he worked? |

|She has worked |She hasn’t worked |Has she worked? |

|It has worked |It hasn’t worked |Has it worked? |

|We have worked |We haven’t worked |Have we worked? |

|They have worked |They haven’t worked |Have they worked? |

Time expressions :

already, just, recently, yet

ever, never

for, since

still, scarcely, hardly

today, this week, this year

April September

= I have studied English for five months.

April September

= I have studied English since April.

1985 2000

I moved to Ankara. I live in Ankara

· I have lived in Ankara for 15 years.

· I have lived in Ankara since 1985.

( 124. Fill in the blanks supplying the present perfect tense form of the

verbs in the brackets :

1.I ....................(speak) to her about it several times.

2.We ...............(finish) all our work.

3.He ................(visit) her many times.

4.We ................(see) that film before.

5.They ............................(learn) many new words in this course.

6.I ...................................(be) to Istanbul many times.

7.She ..............................(lose) her dictionary.

8.My cousin .................................(go) to Russia for work.

9.I ......................................(move) into my new flat at last.

10.We ................................(live) in this flat for ten years.

( 125. Complete the following sentences using for or since :

1.We haven’t gone to the cinema ........................ September.

2.She has studied Medicine .............................. six years.

3.It hasn’t rained in that area .................................. 1918.

4.I haven’t received any postcards ....................... seven years.

5.He hasn’t seen his girlfriend ...................... several weeks.

6.My aunt has been in İstanbul ........................... 1986.

7.She has waited at the bus stop ................ thirty minutes.

8.I haven’t spoken Dutch ..................... four years.

9.Pınar hasn’t come to school .................. five days.

10.Our Science teacher has been ill .......... two months.

( 126. Fill in the blanks using the present perfect or the simple past form of the verbs :

1.Mr Coşkun .........................(go) to Germany last week.

2.We ................................(watch) that film several times.

3.We .......................................(learn) all the tenses at the course.

4.When I was young, I often ................................(go) fishing with my friends.

5.It ...................... (be) cold last week.

6.She ...................................(read) that book before.

7.He...............................(start) to prepare for the university exams last winter.

8.I .................................(do) a lot of homework yesterday evening.

9.My father ............................(help) me with my homework.

10.The First World War.........................(begin) in 1914 and.....................

(end) in 1918.

( 127. Make these sentences negative :

1.She has prepared for the exam for two years.

..............................................................................

2.The president has left for Britain.

..............................................................................

3.He has gone to the cinema.

..............................................................................

4.We have worked on this job for three hours.

..............................................................................

5.They have done very little work recently.

..............................................................................

6.The baby has slept for one hour.

..............................................................................

7.I have taught English for thirteen years.

..............................................................................

8.It has snowed all day.

..............................................................................

9.We have lived in Ankara since 1985.

..............................................................................

10.The boy has brought his ball to school.

..............................................................................

( 128. Answer these questions :

1.Have you ever been to a foreign country?

..............................................................................................

2.Have you ever talked to a tourist?

..............................................................................................

3.Have you ever swum across a river?

..............................................................................................

4.Have you ever been to the South East of Turkey? ..............................................................................................

5.Have you ever drunk whisky?

..............................................................................................

6.Have you ever been late for the classes? ..............................................................................................

7.Have you ever travelled by plane?

..............................................................................................

8.Have you ever helped someone?

..............................................................................................

9.Have you ever taken a photograph?

..............................................................................................

10.Have you ever eaten chicken for breakfast? ..............................................................................................

GONE ( BEEN

Erdal has been to Erdek.

(He’s just got back. He is here now.)

Serdal has gone to the cinema.

(He won’t be back for a while. He is not here now.)

THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Present Perfect Continuous:

She has been playing the piano for 3 hours. (She still is at the piano +indication of duration: 3 hours... used to emphasize the fact that she is playing the piano right now)

This is called the present perfect continuous.

|Have/has + been + verb + |ing |

e.g.: to sing: I have been singing, she has been singing,

they have been singing.

The Present Perfect tense is used * to talk about something which happened in an indefinite time in the past, such as an experience with ‘ever’ and ‘never’:

( Have you ever read an English newspaper?

*to talk about a past action which has a result in the present, such as a change:

(She’s done the cooking.

( 129. Exercise: Put the verbs in the brackets into the correct tense (Present Simple/ Present Continuous/ Present Perfect/ Present Perfect Continuous.) (See indications between brackets)

1 - In the USA, they (speak) American English. (truth)

…………………………………………………………………………

2 - I (read) this book quickly because Ann wants it back. (temporary)

…………………………………………………………………………

3 - He usually (come) at 8:00. (habit)

…………………………………………………………………………

4 - I (read) this book for the last 3 hours. (duration + insistence).

…………………………………………………………………………

5 - My family (live) here since 1982. (duration)

…………………………………………………………………………

6 - Look! It (rain)

…………………………………………………………………………

7 - They (listen) to their favourite record. Don’t disturb them. (temporary)

…………………………………………………………………………

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I have been working |I haven’t been working |Have I been working? |

|You have been working |You haven’t been working |Have you been working? |

|He has been working |He hasn’t been working |Has he been working? |

|She has been working |She hasn’t been working |Has she been working? |

|It has been working |It hasn’t been working |Has it been working? |

|We have been working |We haven’t been working |Have we been working? |

|They have been working |They haven’t been working |Have they been working? |

( 130. Write the verbs in the present perfect continuous :

1.What (you/ do) today? I (rewrite/ my project work)

...........................................................................................

2.How long (they) study English?

...........................................................................................

3.My sons (watch/football on TV) since seven o’clock.

...........................................................................................

4.My brothers (live) in Kdz.Ereğli for thirty years.

...........................................................................................

5.We are hungry. We (work) for hours .

...........................................................................................

6.They look terrible. They (study) for a fortnight on their project.

...........................................................................................

7.I (teach) for over twenty years.

...........................................................................................

8.How long (you/ride) as a hobby?

...........................................................................................

9.Your roommate (speak on the phone) for an hour.

...........................................................................................

10.Why (he/visit ) them so often?

...........................................................................................

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

We use the past perfect tense *to describe an action which took place in

the past before another past action.

e.g. She said that she had seen that film.

|the past perfect |the simple past |time of speaking (now) |future |

I learnt English. (1) I learnt German.(2)

First I learnt English.

Then I learnt German.

I learnt German after I had learnt English.

I had learnt English before I learnt German.

Past perfect

a. They saw the house.(1) They decided to buy it.(2)

b. After they had seen the house (1) they decided to buy it.(2)

*Both actions (saw/decided )belong to the past. The time reference is not apparent but the speaker knows when it happened. That’s why in (a) the verbs in each sentence, are in the past simple (ref. to past).

*But in sentence (b) we have joined the two sentences using after and doing so, we have chosen to contrast two actions belonging to the past (ref. to past) we want to show that action (1) happened before action (2).

*The tense used to show that something in the past was completed before another time in the past is called past perfect.

| had + V |past participle |

Examples of use with - to learn (irregular verb) :

I had learnt/you had learnt/he had learnt/she had learnt

We had learnt/They had learnt

( 131. Exercise : Join the following sentences using the words in brackets

and put the verbs into the correct tense (past perfect)

1.He (leave) the cinema.(1) He (go) to the cafeteria. (2) (after)

...........................................................................................................

2.She (tell) me his name. (1) He(leave).(2) (after) ...........................................................................................................

3.They (arrive).(1) The dinner already (2) (begin).(when) ...........................................................................................................

4.He (be) in Turkey.(1) He soon (remember) all he (2) (learn).(when) ...........................................................................................................

5.We( learn )English.(1) ( We (leave) for New Zealand. (2) (before) ...........................................................................................................

6.She (leave).(1) I (want) to see her again. (2) (as soon as) ...........................................................................................................

7.You (post) the letter? (1) You (write) it.(2) (after) ...........................................................................................................

( 132. Exercise :

Supply the past tense (past simple or past perfect)

1.The room (be) much smaller than she (think) at first.

.................................................................................................

2.The little boy (ask) what (happen) to his bicycle. .................................................................................................

3.I (can not) help thinking that I (see) them somewhere before. .................................................................................................

4.It (seem) ages since the ship (set off). .................................................................................................

5.We (worry) a lot before we (hear) that he was out of trouble. .................................................................................................

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I had worked |I hadn’t worked |Had I worked? |

|You had worked |You hadn’t worked |Had you worked? |

|He had worked |He hadn’t worked |Had he worked? |

|She had worked |She hadn’t worked |Had she worked? |

|It had worked |It hadn’t worked |Had it worked? |

|We had worked |We hadn’t worked |Had we worked? |

|They had worked |They hadn’t worked |Had they worked? |

( 133. Complete the sentences using the past perfect tense of the verbs:

1.I was sure that I ...................................(see) the boy before.

2.He said he ........................................(have) breakfast.

3.What did she say she .....................................(do) with the money?

4.He visited the museum after the other tourists.............. (leave) there.

5.He said he .............................................(find) the keys under the door mats.

6.The burglars ................................(leave) by the time the police arrived there.

7.Previously he ..........................(be) a successful businessman.

8.I ...................(meet) them before I drove a hundred kilometres.

9.I corrected the mistakes which my learners ......................................(make)

10.Someone in the team recognised that we ....................(take) the wrong way.

( 134. Complete the sentences using the past perfect :

1.By the time Ali came to Turkey, he ..................................... finished four

years of university.

2.Last week we had a test . Erdal overslept, so when he got to

class, ............................................ .

3.By the time he began the test, the other students ...................................................................... .

4.As soon as Erdal had turned his paper to the teacher, she returned it

because he ............................................................................................

5.He immediately left the class after the teacher ......................................................................... .

( 135. Combine these two sentences :

1.It rained a lot. The roads were closed, so workers went home late.

...............................................................................................................................

2.Machines opened the roads. The cars served the people.

...............................................................................................................................

3.Heavy duty machines opened the roads. All the roads were damaged.

...............................................................................................................................

4.I arrived home too late. I had a late dinner.

...............................................................................................................................

5. I cleaned my teeth. I went to bed.

...............................................................................................................................

( 136. Put the verbs into the correct tense :

I......................(look) around the apartment where I.......................(spend) most of my life. The window ..........................(be) open and sounds from the street .......................(mix) with the talk show from the radio that my mother always .................................(keep) on. It ............................(seem) that she............................. (turn) the volume up to get her mind off the fact that I ................................(leave).She .................................(sit) in her favourite chair, the one I.............................(have to)fix at least twice a year for as long as I remember. Who......................(fix) it now? I ........(wonder) absently. The door bell............................(ring) and my sister...........(enter) without waiting for someone to let her in.

THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

a. He worked in a factory for ten years.(1)

Then he got this new job.(2)

b. He had been working in a factory for ten years

before he got this new job.

*Both actions (worked/got) belong to a definite past.

(time reference : for ten years)

*That’s why in (a) the verbs are in the past simple (see :past simple)

*In (b), we have joined sentences (1) and (2) using before and doing so,

we show that action (1) happened before action (2)

*We also want to insist on the continuity of action (1).

The tense used to ;

1. show that an action in the past happened before another action

in the past.

2. insist on the continuity of that action is called past perfect

continuous :

|had + been + V + ing |

( 137. Examples of use with - to go /(irregular)

I had been going / They had been going

Exercise : Put the verbs between brackets in the right tense, either

in the past perfect continuous / past simple :

1.They (live) in Italy for 7 years. They (leave) the U.S.A. (when)

...........................................................................................................

2.I (wait) for her for over an hour. She (ring) me up. (when) ...........................................................................................................

3.They (walk) in the park for an hour. They (come) home (before). ...........................................................................................................

4.He (work) with his class since September. He (learn) this (when). ...........................................................................................................

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I had been working |I hadn’t been working |Had I been working? |

|You had been working |You hadn’t been working |Had you been working? |

|He had been working |He hadn’t been working |Had he been working? |

|She had been working |She hadn’t been working |Had she been working? |

|It had been working |It hadn’t been working |Had it been working? |

|We had been working |We hadn’t been working |Had we been working? |

|They had been working |They hadn’t been working |Had they been working? |

( 138. Rewrite the sentences using the words given :

1.She started doing the housework at nine.(at noon/for three hours)

..........................................................................................................

2.The students started learning English in September.(in May/

for nine months)

..........................................................................................................

3.We started investigating the event in November l996.(in May l998/for

thirty-one months)

..........................................................................................................

4.I started working for the Ministry in 1985.(in l990/for five years)

..........................................................................................................

5.They started fighting for the right to vote in l850.(in 1932/for 82 years)

..........................................................................................................

( 139. Complete the story with the correct tenses of the verbs in brackets:

Paragraph 1: past simple or past continuous

Paragraph 2: past simple or past perfect

Paragraph 3: past simple or present perfect

Five years ago I ………..(have to) make a big decision. At the time I ……….. (work) for a small engineering company. However, things …………. (not go) very well for the company and it ……….. (lose) money. One day while we ……. (work) as normal, the boss……….(tell) us that the company ……….. (be) bankrupt. We ………. (be) all unemployed.

That lunch-time we ……….. (go) to the pub as usual. We were all very depressed. I ……. (work) at the company for over fifteen years and some of the people ………….. (be) there longer than that. Well, of course we ……(talk) about the problem. Then the landlord of the pub ………. (hear) the news. He ……… (say) : ‘Why don’t you buy the company?’ At first we all ……. (laugh), but then we ………… (start) to discuss it properly. We ……….. (know) the problems. The company …………(lose) a lot of customers, because it ………… (not develop) new products. But finally we …………. (decide) to go for it.

So we ……….(buy) the company. The first few years ……….(be) very difficult. But we ……… (work) hard and we ………..(have) a bit of luck. We finally ………(turn) the corner three years ago. Since then we …………(do) pretty well. Last year we ………(take on) four new people and so far this year we ………..(take on) another ten. It ……….(be) a big gamble six years ago, but I …………(not regret) it for a minute.

THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

We use the future perfect tense * to describe an action which ( at a certain point in the future) will be considered a past and completed action :

e.g. By next September 11 we will have moved to another city.

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I will have worked |I will not have worked |Will I have worked? |

|You will have worked |You won’t have worked |Will you have worked? |

|He will have worked |He won’t have worked |Will he have worked? |

|She will have worked |She won’t have worked |Will she have worked? |

|It will have worked |It won’t have worked |Will it have worked? |

|We will have worked |We won’t have worked |Will we have worked? |

|They will have worked |They won’t have worked |Will they have worked? |

TIME EXPRESSIONS

By tomorrow By this time tomorrow

next week next week

next month next month

( 140. Read and answer the questions :

MONDAY

|8:00-8:50 |Conference with presidential advisors |

|9:00-9:50 |Breakfast meeting with the prime minister, the president and their |

| |interpreters. |

|10:00-10:50 |Televised speech by the president on peace relations between the two countries |

|11:00-11:50 |The President and the prime minister and their wives will visit an automobile |

| |factory. |

|12:00-13:00 |Private lunch with presidential advisors |

|13:00-15:00 |Discussion of import-export needs of the two countries: president, prime |

| |minister, and ministers of trade. |

|15:00-15:30 |Signing ceremonies for a new trade agreement |

|15:35-16:00 |Meeting with television and newspaper reporters: president and prime minister. |

|16:00-17:00 |Rest period in hotel |

|17:00 |Get ready for formal dinner at 18:00 |

1.What will the president be doing at 9:00?

2.Whom will he be meeting with at 9:00 ?

3.By 10:00 what will the president and prime minister already have done?

(give two actions).

4.At what time will the president be making his speech on television?

5.What will be happening at 11:00?

6.What will the president already have done by 13:00?

(give four or five actions).

7.Why will these officials be meeting from 13:00 to 15:00?

8.By 16:00 what important document will they have signed?

9.When will the president and prime minister be meeting with reporters?

10.Will the president be touring the city from 16:00 to 17:00?

11.By what time (approximately) will the president have got ready to go

to dinner?

12.Before the day is over, how many meetings will the president have had?

THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

|Affirmative |Negative |Question |

|I will have been working |I won’t have been working |Will I have been working? |

|You will have been working |You won’t have been working |Will you have been working? |

|He will have been working |He won’t have been working |Will he have been working? |

|She will have been working |She won’t have been working |Will she have been working? |

|It will have been working |It won’t have been working |Will it have been working? |

|We will have been working |We won’t have been working |Will we have been working? |

|They will have been working |They won’t have been working |Will they have been working? |

( 141. Complete the sentences using the future perfect continuous tense of

the verbs :

1.In 2010 I ......................................(work)as a teacher for fifteen years.

2.In June, she ...................................(study) English for five years.

3.At seven o’clock tomorrow we ............................(travel) around the world for seventy hours.

4.In July, we ........................................(live) in this flat for eight years.

5.On Monday, he ................................. (sleep) for a week.

THE IMPERATIVE

[pic]

( 142. Provide sentences for the above pictures using imperatives :

a………………………………………………………………………….

b………………………………………………………………………….

c………………………………………………………………………….

d………………………………………………………………………….

e………………………………………………………………………….

A. First and third person imperative :

| Let + noun/pronoun + infinitive (without to) |

Positive Negative

Let us go. Let them not go !

But this usage is not common, instead of this below pattern is used.

(Let’s go.) = They must not go

= I don’t want them to go.

Let him go.

Let them come. Let them not come.

B. The second person imperative :

Positive Negative

Go ! Don’t go !

Come ! Don’t come !

study ! Don’t study !

Do study !

(If we want to be more persuasive.)

( 143. Write the affirmative form of these sentences :

1.Don’t drive too fast!

…………………………………………………………………………………

2.Don’t buy expensive clothes!

…………………………………………………………………………………

3.Don’t study in the evenings!

.............…………………………………………………………………………

( 144. Write the negative form of these sentences :

1.Speak slowly!

………………………………………………………………………………

e and help me!

………………………………………………………………………………

3.Take your umbrella!

………………………………………………………………………………

4.Go downstairs!

………………………………………………………………………………

( 145. Write imperatives for these situations :

1. ‘I am very tired.’

………………………………………………………………………………

2.’You are late for the classes. What does the teacher say?’

…………………………………………………………………………………

3.’It is very cold outside. What do you tell your friend to do?’

…………………………………………………………………………………

4.’You couldn’t get up early today. What did your mother tell you to do?’

…………………………………………………………………………………

PREPOSITIONS

about between out

above beyond over

across by since

after despite through

against down throughout

along during to

among except(for) toward(s)

around for under

as from unlike

at in until

before into up

behind like upon

below near with

beneath of within

beside off without

besides on onto

Study these:

1. We don’t know what will happen in the future.

2. She was born in October.

3. I was born on October 29,1961.

4. The travellers walked along the road.

5. The lady walked across the street.

6. They watch TV at night.

7. The cat is under the table.

8. We live in Ankara.

9. They walked among the trees.

MULTIPLE WORD PREPOSITIONS

according to in contrast to/with

ahead of in favour of

along with in front of

as a consequence of in spite of

as a result of instead of

aside from in the event of

away from next to

because of on account of

by means of on behalf of

contrary to on the top of

due to owing to

for fear of prior to

for the benefit of regardless of

for the purpose of subsequent to

in addition to together with

in back of with reference to

in case of with regard to

in comparison with with respect to

in connection with with the exception of

VERB + PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS

Combination Meaning

agree to be willing to

agree with feel the same way as / about

approve of have the favourable opinion of

bring about cause

bring on result in

bring up raise for discussion

call on ask(someone) to do

call off cancel

call up telephone

come out be published

come up arise

consist of be made of

consult with get the opinion of

count on depend on; rely on

depend on rely on; count on

differ from be unlike

do without sacrifice

get over recover from

get up wake up

give out distribute

give up surrender

hand in submit

keep on continue

keep up continue; maintain

listen to pay attention to the sound of

look after take care of

look over review

look up search for(in a book)

make out understand

make up invent; reconcile with

object to oppose by arguing against

pass out distribute

pass up fail to take advantage of

pick up gather or collect

prepare for get ready for; study for

put off postpone

put out extinguish

recover from get well

refer to call or direct attention to

rely on count on; depend on

reply to answer

respond to answer

succeed in be successful at

take over assume control

take up consider; discuss

think about consider

think off have an opinion about

turn down reject

worry about have concern or anxiety about

Prepositions of time : in, on, at

|parts of the day |in the morning |

| |at noon, at night |

|months |in May |

|seasons |in spring |

|years |in 1998 |

|decades |in the 1980s |

|centuries |in the twentieth century |

|dates |on 19 May |

|days of the week |on Monday |

| |on Monday morning |

|‘ special ’ day |on my birthday |

|times |at 8.00 |

|holidays |at the weekend |

Prepositions of position and movement

|at, from, in, into, off, on, onto, out of, to |

*Prepositions of date and time :

at (time) I’ll see you at 4 p.m. tomorrow.

by (time) I’ll have finished by 7 p.m. (before 7 p.m.)

on (day / date ) I’ll see you on Monday

in (period of time) I’ll see you in July / in the afternoon etc.

in time not late : School started at 8. I arrived at 7.45.

on time at the time arranged/not before, not late, not at 8.55,not at 9.05 at 9.00.

until /till (time) I waited until 6 p.m. I waited till 6 p.m.

from .... to (period of time) I waited for three hours/for ages.

during I had a good time during my holidays.

the summer.

(period of time; introduced by article or possessive)

since (point of time) She has been here since last July.

since she was young.

*Prepositions of travel :

by We came by bus/car/train/plane/air/boat/sea.

on He came on foot/ a bicycle.

( 146. Fill in the blanks with in / on / at :

1.She gets up …. seven o’clock every morning.

2.The elections were …………..April 18th 1999.

3.The concert is ……………….. October.

4.The schools start …………….. June.

5.Dinner is ……. 8 p.m.

6.The film will start …… 9 o’clock …….. the evening.

7.There are a few eggs …………….. the fridge.

8.My birthday is ………..29th of October.

9.There were five oranges ……… the basket.

10.She is a student ……………….. İstanbul.

11.Erdal is a student …… Anatolian Highschool …. Ankara.

12.My house is ……. Yunus Emre Street.

13.There were about 40.000 people ……. the football match.

14.’The Passive’ was …………. page 141.

15.I was …… time for the programme.

16.The plates are ……. the table.

17.The kilim is ……. the floor.

18.Who is ………the door?

19.My sister is a worker ……… Wuppertal.

20.The plane is …………… the runway.

21.Who is that lady …………. the photograph?

22.There are many books ………. the bookcase.

23.Is there a good hotel ……….. the centre of the town?

24.Our office is ……….. the fifth floor.

25.The Prime Minister is ……………… the meeting at the moment.

( 147. Exercise : Fill in the blanks with a preposition;

on ( in ( of ( since ( to ( till ( etc.

1.Can you take that letter ........ once .............. the post-office.

2.Joe is talking to her ............... the phone.

3.He is taking me ................ the restaurant tomorrow.

4.The man jumped ......... his car, bought a newspaper.

5.What did you do ........... Sunday? Did you stay .............. home?

6.He’s been rather depressed ......... 2 or 3 days.

7.She told me to be ............. the station ........... ten.

She doesn’t want me to be late.

8.I won’t take a taxi. I’d rather go ........... foot.

9.We stayed near Casablanca ........... 2 weeks ............ 1984.

10.Did you take many pictures ........... that time?

11.The teacher took the map ...... the wall and put up a picture instead.

12.He travelled ....... the American continent ........ the summer.

13.The car fell ..... the gap ........... the old bridge.

14.I watched TV ........ dinner time and then went ...... bed.

15.She has been waiting for him ...... 3 o’clock.

( 148. Complete the sentences with to, at, from :

1.Kathy works ................. the post office.

2.She travelled ................... Rome and arrived .....................the office here

in Ankara.

3.We didn’t go ..................... her party.

4.They landed .............................. Adana airport at 4 p.m.

5.He arrived ..................... the station at seven in the morning.

( 149. Complete the sentences with on, onto or off :

1.We don’t have any photos .................... the wall.

2.Can I sit ..................... this chair?

3.She lay the books ................ her bed.

4.They spent the day .................. the beach.

5.The boy climbed .................... the roof.

6.He got on the bus but got ........... at the next stop.

7.We usually put vase ................the table in the living room.

8.You mustn’t park ................... the grass.

( 150. Complete the sentences with in, into, out of :

1.She is living ....... a flat of her parents’.

2.We can’t park ................the car park.

3.At the end of the school day, all the students hurried ......................the school

building.

4.She carried her old sofa ........................ her new flat.

5.I moved .................. my flat in Çankaya last year.

151. Complete the sentences with to, at, from, onto, off, on, into, in, out of :

1.She got ................. the bath when the door bell rang.

2.I arrived ................. work late yesterday morning.

3.We’re going to stay ................. a friend’s flat next summer.

4.The girls were very excited when they got back .............. the cinema.

5.He stopped ...................... the traffic lights and everybody got angry with him.

6.It was very nice so I walked ................... school this morning.

|Next to, between, in front of, above, below, over, behind, |

|under, opposite, along, across, down, up, round, past |

[pic]

|[pic] |

|The hotel is opposite the bank. |

|[pic] |

|The baby is behind her mother. |

|[pic] |

|The girl is walking along the street. |

|[pic] |

|The cat is under the table. |

( 152. Choose the correct preposition :

1.One hot summer morning, we decided to take a trip in

our car from/to the city from/to the sea.

2.We got in/into the car.

3.We drove along/around the highway.

4.We went on/up one side of Mt. Binboğa.

5.We went down/past the other side.

6.The highway went across/around the lake and around/across the bridge.

7.Then we drove among/through the forest.

8.We drove past/across the big water tower.

9.We arrived in/at the beach.

10.We climbed out in/of the car.

11. She comes to/from the richest city in the world.

11. I came from a poor area at/of the city.

12. The travellers leave for Berlin at/on Sunday the 22nd.

13. She arrives in/at Ankara in/at 8.00 in/at the evening.

14. She flies at/on Turkish Airlines.

15. I walked over below/beside her.

16. He led me along/across the dark.

17. The first thing I saw when I came in/into the room was a bouquet

in/of parsley.

18. He slept on/of the second floor below/under Pınar’s room.

19. I found a girl working on/in the garden next to/above the house.

[pic]

( 153. Look at the picture and fill in the blanks with one of the following prepositions.

Each preposition may be used only once.

down to through of

along from across up

around at past into

One hot summer morning, we decided to take a trip in our car _______ the town the sea. We got the car and drove _____ the highway. We went one side of Mt. Ağrı and _____________ the other side. The highway went the lake and _______________ the bridge. Then we drove the forest and the big water tower. We arrived the beach and climbed out the car.

[pic]

( 154. Look at the picture and fill in the blanks with one of the following

prepositions.

in of behind

on at next to

1. The woman the newsagent’s is buying something.

2. The briefcase the floor belongs to the man.

3. The man the train is the conductor.

4. The man the sweater is reading a magazine.

5. One the women is wearing gloves.

6. The man the newsagent’s is giving the woman her change.

7. The bags the baggage cart belong to the woman.

8. Two the people are sitting.

9. The sign the ticket counter is a travel poster.

10. Both the women have short hair.

[pic]

( 155. Answer these questions :

1. Where is the man in the parking lot standing? (between)

2. Where is the parking lot? (beside)

3. Where is there a sale? (at)

4. Where is the door to YKM Kızılay? (to the right of)

5. Where is the black car parked? (next to)

6. Where is the white car parked? (on the opposite side of)

7. Where is the parking lot sign? (above)

8. Where is the shop window? (below)

9. Where is the YKM Kızılay located? (on)

10. Where are the tall buildings? (behind)

( 156. Read the information below and draw according to the

discretion :

The supermarket is next to the fire department.

The supermarket is behind the fire department.

The supermarket is across from Mehmet’s house.

The supermarket is on the corner of Yunus Emre Street.

1. City hall is next to the police station.

2. Pınar’s house is between Mehmet’s house and the house for sale.

3. The library is next to the tennis court.

4. An apartment building is opposite the police station.

5. Erdal’s house is near the elementary school.

6. Ayşe’s boutique is between the supermarket and Day Nursery.

7. The fire department is on the corner of 4th street and Atatürk Street.

8. An elementary school is opposite the park.

9. A park is at the end of Atatürk Street between the City Hall and the library.

10. The Police Station is on Poplar Street next to the City Hall.

11. Day Nursery is near the Apartment building and next to Ayşe’s house.

12. A house for sale is on Yunus Emre Street next to Serdal’s house.

13. Serdal’s house is at the end of Yunus Emre Street.

14. A Tennis court is opposite Serdal’s house.

CHAPTER - III

MODALS

May-Might

Can-Could

Must

Needn’t

Should-Ought to

*Dare

*Need to +Don’t/Doesn’t need to +Needn’t

*Had better

*Managed to

*Be to

* Be allowed to

* Be obliged to

*Used to

*Past Modals

MODALS MODAL - LIKE VERBS

may

might

can be able to

could be able to

shall

should be to/ought to/had better/ be supposed to

would used to

must have to/ have got to

will be going to

would like to

would rather

Modal auxiliaries :

*Can/could-May/might-Must-Needn’t-Should and Would are called

modal auxiliaries.

They follow very strict rules :

-They are never followed by another modal auxiliary,

-They never take an - s or an -ing form,

e.g. He can run fast.

-They are always followed by an infinitive (without to)

in a complete sentence :

e.g. She will come tomorrow.

-And can stand alone in a short answer :

e.g. You should try harder. Yes, I should.

-They can be followed by a certain number of verbal constructions but

the auxiliary of the verbal construction is always in the infinitive.

e.g. He is working, I think.

= He must be working.(continuous)

She is given a book.(passive)

= She will be given a book.(passive)

They are being beaten, perhaps. (passive continuous form)

= They might be being beaten.(rare)

-They express a certain number of notions and the general rule to

locate the action in time is as follows :

| |

|Action in the present : modal auxiliary + infinitive |

| |

|Action in the past : modal auxiliary + have + past participle |

*Note that in the past , like in the present ,the modal auxiliary is followed by an infinitive : have - the infinitive form “to have”

-In certain constructions, it is not possible to use a modal auxiliary in

this case, we have to use an equivalent :

| |

|Can = be able to + infinitive (capacity, possibility) |

|Must = have to + infinitive (obligation) |

|Can/may = be allowed to + infinitive (permission) |

e.g.

He will come + He must come.

=He will have to come.

( 157. Complete the chart with the suitable form of the modals;

|NOTIONS |IN THE PAST |IN THE PRESENT |IN THE FUTURE |

|Advice | |should + infinitive | |

| | |shouldn’t + infinitive | |

|Capacity |could + infinitive |can + infinitive | |

|Incapacity |could not / couldn’t + infinitive |cannot/can’t + infinitive | |

|Condition |would have + past participle |will + infinitive | |

| |will have + past participle |would + infinitive | |

|Deduction |must have + past participle |must + infinitive | |

| |can’t have + past participle |can’t + infinitive | |

|Future | |shall/will + infinitive | |

| | |‘ll + infinitive | |

|Missed opportunity |could have + past participle | | |

|Reproach |shouldn’t have +past participle |shouldn’t + infinitive | |

|Obligation |had to + infinitive |must + infinitive |will/shall + have to + infinitive |

|Absence of obligation |needn’t have + past participle |needn’t + infinitive | |

|Permission |could + infinitive |can/may + infinitive | |

|Possibility |could + infinitive |can+infinitive |will/shall + be able to + infinitive |

| |be able to + infinitive | | |

|Impossibility |could not/couldn’t + infinitive |cannot/can’t + infinitive | |

|Probability |must/may/might + infinitive |must/may/might + infinitive | |

|Prohibition |was/were not allowed to + infinitive |mustn’t + infinitive | |

Study this example :

a. It’s possible for you to come tomorrow.

b. You can come tomorrow.

( 158. Exercise :

Change the following exercises using a modal :

1.You think it would be better if Serdal didn’t come tomorrow.

.............................................................................................................

2.You think you do not have the ability to swim so far. .............................................................................................................

3.You’re disappointed you didn’t pass the exam. .............................................................................................................

4.You hope it will be possible for you to go to the party. .............................................................................................................

5.You’re quite sure he’s having a few days off. .............................................................................................................

6.You reproach yourself for not buying that record; it was so cheap. .............................................................................................................

7.You don’t think he was working, he was ill in bed. .............................................................................................................

8.You think it wasn’t necessary for Paul to wash the car. .............................................................................................................

9.You think it was very late when you heard that explosion. .............................................................................................................

10.You think there is a condition before you come ; get an invitation. .............................................................................................................

11.You think the ambulance driver was obliged to drive very fast. .............................................................................................................

12.You imagine, but you are not sure at all, the man was a thief. .............................................................................................................

13.You think it isn’t necessary for your mother to do the cooking. .............................................................................................................

14.You think it would be a good thing if you learn English. .............................................................................................................

15.You think perhaps he is a teacher, but you are not sure. .............................................................................................................

MAY

We use may * to show permission

* to indicate doubt or possible future action

e.g. : You may smoke.

(You have permission to smoke here.)

She may leave tomorrow.

(It is possible that she will leave tomorrow.)

MIGHT

We use might a. For possibility 1.about a future action

e.g. I might leave school during the next break.

2.about a present condition

e.g. She didn’t appear today. She might be at home.

b. For past of indirect : She said she might get the job.

CAN

We use can * to talk about what someone can or can’t do ;

a)as a general truth in the present :

e.g. : I can swim.

b)in the present, at this moment :

e.g. : I can help you.

c)in the future, with a time expression :

e.g. : He can visit us tomorrow.

( 159. Answer these questions :

1.Can you speak English?

…………………………………………………………………………..

2.Can you play the guitar?

…………………………………………………………………………..

3.Can you make a cake?

…………………………………………………………………………..

4.Can you drive a car ?

…………………………………………………………………………..

5.Can you ride a bicycle?

…………………………………………………………………………..

6.Can you read English books?

…………………………………………………………………………..

7.Can you fly a plane?

…………………………………………………………………………..

8.Can you swim?

…………………………………………………………………………..

9.Can you tell English stories?

…………………………………………………………………………..

10.Can you use a computer?

…………………………………………………………………………..

1-Can for ability : Can you type?

2-Can for permission : Can she use the car whenever she likes?

3-Can for possibility : Can you get to the top of the mountain in one day?

4-Can for negative deduction : She can’t be hungry.She has just had dinner.

( 160. Is it can for ability, permission, possibility,negative deduction ?

1.Can I go out? ………………………………

2.Can you close the door? ………………………………

3.Our baby can walk in a few weeks. ………………………………

4.Can you type? ………………………………

5.I can’t pay you today. ………………………………

6.You can ski on the hills. ………………………………

7.We can’t bathe here on account of sharks. ………………………………

8.It can’t be a helicopter. ………………………………

9.She can’t still be writing the letter. ………………………………

10.They can come and stay with us. ………………………………

( 161. Complete the sentences with can or can’t :

1.A cat …………. fly, but it ………. climb the trees.

2.A dog ……… bark, but it ………. read.

3.I ………. read a book by moonlight, but I ……… read in sunlight.

4.Green plants …………. produce oxygen, but rocks ……………. .

5.An English teacher …….. teach English, but she ………. teach Maths.

6.A baby ….. speak, but an adult ……….. speak.

7.A young person ……… play basketball well, but an old person …………. .

( 162. Fill in the blanks with can or can’t :

1.That man is deaf. He ……………. listen to the radio.

2.She is very rich. She ……………… buy a mercedes.

3.I am very tired. I ………………. mend the fuse now.

4.Teresa is very old. She …………….. play basketball.

5.Serdal is very tall. He ………. touch the ceiling.

6.He is very poor. He ……….. go on holiday in Bodrum.

7.My father is very fat. He …………… run fast.

8.She is blind. She ………….. notice the traffic lights.

9.I have got a driving licence. I ……….. drive a car.

10.Erdal is a hard-working boy. He ………… pass his class.

( 163. Make sentences :

1.Erdal can help his mother.

1.Erdal/help/his mother

2……………………………………………………………………..

2.Serdal/play/basketball.

3.……………………………………………………………………..

3.Mary/cook.

4.……………………………………………………………………..

4.play/chess

5. ……………………………………………………………………..

5.Bilgesu/swim.

( 164. Substitute :

1.She can eat three loaves of bread.

1 2

3

a. Who ………………………………………………………………….?

b. How many …………………………………………………………...?

c. What .……………………………………………………………..do ?

2.Erdal and Serdal can speak two languages.

1 2

a. Who ……………………………………………………………….?

b. How many…………………………………………………………..?

CAN-- COULD -- BE ABLE TO

Infinitive -------- to be able to

Present can am/is/are able to

Future --------- will be able to

Past could was/were able to

Present Perfect ------- have/has been able to

COULD

a. past ability : When I was nine years old I could swim very well.

b. ability based on certain conditions : I could be a good footballer if I was allowed to play.

c. possibility : Be careful with the lighter! You could start a fire.

d. permission : Could I come with you?

e. polite request : Could you please help me?

f. suggestion : You could buy a shirt for your father for the Fathers’ Day.

g. past of can in indirect speech : She said that I could attend my lessons.

MUST - HAVE TO - HAVE GOT TO

We use must or have to to express necessity or strong obligation. In general, we use must for the expression of orders or commands and we use have to for everyday expression of necessity. Have got to is interchangeable with have to. But there is sometimes a difference. Have to is used for habitual actions and single actions. Have got to is used for single actions.

( 165. Exercise :

Change the following sentences :

1.We have to use special glasses to observe the eclipse.

(-) ……………………………………………………...

(?)……………………………………………………...

2.She has to read daily newspapers.

(-)……………………………………………………...

(?)……………………………………………………...

3.I have to go now.

(-)……………………………………………………...

(?)……………………………………………………...

4.Gülay doesn’t have to work for the state.

(+)……………………………………………………...

(?)……………………………………………………...

5.They don’t have to read a lot.

(+)……………………………………………………...

(?)……………………………………………………...

6.He had to leave the house early.

(-)……………………………………………………...

(?)……………………………………………………...

7.Did she have to help them?

(-)……………………………………………………...

(+)……………………………………………………...

8.Does your mother have to work all day?

(-)……………………………………………………...

(+)……………………………………………………...

9.Do you have to go to school every day?

(-)……………………………………………………...

(+)……………………………………………………...

10.She has to go and see what is going on.

(-)……………………………………………………...

(?)……………………………………………………...

( 166. Answer these questions :

1.What time do you have to get up during the school holidays?

………………………………………………………………………..

2.When do you have to study? ………………………………………………………………………..

3.What do you have to wear at school? ………………………………………………………………………..

4.How often do you have to go to school in a week? ………………………………………………………………………..

5.How many hours does a high school teacher have to teach? ………………………………………………………………………..

NEEDN’T

We use needn’t to express things which are not necessary to do :

Today is my day off, I needn’t go to work.

( 167. Read the instructions and complete the sentences with

must, mustn’t, or needn’t :

Don’t leave disks in the disk drive.

Keep disks in their files.

You can use my disks if you want.

Don’t put drinks near the computer.

You can leave the computer on, if you want.

Lock the door when you leave.

Don’t overload your computer.

1.You ………………. leave disks in the disk drive.

2.You ………………. keep disks in their file.

3.You ………………. use your own disks.

4.You ………………. put drinks near the computer.

5.You ………………. switch the computer off.

6.You ………………. lock the door when you leave.

7.You ………………. overload your computer.

8.You ………………. read the instructions carefully.

SHOULD - OUGHT TO

We use should and ought to ;

*to suggest obligation

*to state that someone should have done something that was not done

or

someone should not have done something that was done

She should spend more time on her show.

She ought to spend more time on her show.

168. Put in should or ought to in the blanks :

1.You ................... try to come to school on time.

2. I ........................spend more time on English.

3.They ...................not (smoke) so much.

4.We .....................(pay) attention to what the teacher says.

5.You ....................not (work) so hard.

( 169. Rewrite these sentences using a model auxiliary :

1.Is it possible for anyone to go there?

................................................................................................

2.At the age of nine, I didn’t know how to write a letter. ................................................................................................

3.Are you able to come and help me tonight? ................................................................................................

4.She refuses to save some money. ................................................................................................

5.It’s essential that we sign the book every morning. ................................................................................................

6.Do not tell anything about this. It’s very important that it

remains a secret. ................................................................................................

7.Are the students allowed to smoke at school? ................................................................................................

8.She promised to write to me soon. ................................................................................................

9.I intend to learn a seventh language next year. ................................................................................................

10.It’s not a good idea for you to leave home at this age. ................................................................................................

( 170. Complete the sentences using the correct

form of the modals :

1.He is still young. He ............... (play) football well.

2.I’d like .................... (work) with her one day.

3.I.....................(find) my suitcase anywhere.

4.I don’t love....................(spend) all morning in bed on Sundays.

5.Do you know where I .............(buy) sun glasses?

6.Your university exam ..............(pass) successfully if you study hard.

7.She ate the mulberries that were on the grass, because she .............

(not climb) the tree.

8.You ..............(do) whatever you want to.

9.I ...................(understand) what he said, he spoke too fast.

10. If they didn’t arrive in Ankara on time, she ...........(die) of bleeding.

( 171. Complete the sentences using : should, ought to, must, need

or have to:

1.You ............... respect her. She has done a lot for you.

2.Why ................... I stay at home all day. It’s my day off.

3.They ..................... stay in a hotel. They can stay with us.

4.It’s your own problem that you’re late. You ............... depart earlier.

5.I don’t think it’s a good idea to help them. They ....... spend so much.

6.I’m going to punish you. You .................... come to class late.

7.We................leave late last night, because my brother from Izmir arrived late.

8.He ................... tell her this story. She knows all the facts about him.

9.We stayed in a hotel, so we .................... prepare our meals.

10.He has come here for five weeks' stay. He .................. be in such a hurry.

DARE

Dare can be used as a modal auxiliary in the question and negative form.

And it can be used as a main verb followed by to- infinitive :

| present past |

|negative I do not dare I dared not |

|She does not dare He ………….. |

|affirmative I daresay there will Nobody dared (to) … |

|be a kitchen in the house* |

|interrogative Do you dare? Dared you? |

|Does she dare? |

* ‘dare’ is not normally used in the affirmative except in the expressions.

* ‘daresay’ has two idiomatic meanings;

a) I suppose:

e.g. I daresay there will be students in the cafeteria.

b) I accept what you say:

e.g. I daresay you can drive.

(You can drive, I believe, but this road is too dangerous for foreigners.)

e.g.

I dare to come after all.

I daren’t ask my boss that question.

Dare you jump from that tall building?

I dare you are not mistaken.

e.g.

Do the boys miss the lessons?

No. They daren’t miss the lessons.

Will Susan speak to Mary?

No. She daren’t speak to Mary.

172. Do these in the same way :

1.Will you stay out during the night?

............................................................................

2.Does your niece go to the cinema alone?

............................................................................

3.Do the boys watch TV all the time?

............................................................................

4.Does your sister drive your father’s car?

............................................................................

5.Does Erdal stay out late ?

............................................................................

NEED TO + DON’T/DOESN’T NEED TO + NEEDN’T

Positive Statement Negative Statement Question

I need to go. I don’t need to go. Do I need to go?

He needs to go. He doesn’t need to go. Does he need to go?

HAD BETTER (=should)

( 173. Read each situation and write a sentence with had better :

We use had better for offers, suggestions or advice.

With ‘to be had up for’ it means ‘to be prosecuted for’

|e.g. |

| You’d better take the rest of the day off. |

| You’d better not drive so fast. You’ll be had up for speeding. |

1.You are going for a walk with Ali. You think you should take an

umbrella because it might rain. What do you say to Ali?

...............................................................................................................................

2.Your friend doesn’t feel very well today. You think she should stay at

home and relax. What do you say to her?

...............................................................................................................................

3.You think your sister will meet someone she doesn’t like at the party. So you

think it is a good idea for her to stay home. What do you say to your

sister?................................................................................................………….

MANAGED TO

There was a lot of traffic but we managed to go to the airport in time.

(There was a lot of traffic but we could go to the airport in time.)

I was very tired of writing that book, but I managed to finish it.

BE TO

I am to go and see the case. (I have to go and see the case.)

You are to help the poor. You should help the poor.)

We were to be there on time.

She was to become more and more beautiful.

BE ALLOWED TO

You are allowed to drive only if you have a current driving licence. (otherwise you can not drive.)

BE OBLIGED TO

We were obliged to stay there till the end of the ceremony. (We wanted to leave, but they didn’t let us to do so.)

USED TO

We use used to in three forms with three different meanings :

1.used to + infinitive

We use this form to express habitual past actions:

My mother used to smoke 20 cigarettes a day.

2.To be used to + -ing

This means to be accustomed to:

I must go to bed early. I’m used to having nine hours of sleep a night.

(or: 9 hours' sleep)

3.To get used to

This means to become accustomed to :

I don’t like English food, but I will get used to eating it soon.

( 174. Answer these questions :

1.What sport did you use to play when you were ten?

...................................................................................................................

2.Did you use to speak a lot in the class when you were at primary school?

...................................................................................................................

3.What do you think your mother used to do when she was your age?

...................................................................................................................

4.How often did you use to visit your grandparents when you were at

primary school?

...................................................................................................................

5.Did you use to eat your nails when you were young?

...................................................................................................................

( 175. Complete the following sentences:

1.I got used to ..................................(drink tea).

2.My sons are used to ..............................(eat out).

3.Serdal is used to .............................(speak English).

4.Did it take long to get used to .............................

(pronounce English words).

5.It was easy for me to get used to .......................(drink white wine).

BE USED TO = BE ACCUSTOMED TO

Be used to and be accustomed to have the same meaning.

( 176. Use be accustomed to :

1.I am used to hot weather.

…………………………………………………..

2.Americans are used to living abroad.

…………………………………………………..

3.Turkish people are used to buying big houses. …………………………………………………..

4.We are used to working less and talk a lot.

…………………………………………………..

5.They were used to surviving without being paid regularly.

…………………………………………………..

GET USED TO = GET ACCUSTOMED TO

177. Use get accustomed to :

1.I’m getting used to eating American food.

…………………………………………………..

2.We are getting used to living in big cities. …………………………………………………..

3.She was getting used to staying in the hostel. …………………………………………………..

WOULD - USED TO - WILL

‘Used to’ can refer to permanent situations and habitual actions, and is used to talk about past habits, routines and states which are now finished.

‘would +infinitive’ refers to habitual past actions and is used to talk about past habits and routines, but not past states.

‘will +infinitive’ refers to habitual future actions

( 178. Put used to or would :

1.I ................... have a lot of friends before I started a permanent job.

2.They ................... be happy together but they are not now.

3.During the last weeks of our holiday, I ................. go to the

sea in the morning early.

4.She ......................... go for a walk every morning.

5.I ............................ do jogging for hours.

Read this text for practice. Choose the correct one:

As a child, I used to/would spend my holidays in the mountains. We used to / would have a chalet near Geneva. We used to / would go there for a month in the summer. When it used to / would be sunny and for Christmas, when there used to / would be lots of snow.

PAST MODALS

We use should have + V3 and shouldn’t have + V3 to describe actions in the past which were wrong, or which we now regret.

She should have gone to Europe in the summer.

She shouldn’t have spent so much on food.

**Ought to have + V3 and oughtn’t to have + V3 has a similar

meaning to should have +V3 /shouldn’t have +V3.

( 179. Write sentences with should or shouldn’t have :

1.It was wrong of her. It’s quicker by car.

...............................................................................................................................

2.He spent too long in the sun and he’s got sunburn.

...............................................................................................................................

3.They’ve eaten too much and now they feel ill.

...............................................................................................................................

4.Are you still waiting for them? They won’t come.

...............................................................................................................................

5.My bag is too heavy to take home . I can’t carry it.

...............................................................................................................................

|May have + V3 - Might have + V3 |

|Can’t have + V3 - Could have + V 3 |

|Must have + V3 |

|Needn’t have + V 3 |

We use ‘may have’, ‘might have’, and ‘could have’ to talk about something that possibly happened in the past.

We use ‘must have’ and ‘can’t have’ to talk about something that probably or certainly happened in the past.

We use ‘needn’t have’ to express an unnecessary action which was nevertheless performed.

e.g. I needn’t have bought that car because my boss bought one for

me as a birthday present.

( 180. Rewrite these sentences using might have or could have :

e.g. : I can’t find the old books in my room.

Someone might have taken them to the library.

1.I can’t find my car key. I wonder where it is.

.........................................................................

2.The car won’t start.

.........................................................................

3.He should be there by now.

.........................................................................

4.The door is closed, but it isn’t locked.

.........................................................................

5.The boys are here but the girls have gone.

.........................................................................

( 181. Write sentences drawing conclusions about what must have or

can’t have happened :

e.g. : He looks very tired.

He must have worked during the night.

1.He looks pale and very slim.

.......................................................................................................

2.The roads are very wet.

.......................................................................................................

3.When the bus arrived, they weren’t on it.

.......................................................................................................

4.I’m sure she did it by mistake.

.......................................................................................................

5.He looks very upset.

.......................................................................................................

TAG QUESTIONS

After a positive sentence the tag question is negative,

After a negative sentence the tag question is positive.

*but;

← I’m a bit late , aren’t I?

Not : I’m a bit late, amn’t I?

|SENTENCE |QUESTION TAG |

| | |

|affirmative |negative |

| | |

|negative |affirmative |

e.g. He goes to school by bus, doesn’t he?

They are drinking tea now, aren’t they?

Everybody is sleeping, aren’t they?

Nothing happened, did it?

Let’s go to the cinema, shall we?

Sit down, will you? (imperative)

Have a seat, won’t you? (polite request)

( 182. Add the correct tag ending :

1.She goes shopping everyday, .............................?

2.They are travelling in England now, .................................?

3.She is a good teacher, .............................?

4.He’ll be back before noon, ...................................?

5.They have read that book, ................................?

6.It takes more than one hour to get there, ..................................?

7.The bus doesn’t stop near the supermarket, ........................................?

8.You played tennis yesterday, .....................................?

9.She never goes to the cinema alone, ..........................?

10.He plays the guitar well, ..........................................?

11.Pınar doesn’t smoke, ...................................?

12.He won’t smoke anymore, ................................................?

13.You get up late every day, .................................................?

14.She gave him her watch, ....................................................?

15.She shouldn’t drive fast, .....................................................?

16.We last met ten years ago, .....................................................?

17.We won’t see you for a while, .....................................................?

18.Let’s have something to eat, .....................................................?

19.Erdal and Serdal haven’t moved yet, .....................................................?

20.You can sing, .....................................................?

21.You’d like a drink, .....................................................?

22.Hüseyin lives in Paris now, .....................................................?

23.I’m always late, .....................................................?

24.Koray used to have a beard, .....................................................?

25.Fiona isn’t going out with Fred, .....................................................?

CHAPTER - IV

VERB PATTERNS

*Gerunds and Infinitives

Gerunds

Infinitives

GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

*Verbs + -ing (Gerund)

How to form Gerund :

e.g.

to read ( reading

to swim ( swimming

*verbs expressing likes and dislikes are often followed by a gerund :

to like, to enjoy, to love, to prefer, to dislike, to hate, to avoid, can’t stand, can’t bear, can’t help .. etc

e.g.

John likes reading. Mary hates swimming.

I can’t stand doing the washing up.

*The verbs to go and to come , expressing a physical activity are followed by

a gerund:

e.g.

I went skiing. She went shopping. Will you come running?

*The verbs to want/to need are followed by a gerund in :

e.g.

The gate wants painting (= someone should paint the gate.)

The shirt needs washing (= someone should wash the shirt.)

*There are some words which are always followed by a gerund.

To avoid/to be used to/ to deny/ to keep/ to look forward to/ to mind/

to take to/ it’s no use / it’s no good/ it’s worth....

e.g.

She didn’t mind working extra hours.

VERB + GERUND / VERB + INFINITIVE

*Verbs of perception (to see, to hear, etc) are followed by a gerund with the action is not finished :

e.g.

I saw him crossing the street.(in the process of crossing)

I heard her playing the piano.(in the process of playing)

They are followed by an infinitive when the action is finished:

e.g.

I saw him cross the street.(= looked until the end)

I heard her play the piano.(I listened until the end)

*VERB + GERUND / VERB + TO +INFINITIVE

To remember is followed by a gerund when the reference is the past:

e.g.

I remember seeing them last year.(I saw them last year,

but I’m not sure where I saw them or when( is often used when

the verb “remember” is negative)

It’s followed by an infinitive when the reference is the future.

e.g.

I must remember to do the shopping this afternoon.

To try is followed by a gerund when it expresses a means.

e.g.

Try pushing the car. Perhaps it will start!

It is followed by to + infinitive when it expresses a purpose.

e.g.

He tried to sell his car but it didn’t work.

To stop / to forget change in meaning in cases of both

Gerund and Infinitive.

VERBS WHICH MAY TAKE EITHER INFINITIVE OR GERUND

advise/agree/allow/begin/can-could bear/cease/continue/forget/hate

intend/ like/love/mean/need/permit/prefer/propose/recommend/regret

remember/require/start/stop/try/used to/want

A.GERUNDS

Gerunds are verbs that behave like nouns.

We form gerunds by adding -ing to the verb base:

1.As the subject of a clause or sentence:

Eating out is expensive.

2.As the object of a clause or sentence

My sister enjoys driving.

3.After certain verbs :

a)After verbs expressing likes and dislikes :

I don’t enjoy working here.

b)After other verbs such as :

admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, be worth, can’t help, complete, consider, defer, delay, deny,

detest, discuss, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, involve, keep, mention,

mind, miss, postpone, practice, put off, prevent, recall, recommend, represent, report, resist,

risk, spend time, suggest, tolerate, understand.

4.After prepositions :

e.g. : On opening the letter, he realized it wasn’t for him.

B.INFINITIVES

a. The infinitive may be used alone or a part of infinitive phrase:

e.g. We began to walk down the road.

b. may be the subject of a sentence

c. may be the complement of a verb:

e.g. His plan is to keep the affair secret.

d. may be the object or part of the object of a verb:

e.g. He wants me to pay.

e. can express purpose

f. be + infinitive can express commands or instructions

g. can be used after certain adjectives

e.g. angry, glad, happy, sorry, fortunate, likely, lucky

h. can connect two clauses

i. can replace relative clauses

j. can be used after certain nouns

k. can be used with too/enough and certain adjectives and adverbs

l. an infinitive phrase can be placed at the beginning or end of a sentence:

e.g. to tell the truth, to cut a long story short

1.After certain verbs

We use infinitive after these verbs :

afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, appear, attempt, be, be supposed, care, claim, come, choose,

decide, demand, deserve, endeavour, expect, fail, forget, happen, hesitate, help, hope, intend,

learn, manage, mean, neglect, need, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, proceed, promise, prove, refuse, seem, serve, struggle, swear, tend, threaten, volunteer, wait.

2.We use infinitive after certain adjectives :

amazed, certain, difficult, disappointed, easy, free, glad, happy, likely, pleased, possible, simple, sure, surprised.

THE GERUND OR THE INFINITIVE

There are certain verbs which can be used with both infinitive and gerund, but in meaning there will be a difference :

Try :

+gerund :we use this form to experiment in order to achieve an objective :

Try working long hours and see if you can make more money.

+infinitive : we use this form to attempt a difficult action;

I have been trying to find a better job since 1979.

Stop :

+gerund: we use this form to finish an activity;

Stop working and go home earlier today.

+infinitive: we use this form to stop an activity in order to do another

activity:

We stopped to have a cup of tea.

Regret, forget and remember, go on, mean are some of the verbs which have different meanings in gerund form and infinitive forms.

( plete the sentences with a gerund or infinitive using the verbs in the brackets :

1.She never learnt..........................when she lived with her parents.(cook)

2............................German is really difficult.(learn)

3.She’s often dreamed of .............................round the world.(travel)

4.He’s agreed ......................me with the party.(help)

5.They love ...................... a good book.(read)

6........................children changes your way of living.(have)

7.I miss ...................... all my friends.(see)

8.It was kind of him to offer ................the children.(look after)

9.When did she decide ......................... to Germany.(move)

10. ...........................a cake can be very enjoyable.(make)

11.They worried about .............................their exams.(take)

12. I remember ...................... afraid of the dark as a child.(be)

13.We went there ...........................the doctors.(see)

14.I remember .........................the newspapers.(post)

15. .......................alcohol is very dangerous.(drink)

184. Circle the correct form.

1. I’m planning (to fly/flying) to Paris next week.

1. The Browns’ house is too small. They’re considering (to buy/buying) a bigger house.

1. We discussed (to be/being) to Marmaris for our holiday.

2. You seem (to be/being) in a good mood today.

1. The Clintons can’t afford (to buy/buying) a car.

1. Deniz doesn’t like green vegetables. He refuses (to eat/eating) them.

1. Keep (to talk/talking). I’m listening.

1. Susan doesn’t like her job. She’s talking about (to get/getting) a new one.

1. Let’s go for a walk if it has stopped (to rain/raining).

1. When you finish (to clean/cleaning), can you help me in the kitchen?

1. Serdal intends (to be/being) a doctor when he grows up.

1. Nursen offered (to look/looking) after our children while we were out.

1. He pretended not (to hear/hearing) me but I’m sure he did.

1. We managed (to get/getting) to the airport on time in spite of the traffic.

1. The boss was very strict. Nobody dared (to contradict/contradicting) him.

1. It was cold and rainy yesterday, so we postponed (to visit/visiting) the zoo.

1. Mehmet promised (to come/coming) to my party.

1. Our neighbour threatened (to tell/telling) the police if we didn’t stop the noise.

1. She can’t stand (to sleep/sleeping) in a room with all the windows closed.

1. I can’t imagine Erdal (to ride/riding) a motorbike.

1. He denied (to give/giving) away the secret.

1. His job involves (to work/working) all sorts of hours.

1. Meryem admitted (to be/being) nasty to the new girl.

1. When I’m on holiday, I enjoy not (to have/having) to get up early.

1. Soon after (to take/taking) off, the plane crashed.

1. I’m quite excited about (to start/starting) the new project.

1. He left the room without anyone (to see/seeing) him.

1. I was really delighted (to get/getting) your letter last week.

1. It was careless of Çilem (to leave/leaving) the door unlocked when

he went out.

1. You must practise (to answer/answering) these sorts of questions for

the exam.

Verbs followed by either gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning:

attempt, begin, cannot bear,continue,dislike,dread,hate,like,love,need,neglect,prefer,start

e.g.

Suddenly it began to rain

Suddenly it began raining.

I like to drink coffee.

I like drinking coffee.

CHAPTER - V

THE PASSIVE

*The Passive

THE PASSIVE

|tenses | ACTIVE |PASSIVE |

|present simple |The postman delivers letters. |Letters are delivered . |

|present continuous |The postman is delivering letters. |Letters are being delivered. |

|past simple |The postman delivered letters. |Letters were delivered. |

|past continuous |The postman was delivering letters. |Letters were being delivered. |

|present perfect |The postman has delivered letters. |Letters have been delivered. |

|past perfect |The postman had delivered letters. |Letters had been delivered. |

|future |The postman will deliver letters. |Letters will be delivered. |

|going to future |The postman is going to deliver letters. |Letters are going to be delivered. |

|must |The postman must deliver letters. |Letters must be delivered. |

|can |The postman can deliver letters. |Letters can be delivered. |

|may |The postman may deliver letters, |Letters may be delivered. |

|ought to |The postman ought to deliver letters. |Letters ought to be delivered. |

|dare |The postman dares to deliver letters. |Letters dare to be delivered |

|used to |The postman used to deliver letters |Letters used to be delivered |

We use the passive in the following situations;

a) When it is obvious or not important to say who, what,

etc. is the subject:

e.g. She was born in 1986.

b) avoiding using I, we, they, one, etc:

e.g. The job will be finished by tonight.

c) reports:

e.g. Food must be found for refugees.

d) describing a process:

e.g. The beans are seperated from the shells and then they are put into

sacks.

e) official announcements:

e.g. Fees must be paid in advance.

f) scientific texts:

e.g. The liquid is heated to a temperature of 60°C.

When we form passives, we do not usually mention the person or thing responsible for the action (the agent). When we mention the agent we generally use by when we mention who or what was responsible and with when we mention the instrument used;

e.g. The car had seen driven by my younger sister.

The victim had been killed with a bread knife.

Read these sentences:

1. This church was designed by Christopher Wren.

2. He was shot by a hunter with a rifle.

3. A decision to strike was taken by some of the workers.

4. Her bedroom wall was covered with posters of her favourite singer.

5. He had been stabbed with a pen knife.

( 185. Make these sentences passive :

1.Apple makes computers.

..................................................................................................

2.Reşat Nuri Güntekin wrote ‘Çalıkuşu’.

..................................................................................................

3.Shakespeare wrote ‘Hamlet ‘.

...................................................................................................

4.The Chinese invented gunpowder.

...................................................................................................

5.They make Fiat cars in Italy.

...................................................................................................

6.Columbos discovered America.

...................................................................................................

7.The Pharaohs built The Pyramids.

...................................................................................................

8.The Americans invented the atom bomb.

...................................................................................................

9.Süleyman the Magnificent built The Blue Mosque.

...................................................................................................

10.Bell invented the telephone.

...................................................................................................

( 186. Rewrite these sentences putting the verbs in the passive :

1.This computer/make/in Taiwan.(past)

................................................................................

2.These books/publish/in Great Britain.(present)

................................................................................

3.The car/paint/every year.(present)

................................................................................

4.The head of the association/kill/yesterday.

................................................................................

5.Jam/make/from cherries.(present)

.................................................................................

( 187. Put these sentences into passive :

1.We send the newspapers to the South of Anatolia by trucks.

..................................................................................................

2.They paid a lot to the workers for the job.

..................................................................................................

3.They import hundreds of books every year.

..................................................................................................

4.She posted the letters last week.

..................................................................................................

5.I check all the exercises thoroughly.

..................................................................................................

6.He washed the car yesterday.

..................................................................................................

7.We have told him the story again.

..................................................................................................

8.The minister had cancelled the meeting.

..................................................................................................

9.The police arrested more than two hundred people last weekend.

..................................................................................................

10.We export Turkish Kilims to many countries.

..................................................................................................

11.You should carry the food in a container.

..................................................................................................

12.She is mending my shoes at the moment.

..................................................................................................

13.You can use this machine after 4.30.

..................................................................................................

14.The boss is interviewing the applicants now.

....................................................................................................

15.He will study Maths at the university.

....................................................................................................

( 188. Rewrite these questions in the passive :

1.Have you done your homework?

...............................................................................

2.Did he steal all the jewels himself?

...............................................................................

3.Is she doing the housework now?

...............................................................................

4.What languages can they speak here?

...............................................................................

5.Were you writing the letters?

...............................................................................

6.Did Shakespeare write A Midsummer Night’s Dream ?

...............................................................................

7.Does the hotel provide clean towels?

...............................................................................

8.Will a maid clean our room?

...............................................................................

9.Do a large number of people speak Chinese in China?

...............................................................................

10.Did a bird kill the cat?

...............................................................................

11.Did Erdal break the window?

...............................................................................

12.Is the mechanic going to mend the car?

...............................................................................

13.Did Yaşar Kemal write İnce Memed ?

...............................................................................

14.Has anyone ever hypnotized her?

...............................................................................

15.Did his directions confuse them?

...............................................................................

16.Will someone deliver the mail tomorrow?

...............................................................................

17.Where did someone make your radio?

...............................................................................

18.When did they build the Bosphorus Bridge?

...............................................................................

19.Did you hear about the accident?

...............................................................................

20.Where did they cut that tree?

...............................................................................

21.Why were you writing that composition?

...............................................................................

22.Have they ever played backgammon?

...............................................................................

23.Do you have to drink milk before you go to bed?

...............................................................................

24.Was he buying the necessary things yesterday?

...............................................................................

25.Has the University accepted them?

...............................................................................

( 189. Use the correct form of verbs :

1.Football .................................. (play) all over the world.

2.Baskeball and football............ (play) in many countries.

3.German .................................. (speak) in Germany and Austria.

4.My house ............................... (clean) by my wife.

5.Medicine ................................ (sell) by chemists.

6.Tea ......................................... (drink) by many people in Turkey.

7.Traffic rules ........................... (not obey) by most of the drivers in Turkey.

8.Exam papers .......................... (prepare) by teachers.

9.Helicopters ............................ (use) by armed forces.

10.Footballers ........................... (train) by trainers.

( 190. Change the sentences from active to passive :

1.My younger uncle invited me to dinner.

……………………………………………………………………………….

2.Mustafa Kemal founded the Turkish Republic.

……………………………………………………………………………….

3.Water surrounds an island.

……………………………………………………………………………….

4.Yaşar Kemal wrote ‘İnce Memed’’.

……………………………………………………………………………….

5.Their mistakes embarrassed the instructor.

……………………………………………………………………………….

6.The secretary is going to answer the letters.

……………………………………………………………………………….

7.A large number of people speak Chinese.

……………………………………………………………………………….

8.A sleepy doctor has examined the baby.

……………………………………………………………………………….

9.This news will disturb them.

……………………………………………………………………………….

10.Everybody has signed the petition.

……………………………………………………………………………….

11.Someone serves beer and wine at the restaurant.

……………………………………………………………………………….

12.The Prime Minister cancelled the meeting.

……………………………………………………………………………….

13.People use hammers to pound the nails.

……………………………………………………………………………….

14.My grandfather bought that house.

……………………………………………………………………………….

15.Someone made my radio in Germany.

……………………………………………………………………………….

16.No one will collect the rubbish tomorrow.

……………………………………………………………………………….

17.Pınar wrote that composition.

……………………………………………………………………………….

18.Someone is building a new house on Yunus Emre Street.

……………………………………………………………………………….

19.The Foster Wheeler Intercontinental Corporation built Afşin-Elbistan

Power Plant.

……………………………………………………………………………….

20.All of the students must do the assignment.

……………………………………………………………………………….

21.Someone ought to paint my flat in Elvankent.

……………………………………………………………………………….

22.Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.

……………………………………………………………………………….

23.People speak Turkish in Turkey.

……………………………………………………………………………….

24.People grow rice in India.

……………………………………………………………………………….

25.The baseman caught the ball.

……………………………………………………………………………….

( 191. Change the sentences if possible :

1.I walked to the school yesterday.

...............................................................................

2.She slept at her mother-in-law’s house last night.

...............................................................................

3.The leaves fell to the ground.

...............................................................................

4.I agree with you.

...............................................................................

5.The professor announced an exam.

...............................................................................

6.She went to the cinema on her own.

...............................................................................

7.They didn’t come to my house last week.

...............................................................................

8.That car belongs to her.

...............................................................................

9.The event occurred in the center of the city.

...............................................................................

10.It happened when I was born.

...............................................................................

| |

|Get is sometimes used instead of ‘be’ in colloquial speech : |

| |

| |

|e.g. The glasses got broken. |

|(=were) |

OTHER EXAMPLES OF THE PASSIVE VOICE

What did they break? ( What was broken?

Who wrote that book? ( Who was that book written by?

When did he write it? ( When was it written?

Use of passive :

Active: People suspect him of gambling.

Passive: He is suspected of gambling.

Active: People suppose that she is living alone.

Passive: She is supposed to be living alone.

192. Make sentences with a similar meaning by using ‘ be supposed to’ :

1.The teacher expects us to be on time for class.

………………………………………………………………………………..

2.Our instructor expects us to read Chapter 7 before class next week. ………………………………………………………………………………..

3.Someone expected me to help with the housework yesterday, but I didn’t. ………………………………………………………………………………..

4.My boss expects me to work late every day. ………………………………………………………………………………..

5.People expect the plane to arrive before 11 p.m. ………………………………………………………………………………..

Active: One sees this sort of public show everywhere.

Passive: This sort of public show is seen everywhere.

Infinitive constructions are used after these verbs:

|acknowledge/assume/believe/claim/consider/estimate/feel/find/know/ presume/report/say/think/understand. |

e.g.

Active: People consider that she is jealous of the other people.

Passive: It is considered that she is jealous of the other people.

She is considered to be jealous of the other people.

Use of continuous infinitive :

|believe/know/report/say/suppose/think/understand |

Active : People believe that she is living in İstanbul.

Passive: She is believed to be living in İstanbul.

Active: People believed that she was living in İstanbul.

Passive: She was believed to have been living in İstanbul.

Infinitive combinations:

Active: She wants someone to take photographs.

Passive: She wants photographs to be taken.

Active: She invited me to go.

Passive: I was invited to go.

With :

|advise/beg/order/recommend/urge + indirect object + infinitive + object |

e.g.

Active: They urged the council to reduce the rates.

Passive: The council was urged to reduce the rates.

They urged that the rates should be reduced.

|agree/be anxious/arrange/be determined/determine/decide/demand + inf + obj |

e.g.

Active: She decided to sell the car.

Passive: She decided that the car should be sold.

Gerund combinations :

|advise/insist/propose/recommend/suggest + gerund + object |

e.g.

Active: She recommended using water proof wrist watches.

Passive: She recommended that water proof wrist watches should be used.

|It/they + need + gerund |

e.g.

Active: I remember them taking me to the park.

Passive: I remember being taken to the park

PASSIVE INFINITIVE

Active : She wants someone to take photographs.

Passive : She wants photographs to be taken.

( 193. Put these sentences into passive :

1.She wants to finish the housework.

………………………………………………………………………

2.We want to rebuild that cottage.

………………………………………………………………………

3.I expect to see that film.

………………………………………………………………………

4.My son wants to paint his room.

………………………………………………………………………

5.They expect to buy the car.

………………………………………………………………………

CAUSATIVE VERBS

**Have something done

*have someone do something

**Get something done

*get someone to do something

*Make someone do something

*Let someone do something

What are you going to do about that broken padlock?

I’m going to have it mended.

(I’m going to have the locksmith mend it.)

What are you going to do about his long hair?

I’m going to have it cut.

(I’m going to have the barber cut it.)

194. Match a sentence in A with a sentence in B. Write what verb tense they are:

A

1. We paint the house every year. n-Present Simple

2. Erdal is washing his car. ……………..

3. She typed three letters yesterday. ……………..

4. She was cleaning the carpet when I arrived. …………….

5. We will install the lights next week. …………….

6. I’ll be planting some trees in the garden tomorrow morning. ....…….

7. The girls have repaired their bicycles. ……………..

8. We’ve been importing clothes from Italy since we

opened the shop. …………......

9. He had organised the meeting before I called. ……………..

10. They had been photocopying a book when the

manager arrived ..…………....

11. He managed to repair the roof. ……………..

12. I remember taking my blood pressure. ……………..

13. You should fix the leakage in the tank. ……………..

14. Clean the table, please. ……………..

B

a. Have the table cleaned, please. ……………..

b. You should have the leakage in the tank fixed. ……………..

c. I remember having my blood pressure taken. ……………..

d. He managed to have the roof repaired. ……………..

e. They had been having a book photocopied when the

manager arrived. …........…….

f. He had had the meeting organised before I called. ……………..

g.We’ve been having clothes imported from Italy

since we opened the shop ......................

h.The girls have had their bicycles repaired. ……………..

i. I’ll be having some trees planted in the garden

tomorrow morning ……………..

j. We’ll have the lights installed next week. ……………..

k. She was having the carpet cleaned when I arrived. ……………..

l. He had three letters typed yesterday. ……………..

m.Erdal is having his car washed. ……………..

n. We have the house painted every year. 1- Present Simple

( 195. Make sentences using the causative verbs; have and get :

1.Pınar-brochures,distribute

..........................................................................

2.My father-long grass, cut

...........................................................................

3.My sister-long dress, shorten

..........................................................................

4.Jack-old house, repair

..........................................................................

5.My brother-dirty dishes, wash

..........................................................................

( 196.Rewrite the following sentences :

1.I’ll persuade my son to go to university.

...................................................................................................

2.I asked the electrician to mend the fuses.

.............................................................................................................

3.They tried to force them to pay for the goods.

.............................................................................................................

4.I told the customers to come early.

.............................................................................................................

5.She asked the hairdresser to cut her hair.

.............................................................................................................

CHAPTER - VI

THE REPORTED SPEECH

* Reported Speech

No Change in Tenses

Changes in expressions of time and place

Imperatives in Reported Speech

Yes-No Questions

WH-Questions

Exclamations

Mixed Types

REPORTED SPEECH (DIRECT-INDIRECT)

|tenses |Direct Speech |Reported Speech |

|present simple |“I’m a nurse,” She said. |She said she was a nurse. |

|present continuous |“I’m not going, “She said. |She said she was not going. |

|past simple |“Pınar did it,”He said. |He said Pınar had done it. |

|past continuous |“Erdal was studying Maths,”She said. |She said Erdal had been studying |

| | |Maths. |

|present perfect |“I haven’t broken it,”He said. |He said he hadn’t broken it. |

|present perfect continuous |“I have been living here for two |She said she had been living there |

| |years,”She said. |for two years. |

|past perfect |“I had done this,”He said. |He said he had done that. |

|past perfect continuous |“We had been searching for it,”They said.|They said they had been searching for|

| | |it. |

|‘Will’ future |“I’ll get it,”She said. |She said she would get it. |

|‘Going to’ future |“I’m going to get it,”She said. |She said she was going to get it. |

|Can |“I can speak German,”He said. |He said he could speak German. |

|May |“I may be late,”She said. |She said she might be late. |

|Must |“I must go now,”She said. |She said she had to go then. |

|Have to |“She has to be here,”He said. |He said she had to be there. |

|1st Conditional |“If you invite, I’ll come.” |She told him that if he invited her, |

| | |she would come. |

|2nd Conditional |“If you invited , I would come.” |She told him if he invited her, she |

| | |would come. |

|3rd Conditional |“If you had invited, I would have come.” |She told him that if he had invited |

| | |her,she would have come. |

|Needn’t |“I needn’t help her.” |He said that he didn’t need to help |

| | |her. |

We can report people’s words by using direct or reported speech. Direct speech is the exact words someone used.

e.g. ‘I’m tired’, Seda said..

Reported speech is the exact meaning of what someone said, but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks in reported speech. We can either use the word that after the introductory verbs (say, tell, etc.) or we can omit it.

* Personal pronouns, possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns change according to the meaning of the sentence.

e.g. Seda said (that) she was tired.

* We can report someone’s words either a long time after they were said (out(of(date(reporting) or a short time after they were said (up ( to ( date ( reporting)

* When we quote someone’s actual words, we can use reporting verbs such as say, reply, suggest, etc.

e.g. ‘I knew the answers,’ he said.

* We can report statements, questions, requests, thoughts, etc.

BEWARE !

must (obligation) ( had to

must (need to) ( had to / needed to

must (it’s logical) ( would; was/were no doubt

must have (it’s logical) ( would have

must (strong advice) ( should

must not (no obligation) ( needn’t

must not (forbidden) ( was/were not to/was/were forbidden to

Would you like to dance? ( ........ if I wanted to

(making offer)

Would you type these letters? ( asked me if I would type ...........

(a polite order)

Can I / Could I / May I ( ....... if he could

Will you ............ ( .........if I would

........ whether I would

Have you seen ........ ( ......... if I had seen ....

......... whether I had seen

Shall I (offer) ( ..........if I wanted him to

Might ( might

Ought to/should ( ought to/should

(for obligation/assumption)

ought to/should (for advice) ( advise + object + infinitive

If I were you I should/would ( advise + object + infinitive

If I were you I should/would be (very) grateful if you would

( ask + object + Ving

Would ( would

Used to ( used to

INTRODUCTORY VERBS

(say-tell-complain-explain-object-point out-protest) + object

(agree-refuse-offer-promise-threaten) + infinitive

(accuse…of-admit-apologize for-deny-insist on) + gerund

(add-admit-answer-argue-assure(+obj)-boast-grumble-observe-remark

remind(+object)-reply) + direct object/indirect object

(murmur-mutter-shout-stammer-whisper) with statements and questions

ask-inquire-wonder-want to know

(wonder-want to know + WHETHER + infinitive) common use.

(inquire + WHETHER + infinitive) is also possible.

(tell-order) used for commands.

(ask-beg) used for requests.

Let’s-let him are reported using suggest.

e.g. ‘Let’s go to the cinema.’ ( He suggested going to the cinema.

He suggested that they should go to the cinema.

NO CHANGE IN TENSES

a. When the reporting verb is in the present tense :

The verb tenses can either change or remain the same in reported speech:

in up ( to ( date reporting.

e.g. : says

“I have been to Prague before,” says the trainer.

The trainer says he has been to Prague before.

b. When the reporting verb is in the past tense and we want to emphasize that the statement is still true we can keep the same tense (if we wish) :

“Bill is my cousin,” said Jane.

Jane said Bill is her cousin.

When reporting a general truth or law of nature.

e.g. The teacher said, ‘Paris is the capital of France’

The teacher said (that) Paris is/was the capital of France.

c. When the sentence contains a “must” of deduction, “must” does not change.

“You must be a fool to think of this idea. “said the wife to her husband.

The wife said to her husband that he must be a fool to think of that idea.

CHANGES IN EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE

Direct Speech Indirect Speech

|today that day; the same day |

|tomorrow the next day, the following day |

|the day after tomorrow in two days’ time |

|next week(month,year) the week(month,year) after |

| the following week(month,year) |

|yesterday the previous day, the day before |

|last week(month,year) the week(month,year)before |

| the previous week(month,year) |

|ago before, previously |

|two days ago two days before, two days earlier |

|now then |

|here there |

|come go |

|this, these that, those |

|this,these(when they are pronouns;) it, them |

IMPERATIVES IN ENGLISH

“Drive carefully,” said the policeman.

The policeman told me to drive carefully.

“Don’t work so hard,” said the doctor.

The doctor told the patient not to work so hard.

GAME

Write the name of one of your friends ..................................................

Write the name of an animal .................................................................

Write a number .......................................................................................

Write a food .............................................................................................

Write a physical skill...............................................................................

Write the name of a piece of furniture.................................................

Write the name of a room in a house ....................................................

Write the name of a famous city or town. ..............................................

Now fill in the blanks in the following text :

....................... has a pet ........................ which is ......................... years old.

S/He feeds it on ............................ and has taught it .................................. .

S/He keeps it on a .......................... in the ........................... . Last year it

went to .......................... for its holidays.

YES/NO QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH

“Are you ready?” asked the director.

The director asked me if I was ready.

“Does she like milk? asked the doctor.

The doctor asked the mother if she liked milk.

‘Is anyone there?’ he asked.

He asked if anyone was there.

He asked whether anyone was there.

WH-- QUESTIONS

“What are you doing here?” the mother asked.

The mother asked the boy what he was doing there.

“Where do you live?” the man asked.

The man asked me where I lived.

( 197.Turn these sentences into direct speech :

1.Tony said they were both seventeen.

..............................................................................................

2.She said they needed an early night.

..............................................................................................

3.Kathy said they were both tired.

..............................................................................................

4.She said she was listening to music.

..............................................................................................

5.He said he hadn’t seen them for years.

..............................................................................................

6.She said she had done her homework the day before.

..............................................................................................

7.He said that would happen the following day.

..............................................................................................

8.I said they could come to the party the following week.

...............................................................................................

9.She asked if he had to come with them.

...............................................................................................

10.They asked where we would go the day after.

................................................................................................

11.She told him to go shopping.

.................................................................................................

12.He told me not to forget him.

.................................................................................................

13.She asked if I had been abroad before.

.................................................................................................

14.He asked if they had dinner together.

.................................................................................................

15.They said they had had lunch at home.

.................................................................................................

( 198. Put these questions into indirect speech :

1.How much did you pay for this shirt?”

She wanted to know ..............................................

2.”Whose English is not good?”

He wanted to know ..............................................

3.”Which boy have they caught?

The policeman wanted to know ............................

( 199. Answer the questions :

1.”I do not like this city.”

What does the girl say?

...................................................................................................

2.”I’ll explain it to you.”

What does Ayşe tell Ali?

.................................................................................................

3.”My mother is going to get well soon.”

What does the teacher tell his friend?

.................................................................................................

4.”I haven’t met these boys before.”

What does the girl tell her mother?

.................................................................................................

5.”I always do the housework myself.”

What does the woman tell you?

.................................................................................................

6.”It is not my car, mine is red.”

What does the man say to his friend?

.................................................................................................

7.”We are learning English.”

What do the students tell their friends?

.................................................................................................

8.”I do not watch TV a lot.”

What does the girl tell you?

.................................................................................................

9.”She doesn’t work on Sundays.”

What does the boss tell you?

.................................................................................................

10.”I will help her.”

What does the husband say?

..................................................................................................

( 200. Write these reported statements in direct speech :

1.He offered her a lift.

................................................................................................

2.He agreed to pay her ten million TL.

................................................................................................

3.She warned him not to trust that man.

................................................................................................

4.She decided to take a taxi.

................................................................................................

5.He promised to ring when he got home.

................................................................................................

EXCLAMATIONS

Direct : ‘What a beautiful girl !’

Indirect : Serdal said that she was a beautiful girl.

‘Wow!’ he said as he unwrapped his gift.

He gave an exclamation of surprise as he unwrapped his gift.

‘You fool!’ she said.

She called him a fool.

‘Happy Birthday!’ we said to Hasan.

We wished Hasan a happy birthday.

‘You won’t tell anyone, will you?’

She said to him.

She asked him not to tell anyone.

( 201. Put these exclamations into indirect speech :

1.”How wonderful !” Pınar said.

....................................................................................

2.”How cold it is !” Erdal said.

....................................................................................

3.”What a lovely day !” He said.

....................................................................................

4.”What a delicious meal !” said the girl with green eyes.

....................................................................................

5.”How dreadful !” The boy in the blue leather coat said.

....................................................................................

Mixed types

( 202. Put these sentences into indirect :

e.g.

“It’s very expensive . Is it soft?”

He said that it was very expensive and asked if it was soft.

1.”Is the girl wearing them? They are really nice.”

.............................................................................................................

2.”Did you read the story? It was really interesting.”

.............................................................................................................

3.”What time will you come? I won’t be here tomorrow.”

.............................................................................................................

4.”Don’t forget to bring your lunch. You can’t find anything to eat there.”

.............................................................................................................

5.”We have to be punctual. It is the second time we will be late.”

.............................................................................................................

( 203. Change the quoted speech to reported speech :

1.Ali said, ‘I am sleepy.’

...............................................................................

2.Mrs Beydilli said, ‘This is a very expensive flat.’

...............................................................................

3.Bilgesu said, ‘I have already eaten lunch.’

...............................................................................

4.Deniz said, ‘I will call you tomorrow.’

...............................................................................

5.İnan said, ‘Your pronunciation is very bad.’

...............................................................................

6.Bob said, ‘I can’t move until the end of the semester.’

...............................................................................

7.Tom asked me, ‘Where do you live?’

...............................................................................

8.She asked me, ‘Do you live in a students’ hostel?’

...............................................................................

9.He admitted, ‘I stole the money.’

...............................................................................

10.He asked me, ‘Where is Jane?’

...............................................................................

11.She said, ‘I am going to quit school and get a job.’

...............................................................................

12.They asked her, ‘Did you mail the letter?’

...............................................................................

13.He asked us, ‘What are you thinking about?’

...............................................................................

14.She said, ‘I have to go to the chemist’s.’

...............................................................................

15.Ali told me, ‘I can’t pick you up at the airport.’

...............................................................................

16.I told her, ‘I will take a taxi.’

...............................................................................

17.She told us, ‘You should speak English as much as possible.’

...............................................................................

18.Gülay asked me, ‘Have you already eaten lunch?’

...............................................................................

19.Safiye asked me, ‘What time do you want to leave for home?’

...............................................................................

20.Serdal said, ‘I made a mistake.’

...............................................................................

21.The teacher announced, ‘The exam will be on the 10th of this month’

...............................................................................

22.She said, ‘I can’t. I have to study.’

...............................................................................

23.He said, ‘Where’s Özgür? I’m surprised he isn’t here.’

...............................................................................

24.My friend said, ‘ I think you should take a long holiday.’

...............................................................................

25.My mother said, ‘Make an appointment with the doctor.’

...............................................................................

Punctuation in Direct Speech:

e.g. He said, I love Paris in the winter.

‘I love Paris in the winter,’ he said.

REVISION

204. Put these into Reported Speech :

1.Mrs Kent, ‘My gums are very sore’.

…………………………………………………………………………

2.Mrs Kent, ‘Yesterday, as I was brushing my teeth, I noticed that my

gums were bleeding!’

…………………………………………………………………………

3.Mrs Kent, ‘Is there anything wrong with them?’

…………………………………………………………………………

4.Mrs Kent, ‘ How can I stop bleeding?’

…………………………………………………………………………

5.Mrs Kent, ‘What should I do?’

…………………………………………………………………………

6.Dentist, ‘Don’t panic!’.

…………………………………………………………………………

7.Dentist, ‘If you take my advice, you won’t have any problems.’

…………………………………………………………………………

8.Dentist, ‘Buy a soft toothbrush and brush your teeth twice a day to keep your

gums healthy.’

…………………………………………………………………………

9.Dentist, ‘I’ll make an appointment for you next week, so that I can remove the

plaque that has built up and is causing you problems.’

…………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………

10.Mr Parker, ‘I have had bad breath for the past year.’

…………………………………………………………………………

11.Mr Parker, ‘I brush my teeth regularly.’

…………………………………………………………………………

12.Dentist, ‘Do you eat onions, garlic or food with lots of spices?’

…………………………………………………………………………

13.Dentist, ‘Do you smoke?’

…………………………………………………………………………

14.Mr Parker, ‘I do all these things.’

…………………………………………………………………………

15.Mayor, ‘We’ve evacuated the houses. What else can we do?’

…………………………………………………………………………

16.Mayor, ‘When is help coming? We’ve been waiting for over two hours.’

…………………………………………………………………………

17.Mayor, ‘I wish we had some help.’

…………………………………………………………………………

18.Fire Protection Officer, ‘The important thing is not to panic. Help will

arrive soon.’

…………………………………………………………………………

19.Mrs Coşkun, ‘Why don’t we invite Pınar to dinner tonight?’

…………………………………………………………………………

20.My geography teacher, ‘Where is Mount Everest?’

…………………………………………………………………………

21.’If you scream, I’ll shoot,’ said the robber to the girl.

…………………………………………………………………………

22.’I have been standing in this queue for three hours!’ said the woman.

…………………………………………………………………………

23.‘You’ll burn yourself, Serdal, if you keep playing with matches,’ said

his mother.

…………………………………………………………………………

24.’I’m really sorry that I woke you up this morning, Erdal,’ said Mrs Coşkun.

…………………………………………………………………………

25.’I’m going on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my house

while I am away?’ said Mr Coşkun.

…………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………

CHAPTER - VII

THE CONDITIONAL

*Conditional Sentences

WISH CLAUSES

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

| |

| 1.Zero (present) conditional (type 0) |

| If + present ........ present or imperative |

| We use this form to refer to conditions which are always true: |

| If I read on the train, I start to feel sick. (or "get sick") |

| 2.First Conditional (type 1) |

| If + present simple....... will future |

| We use this form to predict events which may happen in the |

|future, if a condition is met: |

| If you pass your exams, I’ll give you a present. |

| 3.Second Conditional (type 2) |

| If + past simple ............... would /could/might |

| We use this form to speculate about imaginary or improbable situations: |

| (the implication is that the condition will not be met) |

| If I studied harder, I would be a lawyer . |

| 4.Third Conditional (type 3) |

| If + past perfect.............. would / might / could have + past participle |

|We use this form to talk about the past possibilities which did not happen : |

| If I had had your telephone number, I would have telephoned you. |

| 5.Mixed Conditional Sentences |

| If + past perfect ....... would / could / might |

| We use this form to express a completed past action with a present result : |

|If I hadn’t broken my leg, I would go on holiday with my friends |

| |

|6.Hidden Condition |

|My friend didn’t attend the classes. |

|‘What a pity. I’m sure she would have learnt a lot.’ |

| (The second statement depends on the hidden condition ‘if she had attended’ ) : |

| I’m sure she would have learnt a lot . (if she had attended) |

( 205. Write these sentences, putting the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the future :

1.He (call) you if he (have) time.

......................................................................................................

2.What will she do if she (not pass) the class? ......................................................................................................

3.If that Toyota costs a lot, I (buy) a Broadway. ......................................................................................................

4.If the patients can’t see the doctor, they (complain) about him. ......................................................................................................

5.I (visit) a lot of historical places if I (go) to İstanbul.

......................................................................................................

6.I (lend) her some money if she (ask) for it.

......................................................................................................

7.Will you inform me if there (be) any problems?

......................................................................................................

8.If it rains a lot, most of the villagers (stay) at home doing nothing.

......................................................................................................

9.I (come) if they (invite) me.

......................................................................................................

10.I (ask) my lawyer if I (have) to pay the expenses.

......................................................................................................

( 206. Write sentences using the words given :

1.If/you/asked/me for tickets/I/could/buy/you a few.

...............................................................................................................................

2.I/not/marry/her/if/I/know/what she was like.

...............................................................................................................................

3.I/visit/you/in jail/if/I/know/you were there.

...............................................................................................................................

4.I/could/give you/a lift/if/my car/not broken down.

...............................................................................................................................

5.If/you/be born/a year earlier/you/not have to do/military service.

...............................................................................................................................

( 207. Put the verbs into the correct tense :

1.When the temperature (fall) below zero, water (freeze).

............................................................................................................

2.She (get) angry if you (call) her ‘shorty’ .

............................................................................................................

3.The recorder (not work) if the batteries are flat.

............................................................................................................

4.When water (boil), it (change) into steam.

............................................................................................................

5.If you (fill) a balloon with hot air, it (rise).

............................................................................................................

( 208. Write the sentences putting the verbs into the mixed type :

1.If I (stay) at school, I (be) in university now.

.................................................................................................

2.I(take) your plate if you’ve finished.

.................................................................................................

3.If she (see) them, she always said hello.

.................................................................................................

4.If the machine (stop),we stopped.

.................................................................................................

5.He wouldn’t be so angry if he (eat) a good lunch.

.................................................................................................

( 209. Write these sentences using the correct form of the verbs :

1.If you had called me, I (come).

........................................................................................................................

2.She wouldn’t get angry with them if they (invite) her to their party.

........................................................................................................................

3.She wouldn’t have helped her mother if she (not give) her some more

pocket money.

........................................................................................................................

4. I wouldn’t have done that if they (phone) me .

........................................................................................................................

5.If we (stay) in the same hotel, we wouldn’t have spent so much.

........................................................................................................................

( 210. Rewrite these sentences using type 2 :

1.The weather is terrible today, so we can’t have the picnic.

..........................................................................................................................

2.Besides, I don’t have any time to spend for a picnic, so I can’t go.

..........................................................................................................................

3.It is raining, so the countryside is wet I am sure.

..........................................................................................................................

4.You aren’t an experienced footballer, so you are not able to teach me.

..........................................................................................................................

5.The principal won’t let us have the party at school, so we can’t have

it at school.

..........................................................................................................................

WISH CLAUSES

a) wish + past simple

This expresses an unrealistic desire for the present situation to be different .

There is very little chance of the desire to occur.

|Subject + WISH+ subject + past simple |

( 211. Rewrite these sentences using wish + past simple:

1.I’d love to live alone.

.......................................................................................................

2.I’d love to be a lawyer.

.......................................................................................................

3.Why don’t we have a modern car?

.......................................................................................................

4.I’d love to speak more than two languages.

........................................................................................................

5.I never have enough time to visit my relatives.

........................................................................................................

b) wish + past perfect

This expresses a desire that an action or event in the past had been different.

|Subject + WISH +subject + past perfect |

( 212. Rewrite these using above pattern :

1.I decided to work for the state.

...................................................................................................

2.We didn’t go to Alanya last summer.

...................................................................................................

3.It was a mistake to drive home alone.

...................................................................................................

4.I spent all my money on clothes.

...................................................................................................

5.We didn’t spend our holiday with my parents.

.....................................................................................

c) wish + would + infinitive

This expresses annoyance with a person or situation and a desire

for a situation to change, either now or in the future. The change

could possibly occur, but we do not expect it to.

|Subject + wish +subject +would + infinitive |

( 213. Write these sentences according to the above pattern :

1.My sister never visits her friends.

...........................................................................................................

2.He never wears a tie.

...........................................................................................................

3.My cousin doesn’t take a shower very often.

...........................................................................................................

4.I’d like everybody to stop smoking.

...........................................................................................................

5.Serdal doesn’t prepare for his exams regularly.

...........................................................................................................

IF ONLY

We can replace I wish with If only.

If only I owned a Mercedes 600 S.

If only I hadn’t drunk so much!

If only = I wish

CHAPTER - VIII

RELATIVE CLAUSES

*Relative Clauses

Defining

Non-Defining

Leaving out Relative Pronouns

Prepositions with Relative Clauses

Relative Clauses of Time, Place, and Reason

RELATIVE CLAUSES

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

*Who (relative pronoun for people, subject in the relative clauses)

1.a. This is the man.(1) He bought two expensive books.(2)

b. This is the man who bought two expensive books.

2.a. The man forgot to take them.(1) The man bought two books.(2)

b. The man who bought two books forgot to take them.

*You can join (1) and (2) using the relative pronoun who.

It can only replace people.

*Who always follows the antecedent and is the subject of the verb

in the relative clause.

*See the difference in construction between e.g. (1) and e.g. (2).

( 214. Exercise :

Join the following sentences using the relative pronoun ‘who’

1.The shop-assistant served the customer .She is standing behind the counter.

.........................................................................................................

2.This is the lady. She gave me a lift yesterday. .........................................................................................................

3.There is a visitor outside. He wants to see you. .........................................................................................................

4.The girl is going to marry Yusuf. She looks very nice. .........................................................................................................

5.The boy bought my motorbike. He lives next door. .........................................................................................................

*Whom (relative pronoun for people. Object in the relative clause.)

1.a. I saw a man yesterday.(1) The man is an actor.(2)

b. The man whom I saw yesterday is an actor. (written English)

c. The man who I saw yesterday is an actor (spoken English)

d. The man that I saw yesterday is an actor. (common in spoken English)

There is no difference in meaning between all those sentences.

2.a. I spoke to a man yesterday. The man was an actor.

b. The man to whom I spoke yesterday was an actor.

c. The man who(m) I spoke to yesterday was an actor.

d. The man that I spoke to yesterday was an actor.

e. The man I spoke to yesterday was an actor.

( 215. Exercise :

Supply who, that, whom only where necessary.

1.She is the only student ........ can speak English fluently.

2.He is the sort of person ............. everyone admires.

3.The old man ...... you were talking about died a few days ago.

4.The woman to ........ you were speaking on the bus is Mrs Laura.

5.She is not the woman ......... she was before she married.

6.All those .......... wish to come with us are welcome.

Which (relative pronoun for things. Subject in the relative clause)

1.a. He wanted the watch.(1)The watch was in the window.(2)

b. He wanted the watch which was in the window.

c. He wanted the watch that was in the window.

2.a. The watch was expensive.(1)The watch was in the window.(2)

b. The watch which was in the window was expensive.

c. The watch that was in the window was expensive.

*You can join (1) and (2) using the relative pronoun which.

It can only replace a thing or an animal. (the watch/the lion)

*Which can be replaced by that (more usual in spoken English)

*Which/that always follow the antecedent and are here the subject of

the verb in the relative clause.

*See the difference in construction between e.g. 1 and e.g.2.

( 216. Exercise :

Join the following sentences using the relative pronoun “which”

working as a subject.

1.It is a wonderful idea. It will change the world.

.......................................................................................

2.You must stop eating things. It makes you fat.

or “they will make you fat”

.......................................................................................

3.A dictionary is a book. It explains what words mean. .......................................................................................

4.This grey book is mine. It is on the table. .......................................................................................

5.The chair is now mended. It was broken yesterday. .......................................................................................

6.The shop is around the corner. It sells postcards. .......................................................................................

*Which (relative pronoun for things: Object in the relative clause)

1.a. The magazine is very interesting. You lent me the magazine.

b. The magazine which you lent me is very interesting.

c. The magazine that you lent me is very interesting.

d. The magazine you lent me is very interesting.

*There is no difference in meaning between all these sentences.

‘that’ is very common in spoken English and can be omitted.

-after a superlative (ex.2.a)

2.a. This is the best film (that) I have ever seen.

b. I couldn’t believe all (that) he said.

*That is used instead of which or it can be omitted.

-after all, everything, nothing, little, much (ex.2.b)

3.a. He was standing on a chair. The chair broke.

b. The chair on which he was standing broke.

c. The chair which he was standing on broke.

d. The chair that he was standing on broke.

e. The chair he was standing on broke.

*When the preposition (on) is placed before the relative pronoun,

we have to use which. This is quite formal. (3.b)

*It is more usual to put the preposition after the verb. In this case

we can use which or that or omit the relative pronoun. (3.c.d.e.)

( 217. Complete the sentences with who or which :

1.The woman ……… lives next door is a dentist.

2.I don’t know the people ………. live there.

3.The hotel …..caught fire has been rebuilt.

4.You should choose the clothes …… suit your personality.

5.She has a job ………most people would hate.

6.Did the assistant ……. served you have blonde hair?

7.Devrim works for a company …………. makes fridges.

8.That’s the dog ….. tried to bite me.

9.The government was defeated in the elections …….. took place last week.

10.He’s the kind of person …… loves an argument.

( 218. Exercise :

Supply which or that only when necessary.

1.The only games ... he likes are football and Rugby.

2.This is the guest house at .... we are staying.

3.The bird is the most beautiful bird ...... I have ever seen.

4.The village from .... he comes from is a long way from here.

5.Just take all ........... you need.

6.Is there anything .......... I can do for you?

7.The film ...... he was thinking of was American.

*Whose (relative pronoun for things or people, shows possession.)

1.a. This is a letter.(1) Its envelope has been torn open.(2)

b. This is a letter whose envelope has been torn open.

2.a. The driver was late.(1) His lorry has bumped into the wall.(2)

b. The driver whose lorry had bumped into the wall was late.

*In example(1) Its envelope is subject in (2). Note the position of

envelope in (b).

*In e.g.2, his lorry is subject in (2).Note the position of lorry in (b).

*Whose always follows the antecedent, that is, the subject or the object of

the first sentence that has a possessive relation to somebody or something.

3.a. The woman is Mrs Brown(1).You met her younger son yesterday(2).

b. The woman whose younger son you met yesterday is Mrs Brown.

*In e.g. 3 her son is object in sentence (2).Note the position of son in

sentence (b).

*Whose can be followed by adjective + noun, but can never be followed by

an article or a possessive adjective.

( 219. Exercise :

Join the following sentences using ‘whose’.

1.The pilot was not hurt. His plane landed in the desert.

.............................................................................................

2.He is a writer. His books are very famous. .............................................................................................

3.She is the girl. I saw her mother the other day. .............................................................................................

4.He asked me a question. I don’t understand its purpose. .............................................................................................

5.The man told me the whole story. His children go to school with mine. .............................................................................................

6.The fisherman was in despair. They had sold his boat. .............................................................................................

( 220. Exercise :

Join the following sentences using ‘which’.

1.They do not agree. It is not surprising.

......................................................................................................

2.He wants to continue. It surprises me a lot . ......................................................................................................

3.We hoped to have his own boat. It would allow him to fish in the open sea. ......................................................................................................

4.He caught several fish. He couldn’t believe it.

......................................................................................................

5.He drives like a maniac. I hate it. ......................................................................................................

6.I found the house empty. It surprised me. ......................................................................................................

7.She apologized. I appreciated it. ......................................................................................................

A.DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

Relative pronouns :

Person Thing

1.Subject : who(that) that(which)

2.Object : Ø(that,who,whom) Ø (that,which)

3.Possesive : whose whose(of which)

( 221. Fill in the blanks with WHO or WHICH :

1.I know a woman........................ knows ten languages.

2.Is that the book .......................... you bought last month?

3.The boy ...................................... is sitting next to her is very handsome.

4.The dentist ................................. she visited yesterday is very famous.

5.Is there a shop ............................ sells postcards?

6.The family ............................... you lived with in Brighton are coming to

Turkey this summer.

7.The shirt................................... he is wearing is very expensive.

8.The students........................ were late for classes yesterday were punished.

9.My son is a boy ...................... loves jokes.

10.This is the supermarket ........................... we do shopping at.

( 222. Join these sentences together to make one sentence :

1.This is the boy. I was telling my mother about him.

...........................................................................................................................

2.The children made me feel terrible. They live next door.

...........................................................................................................................

3.That’s the tiger. The vet gave it very strong medicine.

...........................................................................................................................

4. I sold my old computer. It was really slow.

...........................................................................................................................

5.She’s the woman. She distributed bread to the poor people in Diyarbakır.

...........................................................................................................................

6.The machine didn’t work very well. It was very expensive.

...........................................................................................................................

7.The old waiter met me at the door. He was very gentle.

...........................................................................................................................

8.Footballers make a lot of money. They play football for several years.

...........................................................................................................................

9.She drinks a lot. She is my neighbour.

...........................................................................................................................

10.The new students came to this course only a few weeks ago. They are

very intelligent.

...........................................................................................................................

Possessive relative pronoun is WHOSE :

e.g.

Ali Coşkun bought a building near Düden Waterfalls five years ago.

His friend visited me yesterday.

Ali Coşkun, whose friend visited me yesterday,

bought a building near Düden Waterfalls five years ago.

Whose refers to Ali Coşkun.

It’s his friend who visited me yesterday.

( 223. Choose the most suitable word :

1.My friend Özgür, that/who/whose parents live in Antalya,

invited us for the summer holiday.

2.We didn’t enjoy the film that/who/whose we watched together.

3.Have you bought the book which/whom/who I recommended.

4.My parents come from Afşin,that/who/which is near Kayseri.

5.I don’t believe the story that/who/whom he told us.

CLEFT SENTENCES

| |

|It + be + noun/pronoun + defining relative clause |

It was Tom who helped us. (not Bill or Jack)

It was Ann that I saw. (not Mary)

*When the object is a proper noun, as above, ‘that’ is more usual than ‘who’

with all other objects ‘that’ is the correct form;

It’s the manager that wants to see.

It was wine that we ordered. (not beer)

‘that’ is usual for non-personal subjects :

It’s speed that causes accidents, not bad roads.

A RELATIVE CLAUSE REPLACED BY AN INFINITIVE OR PARTICIPLE :

1.INFINITIVES

a) after : the first/the second etc. and after the last/only and after superlatives.

e.g. the last man to leave the ship(=the last man who left/leave the ship)

b) when there’s an idea of purpose or permission :

e.g. He has a lot of books to read. (=books that he can/must read)

2.PARTICIPLES

a) when the verb in the clause is in the continuous tense :

e.g. People who are/were waiting for the bus often shelter/sheltered

in my doorway.

(=People waiting for the bus often shelter/sheltered …………..

b) when the verb in the clause expresses a historical or continuous action :

e.g. Passengers who travel/travelled on this bus buy /bought their

tickets in books.

(=Passengers travelling …………...………………………….

c) when a verb in the clause expresses a wish (wish/desire/want/hope-but not like)

e.g. People who wish/wished to go on the tour.

(People wishing to go on the tour).

d) A non-defining clause containing one of the above verbs or any verb of

knowing or thinking: know/think/believe/expect

e.g. Peter, who thought the journey would take two days, said………

(=Peter, thinking the journey would take two days, said …….)

B.NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

Non-defining relative clauses are used in writing but are not used

frequently in conversation.

There is an important difference between defining and non-defining relative clauses.

Defining clauses give important information which tells us what is being referred to,

but, Non-defining clauses add extra information, separated by commas in writing, and intonation in speaking.

The relative pronoun cannot be left out in a non-defining clause.

e.g. : Defining : I have three uncles who are living in Afşin.

or "who live in Afşin at the moment"

(I have more than three uncles.)

Non-Defining : I have three uncles, who are living in Afşin.

or "who live"

(I have only three uncles.)

The wine which was in the cellar was all ruined.

(Presumably some was kept elsewhere/escaped damage.)

The wine, which was in the cellar, was all ruined.

(all the wine was in the cellar.)

*The travellers who knew about the floods took another road.

Limits the travellers/only the travellers who knew/implies that there were

other travellers who did not know/took the flooded road.

*The travellers, who knew about the floods, took another road.

doesn’t define/doesn’t limit the noun it follows.

Implies that all the travellers knew about the floods and took another road.

Relative pronouns :

Person Thing

1.Subject who(that) that(which)

2.Object Ø (who,whom) Ø(which)

3.Possesive whose whose(of which)

( 224. Rewrite these sentences :

1.Erdal telephoned his teacher. She lives in Dikmen.

.......................................................................................................................

2.The watch is a little bit slow. My sister bought it for me.

.......................................................................................................................

3.The boys are playing football in the garden. She got angry with them.

.......................................................................................................................

4.Serdal invited his friends to dinner. They always help him with his work.

.......................................................................................................................

5.Mary interviewed Sally Jones. Her department head was thinking of sending

her abroad.

.......................................................................................................................

( 225. Use one of these sentences to make non-defining relative clauses:

I like him very much.

It was published two months ago.

He is very friendly to the students.

She suffered from liver cancer.

He is known all over the world.

1.This new book has good points for use as a coursebook.

2.Next week I’m going to visit Mehmet.

3.Our English teacher has written a wonderful grammar book.

4.His mother died in May.

5.Orhan Pamuk is a famous writer.

1. …………………………………………………………………………

2. …………………………………………………………………………

3. …………………………………………………………………………

4. …………………………………………………………………………

5. …………………………………………………………………………

LEAVING OUT RELATIVE PRONOUNS

We can leave out objective pronouns who, whom, which and that :

The job wasn’t very interesting.

He got it.

The job that he got wasn’t very interesting.

or

The job he got wasn’t very interesting.

(It is the object of its clause, so we can leave it out.)

A woman has just bought the house.

My sister knows her.

A woman who(m) my sister knows has just bought the house.

or

A woman my sister knows has just bought the house.

(It’s the object in its clause, so we can leave it out.)

( 226. Is the relative pronoun subject or object in these sentences?

1.That’s the boy who lives nextdoor. S

2.Our teacher is a person whom I respect. S

3.They never thanked me for the books that I sent them. S

4.That’s the man who I wanted to visit. S

5.It’s the newspaper that everybody buys daily but never reads. S

( 227. Combine these sentences using a relative clause with

that or no relative pronoun :

1.She wants the house. (It has five bedrooms.)

…………………………………………………………………………

2.We went to the film. (You told us about it.)

…………………………………………………………………………

3.The man has been sent to prison. (He robbed a bank.)

…………………………………………………………………………

4.We’ve bought the car. (It has air-conditioning.)

…………………………………………………………………………

5.They’re removing the tree tomorrow. It fell on my house.)

…………………………………………………………………………

6.The man was a police officer. (He phoned me yesterday.)

…………………………………………………………………………

7.The mountains were covered in snow. (We saw them.)

…………………………………………………………………………

8.She stayed in a hotel. (I recommended it.)

…………………………………………………………………………

9.The computer isn’t powerful enough. (They bought it.)

…………………………………………………………………………

10.I went to the restaurant. (It has a fixed price menu.)

…………………………………………………………………………

|all/both/few/most/several/some etc + of + whom/which |

e.g. Her sons, both of whom work abroad, ring her up every week.

(=Both her sons work abroad, but they ring her up every week.)

The house was full of boys, ten of whom were his own grandchildren.

(The house was full of boys ; ten of them ……)

PREPOSITIONS WITH RELATIVE CLAUSES

BEWARE !

‘That’ cannot be used after a preposition.

This is the apartment flat that/which people pay one billion TL for.

This is the car for which I paid all my money.

These are the friends with whom I went on holiday.

The English Teachers’ Association is the only association of which I am a member.

This is the high school to which I attended six years.

This is Serdal, about whom I have told a lot.

RELATIVE CLAUSES OF TIME, PLACE, AND REASON

We use when, where, and why in place of relative pronouns

in relative clauses of time, place and reason.

*Time :

1985 was the year when our first son was born.

*Place :

That’s the place where the refugees settled down.

or "were resettled to"

*Reason :

The beautiful countryside is the reason why I like to live in a village.

CONNECTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES

The pronouns are who, whom, which, whose, commas are used as with

non-defining clauses. Connective relative clauses do not describe their

nouns but continue the story.

e.g. I told Ali, who said it wasn’t his business.

or

I threw the ball to Ali, who threw it to Ayşe.

( 228. Rewrite the following sentences using when, where or why :

1.The late afternoon is a bad time. I can’t work well.

…....................................................................................................................

2.This is the place. We had a serious accident last year.

........................................................................................................................

3. I like him. His friendly behaviour is the reason.

........................................................................................................................

4.This is a picture of the place. We always go there for holidays.

........................................................................................................................

5.My childhood was the first time. I first became interested in Turkish

folk music.

........................................................................................................................

CHAPTER - IX

STRUCTURAL ENGLISH

*Noun Clauses

*Inversion

*Linking Words

*Word Order in English

*Participle constructions

*Reducing Adverb Clauses

NOUN CLAUSES

Noun clauses are sometimes called that-clauses.

But noun clauses do not always use that.

Sometimes question words are used.

Questions become normal statements.

I can guarantee that he will be successful.

Are you sure that he told her the whole story?

You will never understand why she left you.

What he said is known by everybody.

Whether he will come or not is not clear enough.

It’s not certain if he will buy that house.

( 229. Join the sentences using a noun clause :

1.She’s telling the truth. I’m sure.

....................................................................................................

2.They still believe the story. He will come and pay his debts.

....................................................................................................

3.They are being successful. I’m delighted.

....................................................................................................

4.Some learners have difficulty in learning the language.

I don’t know how many.

....................................................................................................

5.Where are we meeting tomorrow? Have you decided that?

....................................................................................................

( 230. Complete the sentences by changing the questions to noun clauses :

1.Where did İnan go? ( I don’t know where İnan went.

2.How old is your sister? ( I don’t know………………..

3.Where can I buy a loaf of bread? (( I don’t know ………………

4.Why did Yasemin leave? ( I don’t know………………..

5.Where did Sevil go? ( I don’t know………………

6.Where is Yaprak? ( I don’t know………………

7.Where is Karşıyaka? ( I don’t know………………

8.Where does Ümit live? ( I don’t know………………

9.What time is it? ( I don’t know………………

10.What is Senem talking about? ( I don’t know………………

11.What country is Mr. Rmouch from?( I don’t know …………..

12.Why was Mehmet absent yesterday?( I don’t know ……………

13.When did Hüseyin arrive? ( I don’t know………………

14.When does the semester end? ( I don’t know ……………...

15.Where is the nearest bank? ( I don’t know ……………...

( 231. Complete the sentences by changing the questions to noun clause :

1.Who did you see at the party? Tell me ………………………………

2.Who came to the party? Can you tell me …………………………?

3.Who is she? Tell me ………………………………

4.Whose shirt is this? Can you tell me …………………………?

5.Who am I? Tell me ………………………………

6.Who are they? Can you tell me …………………………?

7.Who did Meryem invite? Tell me ………………………………

8.How old are their children? Can you tell me …………………………?

9.What is that? Tell me ………………………………

10.Whose car is in the school playground?

Can you tell me …………………………?

INVERSION

A.

Should anyone telephone, could you take a message?

(=Could you take a message if anyone telephones?)

Were the suit a ’ Beymen ‘, it would be worth millions of liras.

(=If the suit was a ‘Beymen’ , it would be worth millions of liras.)

Had you taken a taxi, you would have got here on time.

(=If you had taken a taxi, you would have got here on time.)

B.

Use of :

|never, seldom, scarcely, ever, scarcely....when, no sooner....than, nowhere, |

|in no circumstances, on no account, only by, only then, only when, |

|only in this way, not only, so, neither, nor. |

e.g.

Never before had she been asked to go out.

On no account must this money be spent.

Only by behaving rudely was she able to get that bad impression.

C.

Use of :

|(in, out, up, down, round, over, back, forward ) + verb + subject |

e.g.

In came Erdal. ( In he came.)

Up jumped the runner.

Down fell the best apricots.

MORE EXAMPLES ON INVERSION

Had there been a telephone nearby, I would have called the police.

Never in my life had I felt so embarrassed.

Rarely does he use his credit card.

No sooner had I told him the news than everybody in the village knew it.

Only when you see her will you realise how much she has changed.

Only in an emergency should you dial 177.

Not only did I lock the door, but I also secured the windows.

Not even once did she look in this direction.

Not until I saw him in person did I realise how tall he was.

In no way is he to blame for what happened.

Under no circumstances would he accept my proposal.

Little did he know about the surprise that awaited him.

So bad was the concert that we left during the intermission.

Here comes the bus! (=Here it comes!)

I don’t like baseball. Neither does my brother. (=my brother doesn’t either.)

LINKING WORDS

Study these and give more examples :

|LINKING CONJUNCTIONS:and, both…and, or, either…or, neither….nor, Not only …. but also: |

e.g. She is both clever and hard working.

Neither my friends nor your friends would buy those books.

|MAKING AN ADDITIONAL POINT:too,not only…but …as well, as well as, besides, in addition to this,furthermore, |

|what is more,moreover,anyway: |

e.g. As well as winning a lot of money from the lottery, she got a raise.

|CONTRASTING CONJUNCTIONS:but, however, nevertheless, on the other hand, regardless of, yet,though/altough,in |

|spite of,despite,whereas |

|contrary to, in contrast to, in comparison to : |

e.g. She cooks well but she hates washing up afterwards.

|in fact, as a matter of fact, actually, indeed, |

|to tell you the truth, strangely enough: |

e.g. To tell you the truth, I wouldn’t let you go.

|like, as, likewise, similarly, in the same way : |

|*like +noun/pronoun /-ing form = similar to |

|*as +subject +verb = similar to |

|*as +article +noun describes somebody’s job or function of something |

e.g. They left everything as we told them.

| |

|like, such as, for example, for instance, especially, particularly, |

|in particular |

e.g. Some devices such as mobile phones are sold everywhere.

|in other words, specifically, to be (more) specific, that is to say, I mean: |

e.g. …………………………………………………………………………

|EXPRESSING A CONSEQUENCE:so, therefore, otherwise, thus, in this case, for this reason, under those |

|circumstances, consequently, as a consequence, as a result : |

e.g. …………………………………………………………………………

|but (for), except (for), apart from: |

e.g. …………………………………………………………………………

|beginning : initially, first, first of all, at first, to begin/start with : |

|continuing : second, secondly, after this/that, afterwards, then, next: |

|concluding : finally, lastly, last but not least, in the end, eventually, |

|to conclude, in conclusion |

e.g. ………………………………………………………………………....

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

|regarding, considering, concerning, with respect/regard to, |

|as for, as to |

|e.g. ………………………………………………………………………… |

|e.g. ………………………………………………………………………… |

|e.g. ………………………………………………………………………… |

|e.g. ………………………………………………………………………… |

|e.g. ………………………………………………………………………… |

|to summarise, to sum up, in summary, in short, on the whole, (all) in all, |

|altogether : |

e.g. …………………………………………………………………………

|in my opinion/view, according to, personally: |

e.g. …………………………………………………………………………

|EXPRESSING A REASON OR A PURPOSE: because,for,since,so that, |

|in order that |

e.g. …………………………………………………………………………

and, but, so, because

We went to town and (we) did some shopping.

(positive) (positive)

I want to learn Japanese but it is very difficult to learn.

(positive) (negative)

I don’t want to leave early but I have something to do immediately.

(negative) (positive)

The weather was very bad so we stayed at home.

(reason) (result)

I didn’t study hard because it was a boring subject.

(result) (reason)

( 232. Complete the sentences with and, but, so, because :

1.It was a lovely day ........... they decided to go out.

2.He enjoys learning German ................ he finds it very difficult.

3.I would like to live in the country .................... I love the countryside.

4.I was embarrassed............. I left the party early.

5.They went to the theatre together ....................... they had a very good time.

6.I am very hungry ........................... I do not have time to eat anything now.

7.We didn’t study hard ........................... we could not get good marks.

8.I was very tired after all ....................... I didn’t follow the rules.

9.They haven’t got much money................... they are very happy.

10. I got up late ...................... I didn’t have breakfast.

WORD ORDER

Normal word order in English is as follows :

| |helping | |Indirect object |Direct object |Adverbial |

|Subject |verb |verb | | |modifiers |

233. Read these sentences;

1.We have been here in this city for five years.

2.She went to the cinema yesterday evening.

3.I have to write many letters in Italian every day.

4.Please read the whole article slowly.

5.They’re studying Norwegian as well as English now.

6.I do not like coffee very much.

7.We do not live in Ankara.

8.Why didn’t you come to Kızılay last Friday?

9.Serdal said that he had already had two cups of tea.

10.Are they doing their homework now?

11. I got up late but I didn’t have breakfast.

12. I was very tired after all.

13. They went to the theatre together.

14. This is the lady whose niece is a nurse.

15. Come and help me.

16. Why didn’t you come to my party?

17. Let’s go to the cinema.

18. Do it yourself!

PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTIONS

A.PRESENT PARTICIPLE PHRASES

a. after these verbs :

feel, hear, listen, notice, see, smell

I saw him leaving the work early this afternoon. (only a part of action is perceived) ( uncompleted(

I saw him walk away. (the whole action is perceiwed) ( completed(

b. in places of clauses :

1. When two actions by the same subject take place at the same time :

She did his daily work and put him in the balcony.

Doing his daily work, she put him in the balcony.

I stayed at school and did my social work.

I stayed at school doing my social work.

2.In place of clauses of time :

After I did my housework, I left home.

After doing/having done my housework, I left home.

Before helping her dress, they paint her hands and feet.

3.In place of clauses of reason :

As I was unhappy with my test results, I decided to see the instructor.

Since

Because

Being unhappy with my test results, I decided to see the instructor.

4.In place of clauses of concession :

While recognizing the case, I can’t let you argue with him.

5.In place of defining subject relative clauses (in the present simple or

continuous) :

The man teaching at my private courses works in a state high school.

| |

|*THE PERFECT PARTICIPLE is used instead of the present participle where one action is immediately followed by |

|another with the same subject : |

| |

|e.g. |

| |

|Tying one end of the rope to his bed, she threw the other end out of the window. |

| |

|=Having tied one end of the rope to his bed, she threw the other end out of the window. |

B.PAST PARTICIPLE PHRASES

In place of the passive :

I often saw him at the party. He was served like a king.

I often saw him at the party, served like a king.

Being +past participle after, before, when, since, while, on, by :

After it was washed, it looked as bright as something new.

After being washed , it looked as bright as something new.

She lives in a house built in the 19th century.

I would never go into a haunted house, would you?

( 234. Complete using the present, the past or the perfect participle

of the verbs in brackets :

1.The food …………..(eat) by the boy had been prepared by caterers.

2………………… (trap) in the car, they waited for help.

3…………………. (not know) what to do, I asked them to suggest something.

4…………………. (surprise) by the event, we didn’t know what to say.

5.The lady …………. (give) the speech is my aunt.

6…………….. (polish) her car, she then vacuumed it.

7……………... (read) the newspaper, I wrote down some notes.

8 …………….. (make) the salad, she cut her finger.

9 …………….. (walk) past them at that moment was Daphne, a water nymph.

( 235. Correct the following sentences if necessary :

1.Our clothes being wet, we decided to sit by the fire.

………………………………………………………………………………

2.Been dissatisfied with the result of the match, the fans blamed the referee. ………………………………………………………………………………..

3.People are taking the train to Paris, must go to platform four. ………………………………………………………………………………..

4.The man who sitting over there is my boss. ………………………………………………………………………………..

5.Having been spent all my money, I asked my brother to lend me some. ………………………………………………………………………………..

REDUCING ADVERB CLAUSES

She fell while she was running down the stairs.

=She fell while running down the stairs.

Before I left home, I asked my son about his report.

=Before leaving home, I asked my son about his report.

Since I moved to Ankara, I saved a lot.

=Since moving to Ankara, I saved a lot.

After they had taken their exam results, they felt more happy.

=After taking their exam results, they felt more happy.

( 236. Change the adverb clause to a reduced phrase :

1.Before we left the picnic area, we put out the fire.

...............................................................................................................

2.We talked about our old good days while we were having our coffee.

...............................................................................................................

3.After we had written seven letters, we stopped working.

...............................................................................................................

4.When Erdal had the operation, he seemed relaxed.

...............................................................................................................

5.Before they left for the mountains, they checked all their equipment.

...............................................................................................................

CHAPTER - X

ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

*So … that/Such …. that

*Until-Since-Yet-Still-Already-Just

*Probably and Likely

*Let alone

*As

*As long as

*As if-Quite-Rather-Fairly

*Rather than

*No sooner than

*Hardly … when

*Because-Since-In order that-So-In order to

*Now that-Seeing that-In as much as

*Once

*Only if = Not unless

*Only too =Extremely-only to =but then

*One and only =Unique

*While-Meanwhile

*On account of the fact that

*Owing to the fact that

*In view of the fact that

*Because of the fact that

*Due to the fact that

*If-In case-In the event (that)-Provided

*Providing that

*Unless-Whether or not-Suppose

*Except for-Except for the fact that

CLAUSES OF CONTRAST

*Although-However-Yet

*Though-Even though-Much as

*While-In spite of the fact that-Whereas

*No matter +QW- However +Adj, Adv

*In spite +Noun +-ing +the fact that

*Despite +Noun +-ing +the fact that

*Not only …. but also

*Both … and

*Instead +Ving

*Also-Too-Either

*Neither… nor/Either … or

*So-Nor

DETERMINERS

SO ..... THAT - SUCH ..... THAT

so+adj/adv+that

Ankara is so beautiful that I can’t imagine living in another city.

so+many/few+plural noun+that

There were so few girls that the boys danced by themselves

(or "with each other").

There are so many students in the class that we can’t find room for the desks.

so+much/little+uncountable noun+that

There was so much food that I couldn’t decide what to eat.

There was so little time that I visited just one of my friends who lives in İzmir.

such+a/an+adj+noun+that

Ankara is such a beautiful city that I can’t imagine living in another city.

|(action) + so that + (intention) |

The conjunction introduces an intention, a purpose.

1.a.(action) He has sent me his address.(1)

b.(intention) I can write to him.(2)

2.a.(action) He gave me his address.(1)

b.(intention) I can write to him.(2)

*He gave me his address so that I could write to him.

*In example 1, action(2) belongs to future time.(can write)

In example 2, action (2) belongs to past time (could write)

*so that is always followed by subject + verb.

*To insist on the intention we often add a modal auxiliary to

express the notion of capacity, possibility, future, etc.

In eg.1: so that I can write (possibility in the present)

In eg.2: so that I could write (possibility in the past)

( 237. Exercise :

Study these examples carefully .

-He works hard. He wants to pass his exams.(possibility)

-He works hard so that he can pass his exams.

-He sent a telegram.

He wanted his parents to hear the good news.(possibility)

He sent a telegram so that his parents could hear the good news.

Join the following sentences using ‘so that’ and leaving

out the verb to want. Use a modal auxiliary to express

the notion.

1.She left the letter on the table. She wanted me to see it.(possibility)

............................................................................................................

2.You should tell him the truth. He wants to help you.(possibility) ............................................................................................................

3.My parents are sending me to England.

They wanted everybody to know about it.(possibility) ............................................................................................................

4.He went fishing. He wanted his family to eat.(possibility) ............................................................................................................

5.They advertised the concert. They wanted everybody to come.(possibility) ............................................................................................................

6.I’ll read the exercise carefully. I don’t want to make any mistakes.(future) ............................................................................................................

( 238. Combine these sentences with so....... that or such ....... that :

1.There was traffic on the way home. We got home late.

...............................................................................................................

2.There were cars in the car park. We couldn’t find our car.

...............................................................................................................

3.The cinema was crowded. We couldn’t breathe.

...............................................................................................................

4.The young people behind us talked loudly. We couldn’t hear.

...............................................................................................................

5.The meal tasted salty. We asked for our money back. (logically we tasted

the meal... not the waiter)

...............................................................................................................

6.She was thirsty. She had to get a drink in the middle of the film.

...............................................................................................................

7.The seats were comfortable. They didn’t want to get up.

...............................................................................................................

UNTIL-SINCE-YET-STILL-ALREADY-JUST

I will watch the film until I am called.

My roommate and I continued to live together until she got married.

She had never seen snow until her family moved from Antalya to Bingöl.

I haven’t smoked since I was told that it was dangerous for my health by my

doctor.

She hasn’t mastered what she has been studying yet.

We have just had a government but it is not going to manage for long either I think.

PROBABLY AND LIKELY

Probably is used with will and shall and a bare infinitive, a present perfect or a continuous form.

e.g.

The letter will probably arrive tomorrow.

Likely is used with the present tense and a full infinitive.

e.g.

The letter is likely to arrive tomorrow.

LET ALONE

e.g.

I can’t afford a Toyota, let alone a BMW.

She won’t be able to buy a flat, let alone a villa.

He doesn’t take his tie with him, let alone the suitcase.

AS

As is used a)when the second action occurs before the first is finished :

b)for parallel actions

c)for parallel development

d)to mean while

e.g.

As I left the house I remembered the key.

She studied as he worked

As the sun rose the fog dispersed.

As it became darker it became colder.

As she stood there she saw three women enter the café.

As I was walking to the shop, it began to rain again.

As meaning because / since :

As she was tired …….. = Because she was tired………..

As it contains alcohol…= Since/Because it contains alcohol……..

AS SOON AS

She will return the official papers as soon as she is informed.

first : She will be informed.

then : She will return the official papers.

|(as soon as + first action) - second action |

|second action - (as soon as + first action) |

AS LONG AS

|As long as (action 1) , (action 2) |

*means that 1 is a necessary condition to do 2.

The same rules applies to on the condition that, providing, provided.

(They all have the same meaning.)

1.a. He can stay here.(1)There is one condition; he will not disturb me.

b. He can stay here as long as he doesn’t disturb me.

2.a. He could stay here.(1)

There is one condition; he would not disturb me.(2)

b. He could stay here as long as he didn’t disturb me.

3.a. He can stay here.(1) There is one condition; he will keep quiet.(2)

b. He can stay here as long as he keeps quiet.

4.a. He could stay here.(1)

There was one condition; he would keep quiet.(2)

b. He could stay here as long as he kept quiet.

*As long as followed by subject + verb.

*As long as can not be followed by will or would.

‘ Will not disturb’ becomes ‘ do/doesn’t disturb’ (eg.1)

‘Would not disturb ‘ becomes ‘didn’t disturb.’ (eg.2)

*as long as can be followed by a negative form. (eg.1-2)

by an affirmative form. (3-4)

( 239. Exercise :

Join the following sentences using the words in brackets.

Make any necessary changes.

1.You can go swimming.

One condition: the sea will not be rough.(as long as).

........................................................................................................

2.He will be satisfied. One condition: you will go with him.(provided) ........................................................................................................

3.You can use that dictionary. One condition: you will not ruin it.

(as long as) ........................................................................................................

4.I could have the room. One condition : I wouldn’t have a bath

late at night. (on the condition that) ........................................................................................................

5.My wife will get a raise. One condition: she will work

extra hours.(providing) ........................................................................................................

6.Her boss promised her a raise.

One condition: she wouldn’t take any days off.(as long as) ........................................................................................................

|I will never forget your bad behaviour as long as I live. |

( 240. Rewrite these sentences :

1.If you don’t drink too much, you won’t get a headache. (as long as)

...........................................................................................................

2.You won’t drink too much, you won’t throw the blankets off. (so long as)

...........................................................................................................

AS IF

He behaves the other employees as if he is the boss.

Ali ( the shop owner

Mehmet ( the shop assistant

Ayşe ( the shop assistant

Meral ( the shop assistant

Ayşe : Mehmet behaves the other shop assistants as if he is the boss.

|As if (= As through) + subjunctive |

-is used to indicate unreality or improbability or doubt in the present.

He orders me about as if I were his wife. ( but I am not)

QUITE - RATHER – FAIRLY

Quite is more positive than fairly.

fairly cheap price

normal price

the amount

we paid

The price was fairly cheap, but we bought it for a better

price from the other shop.

The shirt was quite cheap, cheaper than from the other shop.

The car was rather old, and it was rather too* slow.

(Older and slower than we expected.)

rather slow

slow our opinion

rather old

old our opinion

*I would never use ‘too’ after rather as it seems like bad British English.

( 241. Read these sentences :

1.It’s rather cold in here. Could you turn on the radiator?

2.It was a rather disappointing result.

3.I’m feeling rather better today.

4.The bracelet was rather too expensive.

5.You’re speaking rather too quickly.

6.I found it quite easy.

7.The train was quite fast.

8. This is quite ridiculous.

9.The food was quite good.

RATHER THAN

Rather than = as opposed to, instead of, in preference to

e.g.

Shall we see a film rather than a play?

Rather than do military service he spent two years in jail.

NOT QUITE

Not quite = almost

e.g.

A: Have you finished?

B: Not quite.

NO SOONER .............. THAN

No sooner (action) .......... than (action)

*To express that action (2) happened only a few minutes after action(1).

1.a. He came home .(1)(A few minutes later) his sister arrived.(2)

b. He had no sooner come than his sister arrived.

2.a. He came home.(1) (A few minutes later) his sister arrived.

b. No sooner had he come home than his sister arrived.

*In e.g.1.a. : The verb is in the past simple.(came)

*In e.g. 1.b. : The verb is in the past perfect (had come) to show that action

(1) happened before action(2).

*No sooner is placed after the auxiliary.(had no sooner come)

*In written English, if you want to emphasize you can place no sooner at

the beginning of the sentence :

In this case the word order is :

| NO SOONER + HAD + SUBJECT + V-PAST PARTICIPLE |

He had no sooner had dinner than he began to feel drowsy.

( 242. Exercise :

Join the following sentences making any changes necessary and using

No sooner .......... than:

If the sentences are followed by (no sooner), use it as a starter.

1.The plane took off. It immediately returned to the airport.

..........................................................................................................

2.He arrived. A few minutes later everybody wanted to shake hands

with him.(No sooner) ..........................................................................................................

3.She sat down. Someone immediately knocked at the door again. ..........................................................................................................

4.We left the office. He arrived a few seconds later.(No sooner) ..........................................................................................................

5.I got back to the kitchen. The doorbell rang. ..........................................................................................................

HARDLY.............. WHEN, SCARCELY.............. WHEN ,

SCARCELY.............. WHEN, BARELY.............. WHEN

The film had hardly begun when we went into the cinema.

Scarcely had the performance begun when the lights went out.(less usual)

IMMEDIATELY

Immediately after she finished with breakfast her children asked for lunch.

BECAUSE-SINCE-IN ORDER THAT-SO-IN ORDER TO*-

NOW THAT-SEEING THAT*-IN AS MUCH AS*

We live in Ankara because our sons go to school here, so it seems more logical!

Since it is nice to have fresh air, my father would like* to go to his village.

My friends suggested that I go on holiday on my own in order that they wouldn't have to accept such a poor packed planned holiday.

We didn’t go on holiday together, so I saved a lot.

I buy expensive things in order to* use them for a longer period of time.

*Seeing that we are all ready, we might start the exam.

Now that the school days are over, everybody is thinking about having a holiday.

*Seeing that we are all ready, we may start the party.

In as much as the union leaders are not working hard, we are still planning to go on strike.

ONCE

Once you have planned to do it, you will surely be successful.

EVEN IF

Even if you are tired, you could describe to me where you are sitting .

(………..or describe to me the way you are sitting)

ONLY IF = NOT UNLESS

e.g.

A :Do we have to eat now?

B :Only if you want to.

ONLY TOO = EXTREMELY

e.g.

I’m only too happy to move to Ankara, it was too hard to work

in Istanbul.

ONLY TO = BUT THEN

e.g.

I did all the housework only to be able to watch the soap opera.

ONE AND ONLY = UNIQUE

e.g.

The one and only thing you should have is to have a healthy life.

WHILE – MEANWHILE

She often listens to the radio while she does her homework.

I was doing the housework, and meanwhile the children were watching the TV.

I did the housework meanwhile the children watched the TV.

She was preparing dinner while the boys were fighting in the room.

ON ACCOUNT OF THE FACT THAT

On account of the fact that I was unemployed , my wife was preparing herself for a new situation.

OWING TO THE FACT THAT

Owing to the fact that we had sold our car, we had to go on holiday by train.

IN VIEW OF THE FACT THAT

In view of the fact that she wasn’t at home, we changed our plan.

BECAUSE OF THE FACT THAT

Because of the fact that it was too cold, we decided to stay home.

DUE TO THE FACT THAT

Due to the fact that prices were getting higher and higher, I didn’t let my sons buy unnecessary things.

IF - IN CASE -IN THE EVENT(THAT) - PROVIDED / PROVIDING THAT- UNLESS - WHETHER OR NOT- SUPPOSE

The conjunction unless expresses a condition.

1.a. You will be late if you don’t take a taxi.

b. You will be late unless you take a taxi.

*In e.g.(a), ‘if’ is followed by a negative verb.

In e.g. (b) with ‘unless’, the verb is affirmative.

( 243. Exercise :

Rewrite the following sentences using ‘unless’ instead of ‘if’.

1.If you don’t write first, she won’t write.

...................................................................................

2.He won’t go if you don’t pay him. ...................................................................................

3.If they don’t put on their raincoats, they’ll get wet. ...................................................................................

4.If he doesn’t insist, I won’t give him my book. ...................................................................................

5.Your car won’t make it to Istanbul if you don’t put some petrol in it. ...................................................................................

6.She won’t help us if you don’t ask her. ...................................................................................

7.We will fail if we don’t work harder. ...................................................................................

|(action 1) ..... in case ....... (action 2) |

expresses that (1) is a precaution in view of (2).

1.a. I’ll take a raincoat.(1) I think perhaps it will rain.(2)

b. I’ll take a raincoat in case it rains.

2.a. I took a raincoat.(1) I thought perhaps it would rain.(2)

b. I took a raincoat in case it rained.

3.a. She’ll cook it.(1)

She thinks perhaps her daughter won’t cook it.(2)

b. She’ll cook in case her daughter doesn’t cook.

4.a. She cooked it.(1)

She thought perhaps her daughter wouldn’t cook it.

b. She cooked it in case her daughter didn’t cook it.

In case cannot be followed by will/won’t nor would/wouldn’t.

will rain becomes rains (see eg.1)

won’t cook becomes doesn’t cook (eg.3)

would rain becomes rained (eg.2)

wouldn’t cook becomes didn’t cook (eg.4)

( 244. Exercise :

1.I’ll put on comfortable shoes.

I think perhaps we’ll walk in the mountains.

......................................................................................

2.They bought many candles.

They thought perhaps there would be no electricity. ......................................................................................

3.She’s putting on a pull-over.

She thinks perhaps it will be cold. ......................................................................................

4.He went to the airport by bus.

He thought perhaps he would have a flat tyre. ......................................................................................

5.He always wore a helmet.

He thought perhaps he would have an accident. ......................................................................................

6.I took my typewriter.

I thought perhaps I would want to do some typing. ......................................................................................

If they invite me, I will go and stay with them.

In case they sell the flat I live in, I’m going to save money to buy my own.

She will become a good teacher provided that her mother can support her.

Unless education is available for everybody, we will have uneducated citizens forever.

I’m going to take private lessons to pass the class whether they are cheap or not. ( whether or not)

Suppose she makes a mistake ? (What will happen if she makes a mistake?)

In the event that you need me, I will be sleeping at home.

( 245.Answer using UNLESS :

1.A: How can I lose 20 pounds?

B: Well, you can’t lose weight unless you go on a diet and exercise every day.

2.A: How can I get a driver’s licence?

B:_______________________________________________________

3.A: How can I open a bank account?

B:_______________________________________________________

4.A: How can I learn a new language?

B:_______________________________________________________

5.A:How can I get into a good university?

B: ______________________________________________________

( 246. Rewrite using the given expression.

1.The game will begin at 3 o’clock, unless it rains. (provided)

...........................................................................................................

2.The police will leave you alone unless you cause trouble. (providing)

...........................................................................................................

3.We’ll end the meeting now, unless there are any more questions. (provided)

...........................................................................................................

( 247. Choose the correct word or expression.

1.You can use my car (unless/ as long as) you drive carefully.

...........................................................................................................

2.I’m playing tennis tomorrow (unless/providing) it’s raining. ...........................................................................................................

3.We’re going to start painting the house tomorrow (unless/provided)

it’s not raining. ...........................................................................................................

4.You can smoke in here (unless/as long as) you leave a window open to

let the smoke out. ...........................................................................................................

5.George doesn’t trust anyone. He won’t lend you any money (unless/

as long as) you promise in writing to pay him back.

...........................................................................................................

6.The children can stay here (unless/providing) they don’t make too

much noise. ...........................................................................................................

7.I’m going now (unless/provided) you want me to stay. ...........................................................................................................

( 248. Restate the following sentences with unless, provided that, suppose,

or in case:

1.The energy shortage will get worse if everyone doesn’t begin to conserve

fuel.

.......................................................................................................................

2. I’ll be happy to drive you to Mexico if you promise to help me pay for gas.

.......................................................................................................................

3. What will happen if we run out of fuel in the middle of the desert?

.......................................................................................................................

4. Don’t worry. If we run out of fuel, I’ll have some extra gas in the trunk of my car.

.......................................................................................................................

5. If you don’t remember to put an extra can of gas in the trunk, we could be stranded in the middle of nowhere.

.......................................................................................................................

6. Stop worrying. If that happens, we can call for help on my CB radio.

.......................................................................................................................

7. That’s a good idea if someone is around to hear our call.

.......................................................................................................................

8. What would have happened if we had not had the CB last year on our

way to Alaska?

.......................................................................................................................

9. If you don’t stop worrying, I’ll cancel the whole trip.

.......................................................................................................................

10. All right, but if you discover that your car can’t make such a long trip,

I’m going to find out about the bus schedule.

.......................................................................................................................

11. If Tom decides to go with us, we should agree on what to charge him

for gas.

.......................................................................................................................

12. He can go with us if he promises to leave his dog at home.

.......................................................................................................................

13. You know that he won’t leave his dog if he can’t find a responsible

person to take care of it.(him is only used if they know the dog by

name)

.......................................................................................................................

14. That’s not our problem. We will simply tell him that he can’t go with

us if he insists on taking the dog. (both are possible, but it's nice to

have some variety)

.......................................................................................................................

EXCEPT FOR-EXCEPT FOR THE FACT THAT

It was something really nice except that you met the one you didn’t want to.

Except for the fact that the students weren’t interested in, the programme was wonderful.

ALTHOUGH,HOWEVER, AND YET

1.a. He ran fast.(1) He didn’t win the race.(2)

b. Although he ran fast, he didn’t win the race.

-He didn’t win the race although he ran fast.

-He ran fast. However, he didn’t win the race.

-He ran fast, and yet he didn’t win the race.

*Although (=though),however, and yet are used to join two sentences,

expressing contrasting ideas and means that one is surprising in view of the other.

*Note the position of these words in sentences(b).

( 249. Exercise :

Join the following sentences using the words in brackets.

1.The weather was bad. We enjoyed ourselves. (although)

...................................................................................................

2.They looked strong and healthy. They hadn’t eaten for days.(and yet) ..........................................................................................................

3.She worked hard. She lost her job.(and yet) ..........................................................................................................

4.He was driving slowly. He wrecked the car.(though) ..........................................................................................................

5.He went out without his coat. It was very cold .(and yet) ..........................................................................................................

6.I am very tired. I’ll stay to help you with your work.(although) ..........................................................................................................

7.He can’t cook. He’ll try to prepare the dinner.(however) ..........................................................................................................

CLAUSES OF CONTRAST

Clauses of contrast are used to express a contrast. They are introduced with the following words/phrases:

ALTHOUGH - THOUGH-EVEN THOUGH(MUCH AS...)

WHILE-IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT- WHEREAS

NO MATTER+QW - HOWEVER+ADJ,ADV ( NEVERTHELESS - ON THE OTHER HAND ( DESPITE ( BUT ( YET ( STILL

1.Although Ankara is a beautiful city, I don’t like its winters.

2.Though my brother likes lakes and swimming, I’m sure he'll become

an expert in climbing.

3.These boys will enjoy learning English, even though they prefer going

out and playing football. (to emphasize the nowness that will be different

once they begin English class)

4.She will learn French at university, in spite of the fact that she will never be

employed as a teacher by the state.

5.Most of the poor countries are just trying to survive whereas a few modern

countries are spending a lot on weapons.

6.No matter how hard you work, you can’t save money under

these circumstances.

7.However hard she tried to set up a new business, she couldn’t obtain

any credit to go on.

8.Much as I admire her, I don’t really like her personality.

9. Cars aren’t environmentally friendly.

On the other hand bicycles are./Bicycles, on the other hand, are.

10. The fire was widespread, yet no property was damaged.

11. My car is old. Still, it is in very good condition.

12. She is tall, while/whereas her brother is rather short.

HOWEVER + ADJECTIVE

1.a. Though he tries very, very hard, he fails to succeed.

(or "harder and harder")

b. However hard he tries, he fails to succeed.(present)

2.a. Though he knocked again and again, nobody opened the door.

b. However much he knocked , nobody opened the door.

Note the construction :

| |However + adjective + subject + verb, subject + verb |

( 250. Exercise :

Rewrite the following sentences using ‘however ‘.

Make any necessary changes.

1.Though he is rich, he’ll never be as rich as my neighbour.

...........................................................................................

2.He was unhappy and yet he smiled all the time. ...........................................................................................

3.They were very strong. However they never managed to lift

that box.

...........................................................................................

4.Though I ran as fast as I could, I always lost . ...........................................................................................

5.My parents felt very upset, and yet, they didn’t let us see it. ...........................................................................................

( 251. Rewrite these sentences using the conjunctions :

1.They prefer to travel by train. Travelling by train is fast and safe.(in spite

of the fact that)

...............................................................................................

2.There are many people in the world who are afraid to fly, but air travel is

very popular.(even though)

...............................................................................................

3.One of my relatives is very afraid of flying, yet he still flies when he has

to.(though)

...............................................................................................

4.Most of the computer courses offer free courses to the poor. However

very few people know about these courses. (even though)

...............................................................................................

5.When I am busy, I can not see the people around me. I usually hear what

they talk about.(even though)

...............................................................................................

6.I really love spaghetti. I wouldn’t want to eat it every day though.

Much as .............................................................................

7.I adore ice cream. But I’m watching my weight. So I’d better not have any.

..............................................................................................................................

IN SPITE OF + NOUN + -ING +THE FACT THAT

DESPITE + NOUN + -ING + THE FACT THAT

1.a. Although he was very angry, he managed a smile.

b. In spite of his anger, he managed a smile.

-In spite of being angry, he managed a smile.

-In spite of the fact that he was angry, he managed a smile.

-Despite his anger, he managed a smile.

-Despite of being angry, he managed a smile.

-Despite the fact that he was angry, he managed a smile.

*In spite of (a) it is although which expresses surprising contrast.

Although is followed by subject + verb.

*The sentence (b) it is in spite of / despite which expresses that same contrast . In spite of / despite are followed

-by :a noun/ - a gerund / and the fact that + S + V.

*In spite of / despite can also be followed by what + subject + verb

working as a noun.

e.g. his words ....= .... what he said

In spite of his words = In spite of what he said

Despite his words = Despite what he said

( 252. Exercise :

Transform the following sentences into’ in spite of / despite’.

Be very careful to change subject + verb into a suitable noun.

Use all possible forms.

1.He went out though it was raining.

............................................................................................

2.We enjoyed ourselves, and yet the weather was terrible. ............................................................................................

3.Though he’s got a very high salary, he keeps complaining. ............................................................................................

4.She feels lonely. However she’s got many brothers and sisters. ............................................................................................

WHILE

While I don’t like studying at nights, I know I have to.

While I will never miss my relatives living there, I will miss the countryside there.

( 253. Exercise :

1.I believe our English teacher is a good teacher. But I can’t learn anything

from her lessons.(while)

...............................................................................................

2.I think it is necessary to practise speaking in class. But I don't do that.

(while)

...............................................................................................

NOT ONLY............... BUT ALSO

Not only ... but also ....

Not only ... but ....as well

These two constructions express addition.

1.a. I like music.(1) I like books.(2)

b. I like not only music but also books.

I like not only music but books as well.

2.a.The money was stolen.(1)Two valuable rings were stolen.(2)

b. Not only the money but also two valuable rings were stolen.

Not only the money but two valuable rings were stolen as well.

3.a. They ate too much.(1) They drank too much.(2)

b. They not only ate but also drank too much.

They not only ate but drank too much as well.

4.a. She can drive a car.(1) She can ride a motorbike.(2)

b. She can not only drive a car but also ride a motorbike.

She can not only drive a car but can ride a motorbike as well.

*Not only introduces the first element of the pair.

But also introduces the second element of the pair.

*If you choose to use not only ...... but .... as well,

but introduces the second element of the pair as well

comes at the end of the sentence.

Not only ... but also, not only .... but ....as well

can be used with the subjects of the sentences (eg.2)

the objects of the sentences (eg.1)

the verbs of the sentences (eg.3)

*When the verbs in(1) and (2) have the same auxiliary in the same form or tenses, >not only< is placed just after the auxiliary which is not repeated. (eg.4)

( 254. Exercise :

Join the following pairs using the words given in brackets.

1.You must wash the dishes. You must sweep the floor. (..as well)

......................................................................................................

2.They were very tired. They were very hungry.(...as well) ......................................................................................................

3.She is a first-rate housewife. She is an excellent scientist.(...also) ......................................................................................................

4.He is a successful businessman. He is a good actor.(..as well) ......................................................................................................

5.I forgot to take my bag. I forgot to take my umbrella.(..as well) ......................................................................................................

6.He spoke very carefully. He spoke very clearly.(.. also) ......................................................................................................

7.They pointed at me. They laughed at me. (.. as well..) ......................................................................................................

Serdal has a bicycle. He has a motorcycle.

Serdal has not only a bicycle but also a motorcycle.

I am a good reader. I am a good writer.

I am not only a good reader but also a good writer.

She repairs cars. She teaches how to repair them.

She does not only repair cars but also teaches how to repair them.

( 255. Make sentences using the words in the parenthesis:

1. (study, Maths, German)

..............................................................................

2. (phone, her uncle, her aunt)

..............................................................................

3. (he, his wife , work)

..............................................................................

4. (clean, the house, her car)

..............................................................................

5. (want to see, her friends, her school)

..............................................................................

BOTH....AND

1.a. Peter is keen on tennis.(1) John is keen on tennis.(2)

b. Both Peter and John are keen on tennis.

2.a. Tim is clever.(1)Tim is reserved.(2)

b. Tim is both clever and reserved.

3.a. Jennifer bought the flowers.(1) Jennifer gave the flowers.(2)

b. Jennifer both bought and gave the flowers.

*A combination of two things (nouns/adjectives/verbs) can be

expressed by using both .... and.

Both can also be a pronoun. In this case it is used as follows.

4.a.He was late. She was late.

b. Both were late.

c. Both of them were late.

( 256. Exercise :

Rewrite the following sentences using both ..... and / both.

Make any necessary changes.

1.I trust her. I trust him.

..............................................................................................

2.He could speak English. His daughter could speak English. ..............................................................................................

3.I went to the cinema. He went to the cinema. ..............................................................................................

4.He teaches tennis and he plays tennis. ..............................................................................................

5.That hotel is expensive and it is very noisy. ..............................................................................................

6.Children enjoy being on holiday. Adults enjoy being on holiday. ..............................................................................................

My sister is coming. My brother is coming.

Both my sister and my brother are coming.

I like tea. I like coffee.

I like both tea and coffee.

INSTEAD OF + V -ing

( expresses an alternative = in place of

1.a. She wants the blue dress.(1)

She doesn’t want the red one.(2)

b. She wants the blue dress instead of the red one.

2.a. I will go (in his place).(1) He will not go.(2)

b. I’ll go instead of him.

3.a. She prefers making her own clothes.(1)

She doesn’t buy them in the shops.(2)

b. She prefers making her own clothes instead of buying

them in the shops.

*In example 1, ‘instead of ‘ is followed by a noun phrase.

*In example 2, ‘instead of ‘ is followed by an object pronoun.

*In example 3, ‘instead of ’ is followed by a verb; we had to change

the verb buy into -ing which works as a noun.

( 257. Exercise :

Join the following sentences using ‘instead of’.

Make any necessary changes.

1.He did not get up early. He stayed in bed until 10.

.................................................................................

2.Shall we have fish today? Or shall we have meat? .................................................................................

3.She took a summer job. She did not go on holiday. .................................................................................

4.I won’t buy a birthday cake. I’ll make it myself. .................................................................................

5.My brother was given a new pair of shoes. I wasn’t. .................................................................................

6.He shouldn’t have driven so fast.

He should have been more careful. .................................................................................

7.She asked me. She didn’t ask him. .................................................................................

ALSO - TOO - EITHER

e.g.

My father is a farmer. My uncle is a farmer, too.

My father is a farmer. My uncle is also a farmer.

My aunt isn’t old. My wife isn’t old either.

( 258. Complete these sentences :

1.My books aren’t old. Erdal’s books aren’t old, ................. .

2.Melifa has got a dog. Berivan has got a dog, .................... .

3.My brother isn’t a doctor. Your brother ............................... .

4.Our Geography teacher is from K.Maraş. His wife ............. .

5.My mother’s parents were rich. My father’s parents ........... .

NEITHER.....NOR - EITHER ....OR

EITHER ..... OR

To express two or more elements in a choice.

1.a. The cat has eaten it.(1) . Or perhaps the dog has eaten it.(2)

b. Either the cat or the dog has eaten it.

2.a. Please come in.(1)Or (perhaps) stay out.(2)

b. Please either come in or stay out.

3.a. They are repairing the car.(1)Or perhaps they are playing cards.(2)

b. They are either repairing the car or playing cards.

4.a. He must be mad.(1) Or he must be drunk.(2)

b. He must be either mad or drunk.

5.a. He is dead.(1) Or perhaps he is alive.(2)

b. Either he is dead or he is alive.

6.a. He must be mad.(1) He must be drunk.(2)

He must be exhausted.(3)

b. He must be either mad, drunk or exhausted.

7.a. He has given it.(1) Or he has taken it home.(2)

b. He has either given it or taken it home.

*Either introduces the first elements of the choice or

introduces the last element of the choice.

*When there are more than two elements, the middle ones are introduced

by a comma (,) (e.g. c)

*Either .... or : can be used with subjects of the sentences (e.g. 1)

The verbs (eg.2), the objects (eg.4), the whole sentence (eg.5).

*When the verbs in (1) and (2) have the same auxiliary in the

same form or the tense, either is placed just after the auxiliary

which is not repeated. (e.g. 3 , eg.7)

( 259. Exercise :

Join the following sentences using either .... or.

Make any changes.

1.He plays the piano or perhaps she plays the piano.

..............................................................................................

2.She can speak English, or perhaps she can speak German. ..............................................................................................

3.Abidin won the race, or perhaps Mostafa won the race. ..............................................................................................

4.They talk too much, or perhaps they don’t talk at all. ..............................................................................................

5.He is travelling, Or perhaps he is on holiday. ..............................................................................................

6.Djamila wants to be a teacher. Or perhaps she wants to be a doctor. ..............................................................................................

7.She is washing the dishes. Or perhaps she is airing the room. ..............................................................................................

8.He plays soccer. Or perhaps he plays rugby. ..............................................................................................

9.They will spend the evening at home. Or perhaps

they will go to the cinema.

..............................................................................................

10.I’ll have a shower. Or perhaps I’ll have a bath. ..............................................................................................

Study these examples :

She must tell the truth. If not, she must go to jail.

She must either tell the truth or go to jail.

I will explain it to your sister. If she's gone, I will explain to your father.

I will explain it either to your sister or to your father.

NEITHER ..... NOR

-expresses two elements in a choice.

-has a negative meaning

1.a. He doesn’t sell books.(1) The woman doesn’t sell books.(2)

b. Neither he nor the woman sells books.

2.a. He doesn’t sell books.(1) His sister doesn’t sell books.(2)

b. Neither he nor his sister sells books.

3.a. Mrs Smith did not cook.(1) Mrs Smith did not wash the dishes.(2)

b. Mrs Smith neither cooked nor washed the dishes.

4.a. I am not sleeping.(1) I am not dreaming.(2)

b. I am neither sleeping nor dreaming.

5.a. We do not like wine.(1) We do not like cigarettes.(2)

b. We like neither wine nor cigarettes.

*neither introduces the first element of choice.

Nor introduces the last element of the choice.

*neither ...... nor can be used with the subjects of the sentences (1,2)

can be used with the verbs of the sentences (3,4)

can be used with the objects of the sentence (5)

*when the verbs in (1) have the same auxiliary in the same form or tense.

Neither is placed after the auxiliary verb which is not repeated (e.g. 4)

*Neither ... nor has a negative meaning : The verb is in the affirmative,

one negation being enough (see all examples, principally e.g. 3)

*when the subject in (1) and (2) is singular, the verb is singular, too.

(see eg.1). When the subject in (2) is plural, the verb is plural (eg.2)

( 260. Exercise :

Join the following sentences using neither ... nor .

Make any necessary changes (be careful with the verbs).

1.I do not like these books. I do not like these records.

.....................................................................................

2.They can’t read. They can’t write. .....................................................................................

3.John will not come. Mustafa will not come. .....................................................................................

4.Their doctor didn’t allow them to smoke.

He didn’t allow them to drink. .....................................................................................

5.She doesn’t eat potatoes. She doesn’t eat meat. .....................................................................................

6.Ayşe doesn’t sleep well. Her sister doesn’t sleep well. .....................................................................................

7.He doesn’t like reading. He doesn’t like writing. .....................................................................................

( 261. Rewrite these sentences :

1.Erdal won’t be travelling next month. Serdal won’t either.

...................................................................................................

2.My mother wasn’t in Afşin in May. My father wasn’t either.

...................................................................................................

3.I didn’t want to go on holiday last summer. My sons didn’t either.

...................................................................................................

4.I can’t speak Arabic. My sons can’t either.

...................................................................................................

5.Erdal hasn’t been to Germany. Serdal hasn’t either.

...................................................................................................

6.Ali didn’t learn a foreign language.

Ayşe didn’t learn one, either.

...................................................................................................

7.Serdal isn’t interested in Maths.

Erdal isn’t interested in it, either.

...................................................................................................

( 262. Answer these questions using ‘either .............or’

1.Shall we study , or shall we watch TV?

...................................................................................................

2.Would you like to have tea, or coffee?

...................................................................................................

3.Must the students go to school now, or can they go later?

...................................................................................................

4.Shall I have lunch now, or can I have it later?

...................................................................................................

5.Will you spend your holiday in the mountains , or on the beach?

...................................................................................................

SO - NOR

so + auxiliary + subject : describes the positive agreement

nor + auxiliary + subject : describes the negative agreement

A. I can swim very well

B. So can I. (=I can swim very well, too.)

A. I can’t run very well.

B. Nor can I. (I can’t run very well, either.)

( 263. Complete the sentences using so, nor (=neither), too or either :

1.Pınar speaks Turkish and ……………………. Elif.

2.I can speak English and ……………………. Erdal.

3.Serdal plays the saz and …………………… I.

4.Deniz doesn’t live in Ankara and ………………… Gülay.

5.I won’t go to work tomorrow and …………………. Mike.

6.My son speaks English well and my nephew ………………. .

7.Sue lives in Victoria Road and ………………………. Terry.

8.Teresa stayed in a hostel and ……………………. I.

9.I have got a new flat and ……………………… has she.

10.He has to do some exercises and ………………. do I.

DETERMINERS

ALL-ALL OF-ANOTHER-ANY-BOTH-BOTH OF - EVERY -EVERYTHING-NO-NONE-EACH-EACH OF-EİTHER (...OR) NEITHER-NONE-A FEW(FEW-FEW OF-A LITTLE-A LITTLE OF-LITTLE-A LOT OF-LOTS OF-MANY-MANY OF-MUCH-MUCH OF-MOST-MOST OF-MORE-NEITHER (... NOR) –NONE OF-OTHER-SEVERAL-SEVERAL OF-SOME-SOME OF:

All is the subject of a sentence, it means ‘ the only thing ‘ .

Otherwise ‘ everything ‘ is used.

All they need now is a little bit of advice.

There was a terrible storm but all of us managed to get back safely.

We need another chair.

I don’t have any money.

Every student has to fill in a questionnaire.

Both (of) her parents are doctors.

Everything is new in this office.

No parking.

It’s no use.

Each of these cars has its own special features. or else: "has special features"

Neither of these boys is clever.

Each of the children was given a present.

You can have either that blue one or that one over there

None of these newspapers is nationwide.

Yes, we have a few jobs available in our company.

I’ve read a few of her books

There are few jobs available at present.

Few of the customers complained.

I told him a little bit about it.

The city is regaining a little of its former glory.

Unfortunately, by then we had little money left.

There were a lot of / lots of people at the party.

Many people find this kind of movie unpleasant.

Many of our staff are part time

There isn’t much time.

Most universities offer a wide range of courses.

Most of the people there were strangers

She makes more phone calls than anyone else.

She likes more of them than I do.

Both players have been, warned but neither of them seems to take it seriously.

None of my friends phone me anymore.

You’ve already met Peter but I have two other brothers.

Milk will keep for several days in a fridge.

Several of us think it’s a bad idea.

There are some people waiting outside.

Some of them are cold.

CHAPTER - XI

MORE ABOUT FUNCTIONAL

ENGLISH

*-Ever words

*Enough-Too

*Would like

*Let’s

* Polite questions

*Would you mind

*Would rather

*Degrees of certainty

*It’s time +Infinitive

*It’s no use +Ving

*It’s worth +Ving

*Can’t help +Ving

EXCLAMATIONS

*What

*What a/an

*How

EVER WORDS

whoever, whichever, whatever, whenever, wherever, however

whoever or whichever can mean ‘the one who’

‘he who’

‘she who’

I’ll invite whoever you like.

(whomever)

Our cat follows us wherever we go.

The lion ate whatever she gave it.

Whichever shirt you buy will make her happy.

However he does makes no difference in her life.

I’ll finish it whenever you wanted me to.

I will go wherever you want me to.

Make single sentences, using however, whatever, wherever or whoever:

1.I’m going to complain. I don’t care what he says.

..............................................................................

2.I don’t care where he lives. We’ll find him.

..............................................................................

3.You can’t come in. I don’t care who you are.

..............................................................................

4.We need that material. It doesn’t matter how expensive it is.

..............................................................................

KEY

1.I’m going to complain whatever he says.

2. Wherever he lives, we’ll find him.

3.You can’t come in, whoever you are.

4.We need that material, however expensive it is.

ENOUGH-TOO

a.

| too + adjective + infinitive/infinitive phrase |

| too + adverb + infinitive/infinitive phrase |

b.

| adjective + enough + infinitive/infinitive phrase |

| adverb + enough + infinitive/infinitive phrase |

| enough + infinitive/infinitive phrase |

( 264. Rewrite these sentences :

1.We were driving slowly. We enjoyed the beautiful scenery.

...............................................................................................................................

2.The children were listening to the music. They could hear it.

...............................................................................................................................

3.I woke up late. I couldn’t have breakfast with them.

...............................................................................................................................

4.He left early. I couldn’t say goodbye.

...............................................................................................................................

5.She arrived at the station late. She didn’t catch the train.

...............................................................................................................................

( 265. Put for or to in the following :

1.My sister is too old .................... walk for hours.

2.Are these cases strong enough ................. the long journey?

3.These shirts are too expensive ..................... me.

4.This cupboard isn’t big enough ....................... carry all these plates.

5.Is your son old enough ....................... ride that mountain bike.

WOULD LIKE

A. for invitation

Would you like to play football with us next weekend?

B. to accept or refuse invitations:

Would you like to play football with us next weekend?

a. Yes, thanks. I’d like to.

b. No, I’m sorry. I’d like to, but I can’t.

( 266. Answer these :

1.Would you like to drink a cup of tea now?

.......................................................................................

2.Would you like to get a good job?

.......................................................................................

3.Would you like to travel all around the world?

.......................................................................................

4.Would you like to go to the theatre with me?

.......................................................................................

5.Would you like to have a BMW?

.......................................................................................

LET’S ....................

Let me + V .

him

her

it

us

them

A: Let’s go to the cinema this evening.

B: No, let’s not go to the cinema. Let’s go to the theatre.

Suggestion: Shall we watch TV?

Yes, let’s.

POLITE QUESTIONS:

Can I use your pen, please?

Could you repeat that, please?

I wonder if you could tell me what these words mean?

Question phrase + subject + verb

WOULD YOU MIND ...... ?

Would you mind + gerund?

Would you mind + if I + verb(present or past)?

e.g.

Would you mind opening the door?

Would you mind if I open/opened the door?

WOULD RATHER

A: Would you like some coffee?

B: I’d rather have tea, if it’s no problem.

A: Would you like an orange?

B: I’d rather have an apple, if you don’t mind.

I like red apples better than green apples =

I prefer red apples to green apples =

I would rather have red apples than green apples =

I would sooner have red apples than green apples.

I would rather he didn’t spend money in pubs.

She would rather he came home for dinner.

I didn’t study hard when I was at university.

I would prefer to have studied harder.

I would rather have studied harder .

(I wanted to study hard, but I didn’t get my wish.)

DEGREES OF CERTAINTY

Positive Negative

Present time

A 100 ( sure Pınar is healthy. etc... Pınar isn’t ill .

B 96( sure ********** Pınar can’t be ill .

C 92( sure Pınar must be healthy. Pınar mustn’t be ill .

D 50( sure Pınar may be healthy . Pınar may not be ill .

Pınar might be healthy . Pınar might not be ill .

Pınar could be healthy . Pınar couldn’t be ill .

Past time

A 100( sure Pınar was healthy . Pınar wasn’t ill .

B 96( sure ********** Pınar can’t have been ill .

C 92( sure Pınar must have been healthy . Pınar mustn’t have been ill.

D 50( sure Pınar may have been healthy . Pınar can’t have

been ill.

Pınar might have been healthy. Pınar might not

have been ill

Pınar could have been healthy . Pınar couldn’t have

been ill.

IT’S TIME + INFINITIVE

+ SUBJECT + V2

It is time to meet him.

It is time we met him.

IT’S NO USE + VING

It is no use crying.

It’s no use walking home alone.

IT’S WORTH + VING

This book is a good example , (all examples are "examples of their kind") perhaps a "good example of the era's literature"

so I think it’s worth buying.

CAN’T HELP + VING

I can’t help helping the others with their work.

I can’t help getting angry with clumsy people.

EXCLAMATIONS

What .......! What a/an ......! How ........!

That’s a pretty girl. What a pretty girl!

Those are pretty girls. What pretty girls!

She swims well. How well she swims!

( 267. Put what or what a/an ......! and How ........!

in the following sentences :

1.He sings very well.

........................................................

2.......................... beautiful girls!

3.......................... delicious meal!

4.She has grown very tall.

.........................................................

5.......................... dirty room!

6.They have learned very quickly.

........................................................

7.......................... awful book!

8.......................... lovely weather!

CHAPTER - XII

LANGUAGE IN USE

*American Spelling

*Some of the mostly used words in English

Get

Make

Made of-Made from-Made with

Made by-Made up of

Do

Have

Take

*Word Bank

*Learning Vocabulary

*Abbreviations

*What Animals Do

*Glossary of Idioms

*Derivatives

*Phrasal Verbs

*Common Irregular VERBS

*Proverbs

*Punctuation Marks

*The English Weights Table

*The English Table of Length

*Liquid Measure

*Confusing wordand expressions

*Questions which are mostly asked by

the teachers of English

*Review of the grammatical structures

AMERICAN SPELLING

English in the USA differs considerably from British English. Pronunciation is the most striking difference but there are also a number of differences in vocabulary and spelling as well as slight differences in grammar.

British English words ending in (our and (re, end in (or and (er in American English.

e.g. labour → labor

centre → center

( 268. Write the American spelling of these words :

centre ............ colour ............ glamour.............

grey ............ honour........... odour ...............

theatre........... tyre.................

( 269. MATCH A WORD IN ‘A’ WITH ONE IN ‘B’

A

chips druggist faucet

french fries gas main street

vest pants stop lights

parking lot subway bill

public school

B

state school underground car park

traffic lights trousers waistcoat

high street petrol chips

tap chemist crisps

bank note

( 270. Write the English equivalent of these words :

truck......................... cab.......................... round trip...........................

freeway.....................underpass..................sidewalk..............................

highschool................. college....................... fall ......................................

vacation ....................two weeks ................ trash....................................

trashcan.................... bathroom.................. closet...................................

apartment ................ first floor.................. elevator................................

cookies...................... candy......................... sneakers................................

semester.................... guys ............................

( 271. Write American English (A) or British English (B)

attorney ο lawyer ο dressing gown ο

be on vacation ο be on holiday ο trunk of a car ο

barrister ο solicitor ο bathrobe ο

can (of beans) ο cookie ο tin (of beans) ο

biscuit ο maize ο nappy ο

driving licence ο chemist’s ο lift ο

truck ο stove ο football ο

soccer ο lorry ο van ο

cooker ο sink ο petrol ο

torch ο gas ο gasoline ο

rubber ο bonnet of a car ο hood of a car ο

sitting room ο drawing room ο raise in salary ο

rise in salary ο public toilet ο WC (water closet ο

schedule ο sidewalk ο basin ο

pavement ο foothpath ο timetable ο

living room ο flashlight ο eraser ο

diaper ο driver’s license ο drug store ο

corn ο boot of a car ο

SOME OF THE MOST COMMONLY USED WORDS IN ENGLISH

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ‘ say ’ AND ‘ tell ’ :

| | |

|Say + something + to someone |Tell + someone + something |

| | |

|e.g. |e.g. |

|‘I am leaving at once,’ Elif said to me. |I’m leaving at once, ‘ Elif told me. |

( 272. Complete the sentences below :

1.’I’ve just heard the news,’ Pınar …..... to me.

2.’We’re leaving tomorrow,’ John …… us.

3.She ….. her a good story.

4.They …… us their names.

5.He ……..me he’d just heard the news.

6.I ……. to him the same things several times yesterday.

7.Can you ……… me the time, please?

8.He …….. me lies.

9.She ….. me that she was leaving.

10.Why don’t you ….. her the truth?

GET

‘get ‘ is an informal word. So it is more common in spoken English..

receive : I got a letter yesterday.

obtain : He is trying to get a good job.

Where did you get these shirts? (buy)

become : We are getting older day by day.

fetch : They went to get the children from the school.

get lost : I got lost in İstanbul when I first went there.

get married : We got married in our village.

get dressed : She got dressed and left home.(=dress)

get undressed : I got undressed and put on the new clothes.

get on : I get on well with all my colleagues.

get rid of : I got rid of all the new employees last month.

get to know : We got to know each other after the accident.

SOME OF THE MAIN USES OF “ GET ”

( 273. Make sentences using ‘get’ :

1.become : She got sick...............................................

2.understand : I get it!......................................................

3.earn : I don't get enough at my job ...........................................................................................

4.buy : Did you get soap? .......................................................................................…

5.be sentenced to : He and got 10 years ….......................................................................................

6.pick up : Go and get the scissors ...........................................................................................

7.obtain : To get the visa you'll need four photos and a passport ...........................................................................................

8.arrive : When will they get here? ...........................................................................................

9.move : ...................................................................

10.receive : I got three letters ...........................................................................................

11.take revenge on : Let's get back at them! ……...................................................................................

12.seize :..................................................................

13.fetch : Get me a pencil. ...........................................................................................

14.cook : ....................................................................

15.own : ....................................................................

16.on your behalf : ............................................................

17.when something happens to you involuntarily

...................................................................……………….

18.force : .....................................................................

19.take : Get a ..........................................................

20.annoy Get on her nerves ............................................................................................

21.work out : get the answer ............................................................................................

22.contact : .get a call

...........................................................................................

23.suffer from :..................................................................

24.help to achieve :............................................................

25.be awarded : get a noble prize ...........................................................................................

26.start : get warmed up? ............................................................................................

( 274. special uses

1.a get-together :.................................................................

2.a get-away car :................................................................

3.your get-up-and-go :........................................................

4.a get-well card :...............................................................

5.a get-out clause in a contract : ............................................................................................

6.a get-away-from-it-all weekend : ...........................................................................................

MAKE, DO, HAVE, TAKE

Make a decision : I’m not good at making decisions.

Make a mistake : I made only a few mistakes in the exam.

Make a meal : We always make dinner ourselves.

Make some money : I couldn’t make any money although I worked hard

for years.

Make friends : It is difficult to make good friends.

Make a noise : When people around me make a lot of noise I can

not study.

Make progress : I have made a lot of progress since I last saw you.

MADE OF -- MADE FROM -- MADE WITH --

Made up of -- MADE BY

This table is made of wood.

(you can see, it is still recognisably wood)

Wine is made from grapes.

(you can not see the grapes in the wine, but you know )

The cake is made with flour, butter, eggs, sugar and fruit.

(a number of different ingredients)

The galazy is made up of billions of stars much like our own sun.

(contains)

This chair was made by my brother.

(my brother made it)

Do an exam : We are going to do an exam next week.

Do homework : She always does her homework without any help.

Do the housework : My mother used to do all the housework.

Do subjects : I did German as a second subject at school.

Do a course : My sister did a one-week course in word processing.

Do the shopping : We always do the shopping on Tuesdays.

Do research : One of my friends will do research in physics.

Do (someone) a favour : Could you do me a favour and buy me

a newspaper?

Do something/anything/nothing : We didn’t do anything since they left.

Have a rest : relax, do nothing We had a rest after the game.

Have food : eat food and drink I had shish kebaps.

Have a drink : drink something They had a drink after the meal.

Have a bath/shower : I always have a bath after work.

Have a party : We will have a birthday party

tomorrow.

Have a baby : be pregnant or give birth She will have a baby next month.

Have a (nice/great/terrible) time : We had a great time together on

holiday.

Take an exam : I’m going to take an exam in English next December.

Take a photo : I take a lot of photos wherever I go.

Take a decision : My mother is very good at taking decisions.

Take a shower : My friend takes a shower every day.

Take a bus/train/taxi : I was late for school, so I took a taxi.

WORD GAME

Create your own saying:

T.H.Y. : Teachers hate yawning.

B. B. C. : .......................................................................

A.E.T. : .......................................................................

I. T. T. : .......................................................................

P. E. : Physical exhaustion

E.G.O. : .......................................................................

M.E.B. : .......................................................................

U.S.A. : .......................................................................

T.B.M.M : Taking Babies Milk Money

M. I. T. : .......................................................................

C. I. A. : .......................................................................

WORDBANK

Study the word families and add some more words and fill in the empty tables;

|CHARACTER |

|warm and friendly, kind, nice, pleasant, generous, optimistic, cheerful, relaxed and easy-going |

|strong, sensitive, honest. |

| |

|cold and unfriendly, unkind, horrible, unpleasant, mean, pessimistic, miserable, tense, |

|weak, |

|insensitive, dishonest. |

| |

|hard-working,punctual,reliable,clever,bright,flexible,ambitious. |

| |

|lazy, late, not very punctual, unreliable, stupid, inflexible, unambitious |

| |

|CLOTHES |

| |

| |

| |

| |

|jeans , jacket , shirt , skirt, hat, buttons, overcoat, scarf, earrings pocket, blouse, shoes, tights, belt, |

|necklace, cuff, jumper, pullover, sleeves, tie, collar, suit, boots |

|COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES |

|Germany, a German, German, France, a Frenchman/woman, French, Italy, an Italian, Italian, Spain, a Spaniard, |

|Spanish, Britain, a Brit, British, |

|Portugal, a Portuguese, Portuguese, Japan, a Japanese, Japanese, Korea, a Korean, Korean, China, a Chinese, |

|Mandarin (also Cantonese),Thailand, a Thai, Thai, Australia, an Australian, Australian, English, The United |

|States of America, an American, American English, |

|Saudi Arabia, Turkey, a Turk, Turkish, Argentina, an Argentinian, Russia, a Russian, Arab World, an Arab, |

|(language: Arabic),Brazil, a Brazilian, Sweden, a Swede, Swedish, Switzerland, a Swiss, Egypt, an Egyptian, |

|Holland( or The Netherlands), |

|Dutch, Mexico, a Mexican, Israel, an Israeli,(language: Hebrew), Greece, a Greek, Greek. |

|CRIME AND JUSTICE |

|theft,robbery,burglary,shoplifting,murder,manslaughter,thief,robber, burglar, rob, |

|shoplifter, murderer, steal, commit a crime |

|the court, jury, judge, barrister(=attorney),defendant, trial, charge with, question, accuse, innocent, guilty, |

|sentence, convicted of, prison, cell, |

|prisoner, minor offences, fine, human rights violations, torture, political prisoners, war crimes, genocide. |

| |

| |

| |

| |

|CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS |

| |

|DAILY LIFE |

|wake up, lie in bed, get up, go to bed, go to sleep/fall asleep, get to sleep, fall asleep, oversleep, have a|

|late night, early night, have a nap, have a lie-in |

|have breakfast, snacks, alone/on my own/by myself, make my own breakfast and dinner, feed, breakfast, lunch or |

|dinner |

|have a shower, have a bath instead, have a shave, have a wash, clean/ brush my teeth, wash my hair, have + noun, |

|have a wash |

|leave home, get to work, have a lunch break, breaks, leave work, get home |

|stay in, have a rest, go out, have friends for dinner, come round, chat, play cards |

|do the shopping, fortunately, cleaner, do washing, washing-up, do ironing |

|DAYS, MONTHS, SEASONS |

| |

|EDUCATION |

|medicine, law, philosophy, engineering, psychology, sociology, architecture, politics, business studies, |

|agriculture, history of art, pass examination, get obtain, tuition, grant, undergraduates, last, doing/studying, |

|doing studying for, a degree, graduate, postgraduate course, postgraduate degree, postgraduates, |

|conducting/doing/carrying out research, research into/on, teachers, lessons, lecturers, gives/does, take/make |

|notes, |

|ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES |

|environment, harmful, damaging, pollution, destroying, the ozone layer, global, warming, acid rain, conservation,|

|protection, greens, smoke, factories, exhaust fumes, dumping, aerosol cans, sprays, cutting down tropical |

|rainforests, throw away, bottle bank, recycled, plant, resources, natural resources |

|FAMILY AND FRIENDS |

|male, female, grandfather, grandmother, uncle(s), aunt(s), cousin(s), father-in-law, mother-in-law, |

|brother-in-law, sister-in-law, nephew(s), niece(s), widower, widow, step-father, step-mother, inherited, only |

|child, first name, family name, surname, middle name, full name, single-parent families, friend, old, close, |

|best, colleagues, ex-husband, ex-girlfriend, brother, |

|sister, Mom, Mommy, Momma, Mum, mother, father, Dad, Daddy, Poppa, Pop. |

|FOOD AND DRINK |

|apple, orange, lemon, strawberry, peach, melon, pear, banana, grapes, pineapple, cherry, potato, green beans, |

|peas, carrot, cauliflower, pepper, cabbage, aubergine(us: eggplant), mushrooms, courgette, lettuce, tomato, |

|cucumber, vinegar, oil, a cow/steer, beef, a calf, veal, a lamb, lamb, a pig, pork, a sheep, mutton, a chicken, |

|chicken, a fish, fish, shrimp, salmon, oyster, lobster, mussels |

|GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES AND LOCATIONS |

|continent, country, island, group island, ocean, sea, lake, river, fall, mountain, mountain ranges |

|jungle, forest, desert. |

|disaster, volcanic eruption, earthquake, flood, hurricane, drought, tornado, typhoon, forest fire. |

|HEALTH AND PHYSICAL FEELINGS |

|cold, flu, hay fever, diarrhea, feel sick, hangover, the symptoms, illnesses, chemist, prescription, |

|ache, toothache, stomach-ache, backache, headache, pain, terrible pain, hurt, injured, painful, painless, lung |

|cancer, liver, heart, heart attack, hepatitis, liver disease, asthma, chest, breathing. |

|cut, ambulance, bullet wound, knocked himself unconscious, rushed, blood tests, collided, stitches. |

|stabbed, knife wound, black eye, broken ribs. |

|bleeding, swollen, bandage, plaster, break, bruise, concussion. |

|HOUSE AND HOME |

|flat, balcony, fence, gate, front door, path, drive, garage, terraced house, drive, front garden, detached house,|

|semi-detached house. |

|steps, stairs, mortgage, landlord, the rent, belongs to, own, dark, noisy, in good/bad condition, draughty, huge,|

|enormous, central heating, tiny. |

|LANGUAGE LEARNING |

| |

|LEISURE INTERESTS |

|cards, board games, chess, guitar, stamps, coins, antiques, hiking, camping, rock climbing, |

|hunting, jogging, photography. |

|football, basketball, squash, rugby, golf, table ,athletics, motor racing,swimming,boxing,skiing, |

|tennis,badminton, volleyball,baseball, |

|cricket, hockey. |

|throw, head, pass, hit, catch, kick. |

|vest, shorts, running shoes, spikes, crash helmet, trunks(men),swimming costume(women), |

|gloves, boots, sticks, ski suit, ski boots. |

|theatre,cinema,musicals,plays,audience,clap,stage,subtitles,screen,dubbed, |

|show, western, war film, horror film, science fiction, action film, comedy, thriller. |

|moving, violent, powerful, gripping, good fun, slow. |

|music, classical, pop, rock, composer. |

|art, painting, sculpture, painter, sculptor, artist. |

|literature, the novel, short stories, poetry, plays, novelist, short story writer, poet, dramatist, playwright |

|THE MEDIA |

|newspapers, daily, come out, are published, weekly, monthly, tabloids, popular press, |

|broad sheets, quality press, circulation. |

|home news, foreign/international news, business news, sports news, radio and TV programmes, features, weather |

|forecast, reviews. |

|editor, reporter, journalist, freelance. |

|plug in, turn on/off, remote control, turn up, turn down/over, channel, switch on/off/over. |

|soap opera, quiz show, documentary, series, current affairs. |

|stations, satellite dish, satellite TV, cable TV. |

|commercials, recorded highlights, licence. |

|PARTS OF THE BODY |

| |

|forehead,cheek,lips,bust,chest,hips,wrist,hand,foot,eyebrows,chin,arm, |

|thumb,fingers,knee,shoulders,elbow,waist,bottom,thigh,ankle,toes,heel |

|neck, back, head. |

|PERSONAL INFORMATION |

| |

|PERSONAL POSSESIONS |

| |

|PHYSICAL APPEARANCE |

| |

|beautiful,handsome,pretty,good-looking,ugly,plain,tall,slim,medium height, build, short, fat, muscular. |

|straight, wavy, curly, fair(=blond, blonde, light brown),dark(=dark brown, black). |

|pale skin, broad shoulders, scar, dark skin, beard, moustache, hairy, tattoo, |

|POLITICS, GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY |

| |

|conservatism, conservative, socialism, socialist, social democracy, social democrat, liberalism, liberal. |

|left-wing, on the left, in the centre, right-wing, on the right. |

|vote for, elect, political party, form, take place, hold, election. |

|prime minister, policies, in power, economic policy ,seats, foreign policy, leader. |

|monarchy, republic, democracy, dictatorship. |

|RELIGION |

| |

|Muslim, Christian, Jew, Buddhist, Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, God, Allah, prophet, Mary, Mohammed, |

|Buddha, Jewish, Jesus. |

|Mosque, cathedral, church, synagogue, temple. |

|SHOPS AND SHOPPING |

| |

|shop assistant, shop window, shopping centre, window shopping, shopping list, do shopping. |

| |

|department store, supermarket, newsagent(‘s), butcher(‘s), |

|greengrocer(‘s),boutique, |

| |

|chemist(‘s). |

|SOCIAL SITUATIONS |

| |

|bureaucracy, obtain, passport, identity card, driving licence, visa, certificate, run out, expire, |

|fill in, landing card, enrolment form, registration form, application form, sign. |

|date of birth, country of origin, marital status, date of arrival, date of departure, queue. |

|TOWN FEATURES AND FACILITIES |

| |

|commercial centre, shopping centre, car park, factory, suburb, library, pollution, night-life. |

|wood, footpath, field, gate, hedge. |

|wide range of shops. |

|TRANSPORT |

| |

|vehicle, bus ,train, plane, taxi, bicycle, car, driver, drive, fare, catch, take, get on, get off, bus station, |

|railway station, pilot, fly, airport, taxi rank, cyclist, ride, go by, get in, get out.. |

|punctual, run, bus stop, full up. |

|TRAVEL |

| |

|flight, check-in desk, luggage, excess baggage, boarding card, passport control, departure lounge, duty-free, |

|take-off, hand luggage, runway, take off, fasten your seat belt, air steward, stewardess, terminal building, |

|upwright position, landing cards, cabin crew, altitude, baggage reclaim, hire, rent. |

|WORK |

|work, work for, work in, in charge of, responsible for, deal with, attend, client, pay, salary, holiday pay, |

|paperwork, two weeks’ holiday, nine-to-five job, do shift work, work overtime. |

|WEATHER |

| |

|weather condition, sun, sunny, wind, cloud, ice, fog, shower, heat, hot, humidity, |

|thunder and lightning. |

|breeze, wind, strong wind, gale, hurricane. |

LEARNING VOCABULARY

275. Complete these two networks :

[pic]

[pic]

WORD GROUPS

| |

|Months : January,.. …… |

|Seasons : spring, ……… |

|Weather : sunny, ………. |

|Adjectives of opinion : fantastic, …… |

|Compass : north, ….……. |

ABBREVIATIONS

Fill in the blanks:

WHO World Health Organisation

BBC British Broadcasting Corporation

UN United Nations

UNICEF ...........................................................

MP Member of Parliament

Military Police

CIA ...........................................................

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Mr ...........................................................

St ...........................................................

RSVP ...........................................................

E.G. for example (Latin: exampli gratia)

PS ... ...........................................................

a.s.a.p. ...........................................................

WHAT ANIMALS DO

Cats mew when they are hungry.

purr when they are happy.

Dogs bark when they see a cat.

growl when they are angry.

Lions roar.

Sheep bleat.

Goats bleat.

Horses neigh.

Pigs grunt.

Cows moo.

Frogs croak.

Ducks quack.

Cocks crow.

Hens cluck.

Owls hoot.

Babies animals have

Cats : kittens

Dogs : puppies

Horses : foals

Sheep : lambs

Cows : calves

Pigs : piglets

Bears : cubs

Wolves : cubs

Lions : cubs

Ducks : ducklings

GLOSSARY OF IDIOMS

ball of fire : person with great energy

beat : very tired

be/walk in someone else’s shoes: try to understand someone else or put oneself in that person’s position

be out : be impossible

be short : not to have enough

be tied up : be busy

be up for : be ready to do something; interested in doing something

blow the whistle : tell secret information about

break down : become unusable because of breakage

can of worms : complex problem

care for : like

catch one’s eye : attract one’s attention

catch up : go fast enough or do enough so as not to be behind

coffee break : a short recess from work during which workers rest and drink coffee or other beverages

come up : approach or come close

die down : subside; to lessen

do one’s best : try very hard

down in the dumps : sad, depressed

a drag : a bother; an annoyance

drop off : take someone or something part of the way you are going;

end of one’s rope : end of one’s ability to cope or try

fall through : fail

fed up with : tired of or annoyed with

fill out : complete

gear up : get started or get doing

get a hold of : contact

get along : live or work together in a friendly way; to co-operate ; to agree

get an early start : begin early

get into : become involved or interested in

get off the ground : make a successful beginning

get something going : begin something

give a hand : 1) applaud ; 2) help out

give something a good going over: clean something thoroughly

give up : stop doing or having ; abandon; quit

go from bad to worse: change from a bad condition to a worse one

go over : check

hang up : place a telephone receiver back on its hook and break the connection

have a hand in : be partly responsible for

have a sale : sell merchandise at a reduced price

hit the nail on the head : be right out something

how’s it going? : how are you? how are you doing ?

I’ll say : I agree with this completely

in one’s right mind : sane

keep one’s fingers crossed : to wish for good luck ; to hope for something

keep something to oneself : keep something secret

knock oneself out : work very hard at something

learn the ropes : gain experience

load off of one’s mind : a relief

look forward to : expect with hope or pleasure

look on the bright side : be optimistic

lose touch with : lose contact with

make it : go or come to a place

make up : do or supply something not done

measure up : be equal to

a night owl : someone who stays up late at night

not on your life : certainly not, not ever, not for any reason

on sale : selling for a special reduced price

on the side : in addition to a main thing

on the whole : in most ways

over the head of someone : too difficult

pass : say “no” to, decline an offer

pick out : choose

pick up : take on or away

pull someone’s leg : tease someone

put off : postpone

right away : immediately

see eye to eye : agree with

set up : make ready for use by putting the parts together

a show of hands : a group raising hands to vote or indicate agreement with something

sold out : no longer available because all have been sold

steer clear of : avoid

stick like glue : stay very close to a place or a person

stop by : visit on short notice or unexpectedly

straighten up : 1) tidy or clean up; 2) improve one’s behaviour

sure thing : course; certainly

take a break : rest

take a seat : sit down

take (a car) for a spin : test-drive; try out

take into account : consider; remember and understand

take it easy : avoid hard work or worry; rest

take place : happen

take someone up on something: accept; take or accept something that is offered

that’s (not) for me : I’m (not) interested that

tide one (you) over : carry one past a difficulty or danger; help in bad times

tons : a lot

try on : to put something on to see if it fits

try out for : try for a place on a team or in a group

turn in : give someone or deliver to someone

turn on : start by turning a handle or moving a switch

turn out : come or go out to see or do something

turn up : appear; be found

what’s going on? : what’s happening? What is the situation with X ?

What’s up? : How are you? What are you doing? What is happening?

DERIVATIVES

|VERB |NOUN |ADJECTIVE |ADVERB |

|enable, disable |ability, inability, |able, unable, | |

| |disability |disabled | |

| |absentee |absent | |

|accept |acceptance, |acceptable, |acceptably, |

| |acceptability |unacceptable |unacceptably |

| |accident |accidental |accidentally |

|account |accountant |accountable |accountability |

| |accuracy |accurate |accurately |

|achieve |achievement |achievable | |

|act, active |action, activity, activation, |active, activated | |

| |actor, actress, acting | | |

|add |addition, additive |additional |additionally |

|admire |admiration, admirer |admirable, |admirably, |

| | |admiring |admiringly |

|admit |admission, admittance |admissible | |

| |advantage, |advantageous, | |

| |disadvantage |disadvantageous | |

| |adventure, adventurer |adventurous |adventurously |

|advertise |advertisement, advertiser, |advertised | |

| |advert, advertising | | |

|advise |advice, adviser, advisability |advisable, advisory | |

|affect |affectation |affected | |

|agree |agreement |agreeable, |agreeably |

| | |agreed | |

|alarm |alarm |alarmed, |alarmingly |

| | |alarming | |

|amaze |amazement |amazed, |amazingly |

| | |amazing | |

| |ambition |ambitious |ambitiously |

|amuse |amusement |amusing, |amusingly |

| | |amused | |

| |anger |angry |angrily |

| |anxiety |anxious |anxiously |

|appear |appearance |apparent |apparently |

|apply |applicant, application, |applicable, | |

| |applicator, appliance |applied | |

|appreciate |appreciation |appreciative |appreciatively |

|argue |argument |arguable, |arguably, |

| | |argumentative | |

| | | | |

|arrive |arrival | | |

|astonish |astonishment |astonished, |astonishingly |

| | |astonishing | |

|attend |attendance, attendant, |attentive, |attentively, |

| |attention |inattentive |inattentively |

|attract |attraction, attractiveness |attractive, attracted |attractively |

| |automation |automatic |automatically |

|begin |beginner, beginning |beginning | |

|behave |behaviour |behavioural | |

|believe |belief, |believable, |believably, |

| |believer |unbelievable |unbelievably |

|benefit |beneficiary, benefit |beneficial | |

|bore |bore, boredom |bored, boring | |

|break |breaker |broken |breakable |

|breath |breath, breathing, |breathable, breathy, | |

| |breather |unbreathable, breathless, | |

| | |breathtaking | |

|build |building, builder | | |

|care |care, carelessness |caring, careful, |carefully, |

| | |careless |carelessly |

|centre, |centre |central |centrally |

|centralise | | | |

|change |change | | |

|cheer |cheer, cheerfulness |cheering, cheerful, | |

| | |cheerless, cheery | |

| |child, childhood |childish, childlike, childless |childishly |

|choose |choice |choos(e)y | |

|combine |combination |combined | |

|comfort |comfort, comforter |comfortable, uncomfortable |comfortably, |

| | |comfortless, comforting |uncomfortably |

|compare |comparison, comparability |comparative, comparable |comparatively, |

| | | |comparably |

|compete |competition |competitive | |

|complain |complaint | | |

|complete |completeness, completion |complete |completely |

|conclude |conclusion |conclusive, concluding |conclusively |

|confide |confidence |confident, confidential |confidentially, |

| | | |confidently |

|connect |connection |connecting, connected | |

|consider |consideration |considerable, considered |considerably, |

| | |(in)considerate, |(in)considerately |

|continue |continuance, continuation |continuous, continual |continuously, |

| | | |continually |

|converse |conversation |conversational, converse |conversely |

| | | | |

|correct |correction, incorrectness |(in)correct, |(in)correctly, |

| | |corrective |correctively |

|encourage, |courage, encouragement, |courageous, encouraging, |courageously, |

|discourage |discouragement |encouraged, discouraging, |encouragingly, |

| | |discouraged |discouragingly |

|create |creation, creature, |creative |creatively |

| |creator, creativity | | |

| |crime, criminal, criminality |criminal |criminally |

|criticise |critic, criticism |critical, criticising | |

|crowd |crowd |crowded | |

| |curiosity |curiosity |curiously |

|endanger |danger |dangerous, |dangerously |

| | |endangered | |

|darken |dark, darkness |dark, darkened |darkly |

| | | | |

| |day, daylight | |daily |

|die |death |dead |deadly, deathly |

|decide |decision, decisiviness, |decided,(in)decisive |decidedly, |

| |indecisiviness | |(in)decisively |

|defend |defence, defender, |defenceless, defensible, |defensively |

| |defensiveness |defensive | |

|delight |delight |delightful, delighted |delightfully |

|deliver |delivery | | |

|depend |dependant, dependence, |dependent, |dependently, |

| |dependency |independent |independently |

|deepen |depth, deepness |deep |deeply |

|describe |description |descriptive |descriptively |

|desire |desire |desirable |desirably |

|destroy |destroyer, destruction |destructive |destructively |

|develop |development, developer |developing, developed | |

|differ |difference, different |differently | |

| |difficulty |difficult | |

|disappoint |disappointment |disappointed, | |

| | |disappointing, | |

| | |disappointingly | |

|discover |discover |discoverable, discovery | |

|discuss |discussion | | |

|disturb |disturbance |disturbed, disturbing |disturbingly |

|economise |economics, economist, |economic, |economically |

| |economy |economical | |

|educate |education, educator |educated, educational |educationally |

|effect |effect, effectiveness |effective |effectively |

| | | | |

|employ |employer, employee, |unemployed, | |

| |(un)employment |employable | |

|end |end, ending |endless |endlessly |

|energise |energy |energetic |energetically |

|enjoy |enjoyment |enjoyable |enjoyably |

|entertain |entertainment, entertainer |entertaining | |

|enthuse |enthusiasm, enthusiast |enthusiastic |enthusiastically |

|equip |equipment |equipped | |

|excite |excitement |exciting, excited, |excitingly, |

| | |excitable |excitedly |

|exhaust |exhaust, exhaustion |exhausted, exhausting, |exhaustively |

| | |exhaustive | |

|exist |existence |existent, existing | |

| | |non-existent, | |

|expect |expectation, expectancy |(un)expected, |(un)expectedly, |

| | |expectant |expectantly |

|expend |expenses, expense |expensive |expensively |

|experience |experience, inexperience |experienced, experiential | |

| | |inexperienced, | |

|explain |explanation |explanatory | |

|fail |fail, failure |failed, failing | |

| |fame |famed, famous, |famously |

| | |infamous | |

|fashion |fashion |fashionable |fashionably |

|favour |favour |favourable, favourite |favourably |

| |five |five, fifth | |

|fool |fool, foolishness |fool, foolish |foolishly |

| |fortune, misfortune |fortunate, |fortunately, |

| | |unfortunate |unfortunately |

|free |freedom |free |freely |

|freeze |freezer, freezing |frozen, freezing | |

|frequent |(in)frequency |frequent |frequently |

|befriend |friend, friendlessness, |friendly, | |

| |friendliness, friendship |friendless | |

|frighten |fright |frightened , frightening, |frighteningly, |

| | |frightful |frightfully |

|grow |growth |grown | |

| |happiness |happy |happily |

|harm |harm |harmful, harmless |harmfully, |

| | | |harmlessly |

| |health |healthy |healthily |

|heighten |height |high |highly |

| | | | |

|help |help, helper, helpfulness, |helpful, helpless |helpfully, |

| |helping, helplessness | |helplessly |

|hesitate |hesitancy, hesitation |hesitant |hesitantly |

| |humour, humorist |humorous ,humourless |humorously |

|hunger |hunger |hungry |hungrily |

|idealise |idea, idealisation, |ideal, idealistic |ideally, |

| |idealism, idealistic | |idealistically |

| |illness |ill | |

|imagine |image, imagination |imaginary, imaginable, |imaginatively |

| | |imaginative | |

| | |immediate |immediately |

| |importance |important |importantly |

|impress |impression |impressive |impressively |

|improve |improvement |improved | |

|inform |information, informer |informative |informatively |

|injure |injury |injured | |

|inspect |inspection, inspector | | |

|insure |insurance, insurer |insured | |

|intend |intention, intent |intentional, intent, |intentionally, |

| | |intended |intently |

|interest |interest |interested, |interestingly |

| | |interesting | |

|invent |invention, inventor |inventive | |

|investigate |investigation, investigator |investigative, | |

| | |investigatory | |

|invite |invitation |inviting, invited |invitingly |

| |jealousy |jealous |jealously |

| |journal, journalism, journalist |journalistic | |

|know |knowledge, know-all, |knowing, known |knowingly, |

| |know-how |knowledgeable, |knowledgeably |

|laugh |laugh, laughing, laughter |laughing, |laughingly, |

| | |laughable |laughably |

|lengthen |length |long, lengthy | |

|live |life, living, liveliness |live, lifeless, living, lively,| |

| | |alive | |

|like |likeness, liking |like, alike | |

| |logic |logical |logically |

|lose |loser, loss | |losing, lost |

| |luck |lucky |luckily |

| |majority |major | |

|marry |marriage |married | |

| |medication, medicine |medical, medicated |medically |

| |misery |miserable |miserably |

|mistake |mistake |mistaken | |

| | | | |

| | | | |

|move |motion, mover, move, |moving, movable, | |

| |movement |motionless | |

|motorise |motor, motoring, motorist |motorised | |

|murder |murder, murderer, murderess |murderous |murderously |

|naturalise |nature |natural |naturally |

|necessitate |necessity, necessaries |necessary |necessarily |

| |neighbour, neighbourhood |neighbouring | |

|nerve |nerve, nervousness |nervous, nerveless, |nervously |

| | |nervy | |

| |noise |noisy, noiseless |noisily, |

| | | |noiselessly |

|normalise |norm, normalisation, |(ab)normal |(ab)normally |

| |normality | | |

|obsess |obsession |obsessional, obsessive |obsessionally, |

| | | |obsessively |

| |occasion |occasional |occasionally |

|operate |operation, operator |operational, | |

| | |operative | |

| |opportunity, opportunism, |opportune | |

| |opportunist | | |

|order |order, disorder |(dis)ordered, |(dis)orderly |

|organise |organisation, organiser |organised | |

|originate |origin, originality |original |originally |

|own |owner, ownership |own | |

|pain |pain |painful, painless, |painfully, |

| | |pained |painlessly |

| |patience, impatience |(im)patient |(im)patiently |

| |peace, peacefulness |peaceful |peacefully |

|perfect |perfection, imperfection, |perfect, perfectible |perfectly |

| |perfectionism, | | |

| |perfectionist | | |

|perform |performer, performance | | |

|personalise |person, personality, |personal |personally |

| |personnel | | |

|photograph |photograph, photo, |photographic |photographically |

| |photographer, photography | | |

|please |pleasure |pleased, pleasing, |pleasingly, |

| | |(un)pleasant |(un)pleasantly |

|poison |poison, poisoning, |poisonous, | |

| |poisoner |poisoned | |

|polarize |polarization | | |

| |politeness |polite |politely |

|pollute |pollution, pollutant |polluted, polluting | |

|populate |popularity, population |populated | |

|possess |possession, possessor |possessed, possessive | |

| |possibility, impossibility |(im)possible |(im)possibly |

| | | | |

|practise |practicality, practice, |practical, |practically |

| |practitioner |practicable | |

|predict |prediction,(un)predictability |predictive,(un) predictable |(un)predictably |

|prefer |preference |preferred, preferable |preferably |

|press, |press, pressure |pressed, pressing | |

|pressure | | | |

|prevent |prevention |preventable, preventive |preventively |

|produce |produce, product, producer, |productive |productively |

| |production, productivity | | |

|profess |profession, professional, |professional |professionally |

| |professionalism, professor | | |

|protect |protection, protector |protective, protected |protectively |

|punish |punishment |punishable, punishing, | |

| | |(un)punished | |

|qualify, |qualification |(un)qualified, | |

|disqualify | |disqualified | |

|rain |rain |rainy | |

|react, |reaction, reactor |reactive, | |

|reactivate | |reactionary | |

|realise |realisation, reality, realism, |real, realistic |really, |

| |realist | |realistically |

|reason |reason |(un)reasonable |(un)reasonably |

|reduce |reduction |reduced, reducible | |

|regulate, |regularity, regulation, |regular |regularly |

|regularise |regulator | | |

|relate |relation, relationship, |related, relative |relatively |

| |relative, relativity | | |

|rely |reliability, unreliability |(un)reliable |(un)reliably |

| |religion |religious |religiously |

|resolve |resolution | | |

|respond |response, responsiveness, |responsive, |responsively, |

| |responsibility, irresponsibility |(ir)responsible |(ir)responsibly |

|restrict |restriction, restrictiveness |restricted, restrictive | |

|risk |risk |risky | |

|rob |robber, robbery | | |

|save |safe, safety, saver, |safe |safely |

| |savings | | |

|satisfy, |(dis)satisfaction |(dis)satisfied, |(dis)satisfyingly, |

|dissatisfy | |(dis)satisfying, |(dis)satisfactorily |

| | |(dis)satisfactory | |

| |science, scientist |scientific |scientifically |

|secure |security |secure |securely |

|sense |sensational, sense, |sensible, senseless, |sensibly, senselessly, |

| |sensor, senselessness, |sensitive, sensational |sensitively, |

| |sensibility, sensivity | |sensationally |

| |seriousness |serious |seriously |

| | | | |

|sign, signal |signature, sign, signal |signed | |

|shorten |shortage, shortening |short |shortly |

| |skill |skilful, skilled |skilfully |

|solve |solution |solvable | |

|spectate |spectacle, spectacles, |spectacular |spectacularly |

| |spectator | | |

|starve |starvation |starving, starved | |

|strengthen |strength |strong |strongly |

|succeed |success |(un)successful |(un)successfully |

|suggest |suggestion |suggestive, |suggestively |

| | |suggestible | |

|suit |suit, suitability |(un)suitable, suited |(un)suitably |

|supply |supplier, supply, supplies | | |

|surprise |surprise |surprising, surprised |surprisingly |

|surround |surroundings |surrounded, surrounding | |

|swell |swell, swelling |swell, swollen | |

|taste |taste, taster |tasty, tasteful,asteless |tastefully, tastelessly |

|teach |teacher, teaching |teachable | |

|tend |tendency | | |

|terrify, |terror, terrorism, |terrible, terrific, |terribly, terrifically, |

|terrorise |terrorist |terrifying, terrified |terrifyingly, |

| |theft, thief, thieving |thieving | |

|think |thought |thinking, thoughtful, |thoughtfully, |

| | |thoughtless |thoughtlessly |

|threaten |threat |threatened, |threateningly |

| | |threatening | |

|tire |tiredness |tired, tiring, |tiringly, |

| | |tireless, tiresome |tirelessly |

|tolerate |tolerance, toleration |tolerable |tolerably |

|total |total, totality |total |totally |

| |tradition |traditional |traditionally |

| |tragedy |tragic |tragically |

|train |trainer, trainee, training |trained, training | |

| |truth, truthfulness |true, truthful |truthfully |

| |type |typical |typically |

|understand |understanding, |understandable, | |

| |misunderstanding |understanding | |

|use |use, user, usefulness, |used, useful, useless |usefully, |

| |uselessness | |uselessly |

|value, |valuation, value, valuer, |valuable, invaluable, | |

|evaluate |evaluation |valueless | |

|vary |variability, variant, |varied, various |variously, variably |

| |variety, variation | | |

| |violence |violent |violently |

|warm | |warm |warmly |

|warn |warning |warning, warned |warningly |

| |week, weekday, weekend |weekly | |

|weigh |weight |weighty, weightless | |

| |wisdom |wise, unwise |wisely, |

| | | |unwisely |

|wonder |wonder |wonderful, |wonderfully, |

| | |wondering, wonder |wonderingly |

PHRASAL VERBS

A phrasal verb is formed by adding a preposition (down, in, up) or an

adverb (away, back) to a verb and the new verb (phrasal verb) has

a different meaning.

*The plane to London has just taken off.

*I’ll let my hair down as soon as I find an assistant.

*I lost my wallet. I have to look for it.

SOME COMMON PHRASAL VERBS

|IDIOMS | MEANING |

|addicted to |devoted to |

|answer back |interrupt rudely |

|attend to |listen carefully |

|back up |support(physical,military etc.) |

|band together |unite, form groups |

|barge in/into |enter/interrupt(sth)rudely |

|be away |absent |

|be back |return |

|be in |at home |

|be out |not there |

|be over |finished |

|be up |out of bed |

|be up to |responsibility |

|blow up |explode |

|break down |fail |

|bring up |educate/raise |

|call for |collect/summon |

|call on |visit/invite |

|carry on |continue |

|catch up |reach/trap |

|chain up |restrain the movement |

|chicken out |lose one’s courage |

|clear up |improve |

|come off |succeed |

|come up with |suggest |

|cut off |disconnect |

|cut out |stop |

|do up |fasten |

|do up |decorate/renovate |

|drift in |arrive lazily |

|drop in |visit |

|fall off |decrease |

|fill in |complete |

|find out |discover/learn by study |

|fix up |arrange |

|get at |continually annoy |

|get away |escape/manage to leave |

|get back |return |

|get hold of |obtain |

|get in |arrive |

|get off |alight |

|get on |progress |

|get on |embark/mount/board |

|get on |be friendly |

|get up |arise |

|give back |return |

|give up |stop |

|go away |leave |

|go off |not like any more |

|go on |continue |

|go out |leave |

|go round |suffice |

|go up |increase |

|hand in |give (resignation) to an office |

|hold on |wait |

|hold up |delay |

|keep out |exclude |

|keep up |maintain |

|keep up |remain level |

|let down |disappoint |

|look after |protect |

|look at |regard |

|look for |seek |

|look forward to |expect (with pleasure) |

|look out |be careful |

|look up |visit |

| | |

|make out |understand |

|make up |invent |

|make up |apply cosmetics |

|overdo |exceed |

|overlook |miss |

|overtake |pass |

|pay back |repay |

|pick on |choose for unpleasant treatment |

|pick up |collect |

|point out |indicate |

|put away |stow |

|put off |postpone |

|put on |dress |

|put up |accommodate |

|put up with |tolerate |

|rub out |erase |

|run after |pursue |

|run away |flee |

|run out of |finish |

|sell out |all sold |

|stay up |go to bed late |

|storm out |leave angrily |

|take back |return |

|take somebody/something in |deceive |

|take off |remove |

|take off |leave quickly |

|take out |extract |

|take out |escort |

|take up |begin/start |

|think about |consider |

|try out |test |

|turn down |reject |

|turn up |arrive |

|wake up |awaken |

|wash up |clean |

|watch out |be careful |

|wear out |finish |

|work out |calculate/develop |

|write out |complete |

|yell out |cry/shout aloud |

( 276. Fill in the sentences using a suitable phrasal verb :

dropped in/turned up

1.We took off/called in/came over at seven o’clock to have breakfast.

2.My wife is going to .................................. smoking soon.

3.We are going on holiday for a fortnight. My friend will ................ our sons.

4.I miss my mother very much, so I’m ....................................seeing her soon.

5.Why don’t you................... that word in a dictionary instead of asking me?

Some phrasal verbs do not take an object :

e.g.

I didn’t have to work on April 23 rd, so I slept in.

There are also some phrasal verbs with two particles :

e.g.

I don’t think I’m going to get on well with these people.

COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS

Complete the chart :

|PRESENT |PAST |PAST PARTICIPLE | |PARTICIPLE |

|arise |arose |arisen | |arising |

|awake |awoke |awaked | |............. |

|bear |bore |borne | |............. |

|bear |bore |borne(carry) | |bearing |

|beat |beat |beaten | |beating |

|become |became |become | |becoming |

|begin |began |begun | |beginning |

|bend |bent |bent | |bending |

|bet |bet |bet | |............. |

|bind |bound |bound | |binding |

|bite |bit |bitten | |biting |

|bleed |bled |bled | |bleeding |

|blow |blew |blown | |blowing |

|bring |brought |brought | |bringing |

|build |built |built | |building |

|burst |burst |burst | |............. |

|buy |bought |bought | |buying |

|cast |cast |cast | |casting |

|catch |caught |caught | |catching |

|choose |chose |chosen | |choosing |

|cling |clung |clung | |clinging |

|come |came |come | |coming |

|cost |cost |cost | |............. |

|creep |crept |crept | |creeping |

|cut |cut |cut | |cutting |

|dare |dared |dared | |............. |

|deal |dealt |dealt | |dealing |

|dig |dug |dug | |digging |

|do |did |done | |doing |

|draw |drew |drawn | |drawing |

|drink |drank |drunk | |drinking |

|drive |drove |driven | |driving |

|eat |ate |eaten | |eating |

|fall |fell |fallen | |falling |

|feed |fed |fed | |feeding |

|feel |felt |felt | |feeling |

|fight |fought |fought | |fighting |

|find |found |found | |finding |

| | | | | |

|fling |flung |flung | |flinging |

|fly |flew |flown | |flying |

|forget |forgot |forgotten | |............. |

|forgive |forgave |forgiven | |............ |

|freeze |froze |frozen | |freezing |

|get |got |got(gotten) | |getting |

|give |gave |given | |giving |

|go |went |gone | |going |

|grind |ground |ground | |grinding |

|grow |grew |grown | |growing |

|hang |hung |hung | |hanging |

|have |had |had | |having |

|hear |heard |heard | |............ |

|hide |hid |hidden | |hiding |

|hit |hit |hit | |hitting |

|hold |held |held | |holding |

|hurt |hurt |hurt | |............. |

|keep |kept |kept | |keeping |

|know |knew |known | |............. |

|lay |laid |laid | |............. |

|lead |led |led | |leading |

|learn |learned |learned/learnt | |learning |

|leave |left |left | |leaving |

|lend |lent |lent | |lending |

|let |let |let | |............ |

|lie |lie |lied | |............ |

|lie |lay |lain | |............ |

|light |lit |lit | |lighting |

|lose |lost |lost | |............ |

|make |made |made | |making |

|mean |meant |meant | |............ |

|meet |met |met | |meeting |

|owe |owed |owed | |............ |

|pay |paid |paid | |paying |

|put |put |put | |putting |

|quit |quit |quit | |............ |

|read |read (pronounced‘red’) |read | |reading |

| | |(pronounced ’red’) | | |

|ride |rode |ridden | |riding |

|ring |rang |rung | |ringing |

|rise |rose |risen | |rising |

|run |ran |run | |running |

|say |said |said | |saying |

|see |saw |seen | |............ |

|seek |sought |sought | |seeking |

|sell |sold |sold | |selling |

| | | | | |

|send |sent |sent | |sending |

|set |set |set | |setting |

|shake |shook |shaken | |shaking |

|shave |shaved |shaved | |shaving |

|shine |shone |shone | |shining |

|shoot |shot |shot | |shooting |

|show |showed |shown | |showing |

|shrink |shrank |shrunk/shrunken | |shrinking |

|shut |shut |shut | |shutting |

|sing |sang |sung | |singing |

|sink |sank |sunk | |sinking |

|sit |sat |sat | |sitting |

|sleep |slept |slept | |sleeping |

|slide |slid |slid | |sliding |

|slit |slit |slit | |slitting |

|speak |spoke |spoken | |speaking |

|speed |sped |sped | |speeding |

|spend |spent |spent | |spending |

|spin |spun |spun | |spinning |

|split |split |split | |splitting |

|spread |spread |spread | |spreading |

|spring |sprang |sprung | |springing |

|stand |stood |stood | |standing |

|steal |stole |stolen | |stealing |

|stick |stuck |stuck | |sticking |

|sting |stung |stung | |stinging |

|strike |struck |struck | |striking |

|string |strung |strung | |stringing |

|swear |swore |sworn | |swearing |

|sweep |swept |swept | |sweeping |

|swim |swam |swum | |swimming |

|swing |swung |swung | |swinging |

|take |took |taken | |taking |

|teach |taught |taught | |teaching |

|tear |tore |torn | |tearing |

|tell |told |told | |telling |

|think |thought |thought | |thinking |

|throw |threw |thrown | |throwing |

|understand |understood |understood | |.............. |

|wake |woke |woken | |waking |

|wear |wore |worn | |wearing |

|weave |wove |woven | |weaving |

|wed |wed |wed | |.............. |

|weep |wept |wept | |weeping |

|wet |wet |wet | |.............. |

|win |won |won | |winning |

|wind |wound |wound | |winding |

|wring |wrung |wrung | |wringing |

|write |wrote |written | |writing |

PROVERBS

1. All that glitters is not gold.

1. A stitch in time saves nine.

1. A fool and his money are soon parted.

1. Every cloud has a silver lining.

1. It never rains but it pours.

1. Make hay while the sun shines.

1. A watched pot never boils.

1. A barking dog never bites.

1. Never look a gift horse in the mouth.

1. A rolling stone gathers no moss.

1. Better late than never.

1. Birds of a feather flock together.

1. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

1. Never put off ‘ till tomorrow what can be done today.

1. A place for everything and everything in its place.

1. It’s better to have loved and lost ; than never to have loved at all.

1. What’s good for the goose is good for the gander.

1. He laughs best who laughs last.

1. There are two sides to every question.

1. Out of sight; out of mind.

1. As you make your bed, so you must lie in it.

1. Too many cooks spoil the broth .

1. Rome wasn’t built in a day .

1. Where there‘s a will , there’s a way.

1. You cannot have your cake and eat it too.

1. Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

1. The early bird catches the worm.

1. Everything comes to him who waits.

1. Laugh and the world laughs with you; weep and you weep alone.

1. Idleness is the mother of evil.

1. An empty barrel makes the most noise.

1. All’s well that ends well.

1. A new broom sweep clean.

1. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.

1. It’s an ill wind that blows nobody good.

1. It takes a thief to catch a thief.

1. God helps those who help themselves.

1. The pot calls the kettle black.

1. It’s the shovel that laughs at the poker.

1. People in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.

1. Silence gives consent.

1. Well done or not at all.

1. A person is known by the company he keeps.

1. A word to the wise is sufficient.

1. Forewarned is forearmed .

1. One good turn deserves another.

1. In the kingdom of the blind, the one-eyed are kings.

1. All good things must come to an end.

1. Well done is better than well said.

1. Contentment is better than riches.

1. Health is better than wealth.

1. A friend in need is a friend indeed.

1. To the victor belong the spoils.

1. All’s fair in love and war.

1. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

1. He who dances pays the fiddler.

1. Two wrongs do not make a right.

1. The pen is mightier than the sword .

1. Brevity is the soul of wit.

1. Curiosity killed the cat.

1. Necessity is the mother of invention.

1. Variety is the spice of life.

1. When a man is wrapped up in himself , the package is small.

1. Keep your eyes wide open before marriage, half shut afterwards.

1. Speech is silver, silence is golden.

1. Take care of the pennies, the dollars will take care of themselves.

1. Who steals my purse steals trash .

1. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.

1. Discretion is the better part of valor.

1. Nothing ventured, nothing gained.

1. Handsome is as handsome does.

1. A penny saved is a penny earned.

1. Honesty is the best policy.

1. Strike while the iron is hot.

1. A bad penny always comes back.

1. You may lead a horse to water, but you can’t make him drink.

1. Marry in haste, repent at leisure.

1. Beggars should not be choosers.

1. Like father, like son.

1. Hitch your wagon to a star.

1. A cloudy morning often changes to a fine day.

1. Behind bad luck comes good luck.

1. To see an old friend is as agreeable as a gold meal.

1. Many hands make light work.

1. You can’t teach an old dog new tricks.

1. Children should be seen and not heard .

1. Beauty is skin deep.

1. Haste makes waste.

1. The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence.

1. Out of the frying pan, into the fire .

1. Let sleeping dogs lie.

1. Charity begins at home .

1. Better to be safe than sorry.

1. Oil and water don’t mix.

1. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

1. No news is good news.

1. You’d better quit while you’re ahead.

1. When poverty comes in the door , love flies out the window.

1. It’s no use crying over spilled milk.

1. Practice makes perfect.

1. Spare the rod and spoil the child .

1. Misery loves company.

1. When the cat’s away, the mice will play.

1. Don’t count your chickens before they hatch .

1. Beauty is as beauty does.

1. Actions speak louder than words.

1. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.

1. It’s always darkest before the dawn.

1. He who pays the piper calls the tune.

2. Deeds not words.

Make one sentence with each proverb :

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PUNCTUATION MARKS

( 277. Write more examples and fill in the blanks:

Comma ( , ) : She is lovely, young and honest.

Full stop ( . ) : I live in İncirli.

Question mark ( ? ) : Why do you want to learn English?

Exclamation mark ( ! ) : How well she swims!

Quotation mark (“ “) : “Peace at home, peace in the world.” Atatürk said.

Triple dots (…) : …………………………………

Colon ( : ) : …………………………………

Semicolon ( ; ) : …………………………………

Brackets ( ) : …………………………………

Hyphen ( - ) : a five-year-old child

Apostrophe ( ‘ ) : My friend’s house is not far from here.

*THE ENGLISH WEIGHTS TABLE

16 ounces(oz) = 1 pound(lb.)

14 pounds = 1 stone (st.)

8 stone = 1 hundred weight(cwt.)

20 hundred weight = 1 ton

1 pound = 0.454 kilogram

2.2 pounds = 1 kilogram

2.204.6 lbs, = 1 metric tone

*THE ENGLISH TABLE OF LENGTH

12 inches (in.) = 1 foot(ft.)

3 feet = 1 yard(yd)

1.760 yards = 1 mile(m.)

1 inch = 2.54 centimetres(cm)

1 yard = 0.914 metre(m)

1 mile = 1.609 kilometres(km)

*LIQUID MEASURE

2 pints(pt) = 1 quart(qt)

4 quarts = 1 gallon(gal)

1 pint = 0.568 litre(l)

1 gallon = 4.55 litres

ORDINAL NUMBERS

1/5 = a/one fifth

3/5 = three fifths

2 ¼ miles = two and a quarter miles

POINTS TO NOTICE

1.050 = a/one thousand and fifty

1.150 = one thousand, one hundred and fifty

7.05 = seven point nought five

CONFUSING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

( 278. Complete the chart :

|accept |agree |except |besides, but |

|advice |guidance |advise |give advice |

|affect |to influence |effect |to cause |

|after |...................... |afterwards |...................... |

|ago |...................... |before |...................... |

|alike |similarity between two |(un)like |not like |

| |things(adj) | | |

|almost |nearly, approximately |most |the greatest number or part |

|already |previously |all ready |completely prepared |

|among |relationship between three or |between |relationship between two things |

| |more things | | |

|amount /quantity |refers to uncountable nouns |number |refers to countable nouns |

|and |...................... |also |in addition |

|another |with single, countable, and |other/others |other: with singular, plural and |

| |definite nouns | |uncountable nouns |

| | | |others: is a plural noun |

|any way |in any manner |anyway |anyhow |

|as |in the role of |like |similar to |

|base |foundation |basis |evidence, reason |

|beside |next to |besides |in addition |

|bring |...................... |take |...................... |

|costume |clothing |custom |traditional practice |

|descent |downward motion |decent |suitable |

|do |to complete/to perform |make |to create/to produce/ |

| | | |to construct |

|especially |particularly |special |unique/extraordinary |

|farther |...................... |further |...................... |

|first |...................... |former |...................... |

|formally |a formal manner |formerly |previously/before(in time) |

|good |...................... |well |...................... |

|had better |used to express obligation or |would rather |used to express preference |

| |advisability | | |

|hard |difficult |hardly |barely/scarcely |

|imaginary |not real |imaginative |creative |

|it’s |it + is |its |...................... |

|later | ...................... |latter |...................... |

|lay |to put/to place |lie |to repose |

|lie |to repose |lie |not to tell the truth |

|listen | |hear |...................... |

|loose |not tight |lose |to be defeated/ |

| | | |to misplace |

|maybe |possibly/perhaps |may be |...................... |

|near |close by/not too far |nearly |almost |

|no/not |...................... |none |...................... |

|on the contrary |...................... |on the other hand |...................... |

|on time |neither late nor early, at the|in time |not late |

| |correct time | | |

|passed |to elapse/to go by |past |a time before the present |

|quite |...................... |enough |...................... |

|quiet |not noisy |quite |very |

|raise |to lift |rise |to go up |

|remember |to think about again |remind |to cause someone to remember |

|sensible |wise |sensitive |sympathetic |

|set |to put/to place |sit |to be seated |

|than |used in forming comparative |then |a time after another time |

| |adjectives | | |

|their |...................... |they’re/there |...................... |

|thorough |complete |through |from one point to another on the |

| | | |other side |

|to |...................... |too/two |...................... |

|too |implies a negative result |very |does not imply a negative result |

|until |before the time when something|by |not later than a specified time |

| |happens(not after it | | |

|used to |...................... |be used to |...................... |

|who’s |...................... |whose |...................... |

|your |...................... |you’re |...................... |

279. QUESTIONS WHICH ARE Often ASKED

BY TEACHERS OF ENGLISH

1.What’s your name?

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2.How old are you?

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3.Where do you live?

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4.What do you do?

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5.Where are you from?

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6.Where do you come from? ........................................................................................

7.Are you married?

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8.How much do you earn? ........................................................................................

9.Have you got any brothers and sisters? ........................................................................................

10.Do you like tea?

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11.What’s your job?

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12. What’s your telephone number? ........................................................................................

12. What’s your address? ........................................................................................

13. What’s your brother’s telephone number? ........................................................................................

14. What’s your sister’s address? ........................................................................................

15. What nationality are you? ........................................................................................

16. What nationality is your best friend? ........................................................................................

17. Are you American?

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18. Is your best friend American? ........................................................................................

19. Do you like living in the country? ........................................................................................

20. Do you like hot weather? ........................................................................................

21. What time do you arrive at school/work? ........................................................................................

22. When do you start work/school? ........................................................................................

23. When do you finish work/school? ........................................................................................

24. What time do you start work/school? ........................................................................................

25. What do you do in the evenings? ........................................................................................

26. What do you do at weekends? ........................................................................................

27. Where do you spend your holidays? ........................................................................................

28. How do you get to school? ........................................................................................

29. How far is your school/work? ........................................................................................

30. How long does it take to get there? ........................................................................................

31. Do you ever walk to school? ........................................................................................

32. Do you ever drive to work/school? ........................................................................................

33. How often do you go to the theatre? ........................................................................................

34. What time do you usually get up in the morning? ........................................................................................

35. Do you watch television in the evenings? ........................................................................................

36. How old is your father? ........................................................................................

37. Who do you live with? ........................................................................................

38. Do you live with your parents? ........................................................................................

39. Do you have a sister? ........................................................................................

40. Is Bill Clinton a doctor? ........................................................................................

41. Is ‘engineering’ a job?

........................................................................................

42. Is ‘George’ a Turkish name? ........................................................................................

43. Is Istanbul a country? ........................................................................................

44. Are you the President of the USA? ........................................................................................

45. Is yoghurt from France? ........................................................................................

46. Who is your favourite footballer? ........................................................................................

47. Who is your favourite actor? ........................................................................................

48. What is your favourite group? ........................................................................................

49. What’s your favourite car? ........................................................................................

50. What’s this? (( )

........................................................................................

51. What are these? ( () ........................................................................................

52. How are you?

........................................................................................

53. How do you spell your name? ........................................................................................

54. Are your parents from the moon? ........................................................................................

55. How much were your shoes? ........................................................................................

56. How much was your watch? ........................................................................................

57. How much did your books cost? ........................................................................................

58. How much did your watch cost? ........................................................................................

59. Are your parents’ names ‘Ali and Ayşe’? ........................................................................................

60. Has your best friend got a brother? ........................................................................................

61. Who do you look like in your family? ........................................................................................

62. Are you like your mother or father? ........................................................................................

63. What’s your mother like? ........................................................................................

64. What does your father look like? ........................................................................................

65. What’s the time?

........................................................................................

66. What time is it?

........................................................................................

67. Have you got the time? ........................................................................................

68. What time do you have dinner? ........................................................................................

69. What do you usually have for lunch? ........................................................................................

70. Do you like swimming? ........................................................................................

71. Do you live in Ankara? ........................................................................................

72. Do Germans come from Germany? ........................................................................................

73. Does your best friend come from the USA? ........................................................................................

74. Does your teacher come to work by car? ........................................................................................

75. When do you have the main meal of the day? ........................................................................................

76. What do you have for breakfast? ........................................................................................

77. What food do people eat in your country? ........................................................................................

78. Where do you like going on holiday? ........................................................................................

79. What do you like doing on holiday? ........................................................................................

80. What don’t you like doing on holiday? ........................................................................................

81. Is there a post office near your house? ........................................................................................

82. Are there any girls/boys in your classroom? ........................................................................................

83. How many boys/girls are there in your classroom? ........................................................................................

84. Is there a television in your class? ........................................................................................

85. What do you usually do on your birthday? ........................................................................................

86. Who do you spend your birthday with? ........................................................................................

87. Do you usually get presents ? ........................................................................................

88. How many days are there in a week? ........................................................................................

89. Are there four seasons in a year? ........................................................................................

90. How many weeks are there in a year? ........................................................................................

91. Can you swim?

........................................................................................

92. Are you having an exam now? ........................................................................................

93. Is your friend talking at the moment? ........................................................................................

94. Are you speaking English? ........................................................................................

95. Are you answering questions now? ........................................................................................

96. What’s your teacher doing now? ........................................................................................

97. Is your teacher listening to the radio? ........................................................................................

98. Where are you going after school this year? ........................................................................................

99. What are you doing on Monday? ........................................................................................

100. What’s on at the best-known cinemas at the moment? ........................................................................................

101. Where were you yesterday evening? ........................................................................................

102. What were you doing yesterday evening? ........................................................................................

103. How old were you when you started school? ........................................................................................

104. Where were you born? ........................................................................................

105. When were you born? ........................................................................................

106. Where was Atatürk born? ........................................................................................

107. When was Atatürk born? ........................................................................................

108. Did you go to school last week? ........................................................................................

109. Did you watch television yesterday? ........................................................................................

110. What did you do in the afternoon? ........................................................................................

111. Where did you go for your holidays last year? ........................................................................................

112. How long did you stay there? ........................................................................................

113. How much did you spend? ........................................................................................

114. How long did the journey take? ........................................................................................

115. When did you get home last night? ........................................................................................

116. What’s the weather like today? ........................................................................................

117. What was the weather like yesterday? ........................................................................................

118. Was the weather nice last week? ........................................................................................

119. Did you buy anything last month? ........................................................................................

120. Would you like a cup of coffee now?

........................................................................................

121. Would you like to go on holiday ?

........................................................................................

122. What would you like to do now?

........................................................................................

123. Are you pleased with the things that you are doing now?

........................................................................................

124. Will you go anywhere next week?

........................................................................................

125. What will you do tomorrow?

........................................................................................

126. Where will you go?

........................................................................................

127. Will you be able to speak English well after this class?

........................................................................................

128. What time do the banks open in Turkey?

........................................................................................

129. Do you have to go home early in the evenings?

........................................................................................

130. How many apples do you eat a day?

........................................................................................

131. Are you going to be a teacher?

........................................................................................

132. What are you going to be?

........................................................................................

133. How many story books have you read?

........................................................................................

134. How much did you spend on food last month?

........................................................................................

135. How many hamburgers can you eat at once?

........................................................................................

136. How tall are you?

........................................................................................

137. How deep is Lake Van?

........................................................................................

138. How long is The Kızılırmak?

........................................................................................

139. Who is the tallest person in your family?

........................................................................................

140. What is the most interesting time of the year?

........................................................................................

141. How much do hotel rooms cost in Antalya?

........................................................................................

142. How much are hotel rooms?

........................................................................................

143. How much is a litre of petrol?

........................................................................................

144. How much does petrol cost?

........................................................................................

145. How fast can you drive?

........................................................................................

146. How long does it take to go to school on foot?

........................................................................................

147. How much is an Underground ticket in Ankara?

........................................................................................

148. Have you ever become ill on holiday?

........................................................................................

149. How are you keeping fit?

........................................................................................

150. Have you ever met anyone famous?

........................................................................................

151. When was the Republic of Turkey declared?

........................................................................................

152. When does the International Children’s Festival take place

in Turkey?

........................................................................................

153. How many rooms are there in your flat/house?

........................................................................................

154. What is a foot ball made of?

........................................................................................

155. What shape is a foot ball?

........................................................................................

156. What size is it?

........................................................................................

157. What must you do when you see a red light?

........................................................................................

158. When must you cross the street?

........................................................................................

159. Do you have to go to school on Sundays?

........................................................................................

160. Do you have to wear uniforms on Saturdays?

........................................................................................

161. Could you speak English when you were ten?

........................................................................................

162. What were you doing while your teacher was telling the story?

.......................................................................................

163. What are the public holidays in Turkey?

........................................................................................

164. What are the religious holidays in Turkey?

........................................................................................

165. When are the public holidays?

........................................................................................

166. When are the religious holidays in Turkey this year?

........................................................................................

167. Is champagne made in Spain?

........................................................................................

168. Are shops closed during the weekend in Turkey?

........................................................................................

169. Is leather used for making ( to make ) clothes?

........................................................................................

170. Are apples eaten for breakfast?

........................................................................................

171. What time of the year is the semester holiday in Turkey?

........................................................................................

172. What happens if you heat ice?

........................................................................................

173. What kind of music do you like?

........................................................................................

174. When do you generally drink coffee?

........................................................................................

175. What do you say at the start of a meal?

........................................................................................

176. Do you usually use a spoon or a fork?

........................................................................................

177. What is celebrated on 29th October?

........................................................................................

178. Are you interested in learning languages?

........................................................................................

179. What are you like?

........................................................................................

180. What do you like to do at weekends?

........................................................................................

181. Where are you now?

........................................................................................

182. Where were you, your parents and friends at seven o’clock last night?

........................................................................................

183. What was the name of your best friend at primary school?

........................................................................................

184. What was your best song last year?

........................................................................................

185. Which river is longer, the Nile or the Mississippi?

........................................................................................

186. Who is more handsome Yavuz Bingöl or Kayahan?

........................................................................................

187. Do you intend to go to university?

........................................................................................

188. What kind of school can you go after secondary school in Turkey?

........................................................................................

189. What books have you read lately?

........................................................................................

191.What’s your profession?

........................................................................................

192.How can I go to city centre?

........................................................................................

193. What’s the date today?

........................................................................................

194.How will the weather be during the week?

........................................................................................

195.What’s the temperature today?

........................................................................................

196.May I help you?

........................................................................................

197.Who prepared the test items?

........................................................................................

198.Had the girls ever done any thing like that before?

........................................................................................

199.What did your mother tell you to do this morning ?

........................................................................................

200.Where have you been?

........................................................................................

201.At what age do children go to school in Turkey?

........................................................................................

202.What can the teenagers do when they graduate from high school?

........................................................................................

203.How many terms are there in a school year?

........................................................................................

204.Is your school a state school or a private school?

........................................................................................

205.What is the current inflation rate in Turkey?

........................................................................................

206.What is the state of economy at the moment?

Is it strong? Is it in recession?

........................................................................................

207.If you won $ 1.000 million from the lottery,

What would you do with the money?

........................................................................................

208.What does your job involve?

........................................................................................

209. Is there a speed limit on motorways?

........................................................................................

210.How many lanes do the motorways usually have in Turkey?

........................................................................................

211.Does your flat have a view of the countryside?

........................................................................................

212.If you live in a flat, what floor is it on?

........................................................................................

213.Who is your oldest friend?

........................................................................................

214.Is ‘Ayşe’ a common name in Turkey?

........................................................................................

215.Why do you want to learn English?

........................................................................................

216.Did your classmate have an interesting weekend?

........................................................................................

217.Do you like public transportation?

........................................................................................

218.Do you know how to dance?

........................................................................................

219.What are the best jobs?

........................................................................................

220.What’s on at the movies?

........................................................................................

221.What do you think of unusual pets?

........................................................................................

222.Who would you like as a roommate?

........................................................................................

223.How do accidents happen?

........................................................................................

224.Would you like to have an interesting summer job?

........................................................................................

225.What kind of person do you like?

........................................................................................

226.What are your favourite TV programs?

........................................................................................

227.How much do you know about cities?

........................................................................................

228.How much do your classmates know about villages?

........................................................................................

229.How much do you know about famous people?

........................................................................................

230.Do you have a health diet?

........................................................................................

231.Do you watch news on TV?

........................................................................................

232.Do you read a morning or an evening newspaper?

........................................................................................

238.How many TV channels do you have?

........................................................................................

239.Is satellite TV popular in Turkey?

........................................................................................

240.How many hours of TV do you watch every day?

........................................................................................

241.What are your favourite TV programmes?

........................................................................................

242.What is the code for Britain if you phone from Turkey?

........................................................................................

243.How much of TL is there in a U. S. Dollar?

........................................................................................

244.How many U. S. Dollars are there in a pound at the moment?

........................................................................................

245.What were you good at at school?

........................................................................................

246.Do you belong to any clubs?

........................................................................................

247.What day will it be the day after tomorrow?

........................................................................................

248.When do people get married? Which day? Which month(s)?

........................................................................................

249.What is in fashion now?

........................................................................................

250.How many yen to the pound at the moment?

........................................................................................

REVIEW OF THE GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES

( 280. Read the following sentences and state what grammatical

structures they belong to and the page they are mentioned:

| ( this sentence is correct |

| ( this sentence is incorrect |

( The prettiest girl in our class with long brown hair and brown eyes.

( The prettiest girl in our class has long brown hair and brown eyes.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Sam almost always a lot of fun.

( Sam is always a lot of fun.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( He wanted speak with Mr. Brown

( He wanted to speak with Mr. Brown

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( They didn’t plan buying a car.

( They didn’t plan to buy a car.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She is considering not to buy.

( She is considering not buying.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She is likely knowing.

( She is likely to know.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( We can’t help to wonder why she left.

( We can’t help wondering why she left.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( I have been looking forward to meet you.

( I have been looking forward to meeting you.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( We wouldn’t mind to wait.

( We wouldn’t mind waiting.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The streets are wet; it should have rained last night.

( The streets are wet; it must have rained last night.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Bob is absent; he must have been sick again(now).

( Bob is absent; he must be sick again (now).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Do you know to type?

( Do you know how to type?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( He was used to drink too much.

( He used to drink too much.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( You had better to hurry if you don’t want to miss the bus.

( You had better hurry if you don’t want to miss the bus.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She told me that she’d rather not to serve on the committee.

( She told me that she’d rather not serve on the committee.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( If you don’t mind, I’d rather not going.

( If you don’t mind, I’d rather not go.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( George would rather has a Pepsi than a beer.

( George would rather have a Pepsi than a beer.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( I’d rather that you don’t do that.

( I’d rather that you didn’t do that.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Would you please don’t smoke.

( Would you please not smoke.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She made the baby to take a nap.

( She made the baby take a nap.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She let us to write a paper instead of taking a final exam.

( She let us write a paper instead of taking a final exam.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Her husband always helps her that she does the laundry.

( Her husband always helps her (to) do the laundry.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( I can’t go I don’t get my work finished.

( I can’t go unless I get my work finished.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The doctor suggested that she will not smoke.

( The doctor suggested that she not smoke.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( I propose that the vote is secret ballot.

( I propose that the vote be secret ballot.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She recommended that he studied more before enrolling at the university.

( She recommended that he study more before enrolling at the university.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( He requires that everyone has his car checked at least once a year.

( He requires that everyone have his car checked at least once a year.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She insisted that they would give her a receipt.

( She insisted that they give her a receipt.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She ignored the suggestion that she gets more exercise.

( She ignored the suggestion that she get more exercise.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( He complied with the requirement that all graduate students in education should write a thesis.

( He complied with the requirement that all graduate students in education write a thesis.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The committee refused the request that the prerequisite shall be waived.

( The committee refused the request that the prerequisite be waived.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The terrorist’s demand that the airline provides a plane will not be met by the deadline.

( The terrorist’s demand that the airline provide a plane will not be met by the deadline.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She regretted not having followed his advisor’s recommendation that he dropping the class.

( She regretted not having followed his advisor’s recommendation that he drop the class.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( It is not necessary that you must take an exam for that.

( It is not necessary to take an exam for that.

( It is not necessary that you take an exam for that.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( It is essential that all applications are filed no later than July 1.

( It is essential to file all applications no later than July 1.

( It is essential that all applications be filed no later than July 1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Erdal has studied hard the succeed.

( Erdal has studied hard to succeed.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( I asked him who he was calling.

( I asked him whom he was calling.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Did you meet the girl whom was chosen Homecoming Queen?

( Did you meet the girl who was chosen Homecoming Queen?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( I hope that I can lose about five pound before summer.

( I hope that I can lose about five pounds before summer.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The happiness means different things to different people.

( Happiness means different things to different people.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( He will receive special honour at the graduation.

( He will receive a special honour at the graduation.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She needs to find a work.

( She needs to find work.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( A war is as old as mankind.

( War is as old as mankind.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Ankara has bad a weather.

( Ankara has bad weather.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( A news was released about the hostages.

( News was released about the hostages.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( A mail travels faster when the zip code is indicated on the envelope.

( A piece of mail travels faster when the zip code is indicated on the envelope.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( We saw several kind of birds at the wildlife preserve.

( We saw several kinds of birds at the wildlife preserve.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Shoplift is considered a serious crime.

( To shoplift is considered a serious crime.

( Shoplifting is considered a serious crime.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Writing of letters is an art.

( The writing of letters is an art.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She will win is almost certain.

( That she will win is almost certain.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( That is not fair seems obvious.

( That it is not fair seems obvious.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( There is not reason to worry.

( There is no reason to worry.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Some of the parking space at the back are empty.

( Some of the parking spaces at the back are empty.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( One of the reason is to add fiber to your diet.

( One of the reasons is to add fiber to your diet.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The letter was short because there wasn’t many news.

( The letter was short because there wasn’t much news.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She speaks a little German.

( She speaks little German.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Only few people were at the reception.

( Only a few people were at the reception.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The lab has a large number of equipment.

( The lab has a large amount of equipment.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Do we have hamburgers enough as for the party?

( Do we have enough hamburgers as for the party?

( Do we have hamburgers enough for the party?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Billy isn’t enough old to enlist in the army.

( Billy isn’t old enough to enlist in the army.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( One test on Friday is difficult and other is easy.

( One test on Friday is difficult and the other is easy.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Some people finish in four years and other take five years.

( Some people finish in four years and other people take five years.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( We left before the beginning of act third.

( We left before the beginning of the third act.

( We left before the beginning of act three.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Put the mail on the hall’s table.

( Put the mail on the hall table.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She is such nice girl that everyone likes her.

( She is such a nice girl that everyone likes her.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( It was so interesting book that he couldn’t put it down.

( It was such an interesting book that he couldn’t put it down.

( It was so interesting a book that he couldn’t put it down.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( It is so nice weather that I would like to go to the beach.

( It is such nice weather that I would like to go to the beach.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The top shelf in the cupboard is so high for me to reach.

( The top shelf in the cupboard is too high for me to reach.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( This house has too small rooms.

( This house has very small rooms.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The wild flowers smell so sweetly.

( The wild flowers smell so sweet.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The car is almost the same like mine.

( That car is almost the same as mine.

( That car and mine are almost the same.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( These suits are like.

( This suit is like that suit.

( These suits are alike.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Is this thread the same colour the cloth?

( Is this thread the same colour as the cloth?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( This one is prettier, but it costs twice more than the other one.

( This one is prettier, but it costs twice as much as the other one.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( We expect as much as thirty people.

( We expect as many as thirty people.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Of all candidates, Alex is probably the less qualified.

( Of all candidates, Alex is probably the least qualified.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The louder he shouted, less he convinced anyone.

( The louder he shouted, the less he convinced anyone.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The time in New York City differs three hours from Los Angeles.

( The time in New York City differs three hours from that of Los Angeles.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( He qualifications are better than any other candidate.

( His qualifications are better than those of any other candidate.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The choice is between a vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry ice cream cone.

( The choice is among a vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry ice cream cone.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Is Domino’s Pizza in Tenth Street?

( Is Domino’s Pizza on Tenth Street?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Antalya is in the south coast of Turkey.

( Antalya is on the south coast of Turkey.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Beside Domino’s, four other pizza places deliver.

( Besides Domino’s, four other pizza places deliver.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( All of the group exception Barbara went to the lake.

( All of the group but Barbara went to the lake.

( All of the group except Barbara went to the lake.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( You can get a discount on a lot of things, such groceries, toiletries, and household items.

( You can get a discount on a lot of things, such as groceries, toiletries, and household items.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( In spite the delay, they arrived on time.

( Despite the delay, they arrived on time.

( In spite of the delay, they arrived on time.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The car is really hot from to sit in the sun all day.

( The car is really hot from sitting in the sun all day.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( You can win by to practice.

( You can win by practising.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She speaks both English as well as Spanish at home.

( She speaks both English and Spanish at home.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Not only her parents but her brothers and sisters also live in İzmir.

( Not only her parents but also her brothers and sisters live in İzmir.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( It is not the money only the principle that makes me angry.

( It is not the money but the principle that makes me angry.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( We are going to the concert, and so do they.

( We are going to the concert, and so are they.

( We are going to the concert, and they are too.

( We are going to the concert, and they are also.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She is not in agreement, and neither do I.

( She is not in agreement, and neither am I.

( She is not in agreement, and I’m not either.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She borrowed the money so she could finish her education.

( She borrowed the money so that she could finish her education.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Please do exact as your doctor says.

( Please do exactly as your doctor says.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Let’s have lunch sometimes.

( Let’s have lunch sometime.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Never again they will stay in that hotel.

( Never again will they stay in that hotel.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Once that a clerk in a grocery store, Helen is now a policewoman.

( Once a clerk in a grocery store, Helen is now a policewoman.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Although they used to write each other every day, they are not longer exchanging letters.

( Although they used to write each other every day, they are no longer exchanging letters.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( I plan to move as soon as I will find another apartment.

( I plan to move as soon as I find another apartment.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Wholly, we are in agreement.

( As a whole, we are in agreement.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( I thought that he is coming today.

( I thought that he was coming today.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( He told his students that there 10.000 species of ferns.

( He told his students that there are 10.000 species of ferns.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Between one thing and another, Charles does not finish typing his paper last night.

( Between one thing and another, Charles did not finish typing his paper last night.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The guest of honour, along with his wife and two sons, were seated at the first table.

( The guest of honour, along with his wife and two sons, was seated at the first table.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Either of these buses go past the university.

( Either of these buses goes past the university.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Twenty dollars are the price.

( Twenty dollars is the price.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( I haven’t seen my cousins, now a young woman, for many years.

( I haven’t seen my cousins, now young women, for many years.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( After finishing his speech, the audience was invited to ask questions.

( After finishing his speech, he invited the audience to ask questions.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( To protect yourself from the dangerous exposure to the sun’s rays, using a sun screen.

( To protect yourself from the dangerous exposure to the sun’s rays, use a sun screen.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Mary had always behaved in a responsible manner.

( Mary had always behaved responsibly.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Steve he plans to go into business with his father.

( Steve plans to go into business with his father.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( The cost of living has raised 3 percent in the past year.

( The cost of living has risen 3 percent in the past year.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( She needs to rise her grades.

( She needs to raise her grades.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Her coat was laying on the chair.

( Her coat was lying on the chair.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Their house sets on a hill overlooking a lake.

( Their house sits on a hill overlooking a lake.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( Would you please borrow me your pen?

( Would you please lend me your pen?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to mention the family members of mine for their patience,

encouragement and unique addings during the preparation of this book;

Meryem, Erdal and Serdal.

I would like to extend my special thanks to Olimpiyat English, Ender

Şimşek, Yusuf Tulgar and our assistant Gevher Gökçe for their kind help,

and Brian Krueger and Mostafa Rmouch who kindly and patiently read

and made invaluable remarks. Yıldıray Karaarslan who first encouraged me to prepare such a resource and exercise book.

|‘s 45 |

|a couple 58 |

|a few 58 |

|a little 58 |

|a lot of 58 |

|a/an 30 |

|abbreviations 382 |

|acknowledgement 445 |

|adjective 14 ( 64 |

|adjective order 64 |

|adverb 14 ( 68 |

|adverb clauses 301 |

|all 342 |

|alphabet 13 |

|already 141 |

|already 308 |

|also 335 |

|although 325 |

|always 95 |

|am 110 |

|American spelling 357 |

|and yet 325 |

|animals 383 |

|answer 14 |

|any 55 |

|apostrophe 411 |

|are 110 |

|aren’t I? 203 |

|article 30 |

|as ..as 72 |

|as 77(309 |

|as 77 |

|as if 312 |

|as long as 310 |

|as soon as 309 |

|at 166 |

|at the moment 111 |

|barely .. when 316 |

|basic expression 12 |

|be 83 |

|be able to 179 |

|be accustomed to 199 |

|be to 197 |

|because 317 |

|because of the fact that 319 |

|been 144 |

|body 373 |

|both…and 333 |

|but then 318 |

|by 167 |

|by tomorrow 157 |

|can 183 |

|can’t help 352 |

|cardinal number 16 |

|ordinal number 16 |

|causative verbs 231 |

|cleft sentences 277 |

|clothes 365 |

|colon 411 |

|comma 411 |

|comparative adjectives 71 |

|compound nouns 29 |

|conditional 257 |

|confusing words 414 |

|conjunctions 292 |

|connective relative clauses 285 |

|continuous passive 230 |

|could 188 |

|could have 201 |

|countable 60 |

|countries 87(366 |

|crime and justice 366 |

|customs 367 |

|daily life 367 |

|dare 194 |

|date 22 |

|day 21 |

|defining relative clauses 274 |

|degrees of certainty 351 |

|derivatives 389 |

|despite 328 |

|determiner 342 |

|dialogue 14 |

|did 119(126 |

|different from 73 |

|do 126 |

|do 126(363 |

|double possessive 52 |

|double comparative 73 |

|due to the fact that 319 |

|each 342 |

|education 368 |

|either ..or 336 |

|enough-too 348 |

|environmental issues 369 |

|even if 317 |

|ever word 347 |

|every 340 |

|except for-except for the fact that 325 |

|exception 32 |

|exclamation mark 319 |

|exclamations 353 |

|fairly 313 |

|family –friends 369 |

|food-drink 370 |

|for 141 |

|full stop 411 |

|future with present continuous 115 |

|future with simple present 108 |

|future with time clauses 135 |

|generally 95 |

|geographical features 370 |

|gerund 209 |

|get 227(359 |

|get accustomed to 199 |

|get used to 199 |

|going to future 132 |

|gone 144 |

|government 375 |

|grammar review 429 |

|had 148 |

|had better 196 |

|hardly 141 |

|hardly..when 316 |

|have 363 |

|have got-has got 37 |

|have to 188 |

|have-has 140 |

|have-has got to 188 |

|health 371 |

|he-him-his-himself 43 |

|house 371 |

|how 89 |

|how many 58 |

|how much 58 |

|however 327 |

|hyphen 411 |

|idioms 384 |

|if 257(319 |

|if only 264 |

|immediately 316 |

|imperative 161 |

|I-my-mine-myself 43 |

|in 166 |

|in as much as 317 |

|in case 319 |

|in definitive pronouns 53 |

|in order to 317 |

|in spite of 328 |

|in the event that 319 |

|in view of the fact that 319 |

|infinitive 210 |

|introductory verbs 240 |

|inversion 291 |

|irregular verbs 401 |

|is 110 |

|it’s no use 352 |

|it’s time 352 |

|it’s worth 352 |

|it-its-itself 43 |

|just 141 |

|just 308 |

|last 118 |

|leaving out relative clauses 287 |

|leisure 372 |

|let 161 |

|let alone 308 |

|let’s 350 |

|like 77 |

|likely 308 |

|linking words 293 |

|liquid measure 412 |

|little 58 |

|lots of 58 |

|made of 362 |

|make 362 |

|managed to 196 |

|many 58 |

|may 183 |

|may have 201 |

|meanwhile 318 |

|media 373 |

|might 183 |

|might have 201 |

|mixed reported speech 249 |

|modal auxiliaries 179 |

|month 21 |

|much 58 |

|multiple word preposition 164 |

|must 188 |

|must have 201 |

|nationalities 368 |

|need to 195 |

|needn’t 190 |

|needn’t have 202 |

|neither …nor 339 |

|neither 344 |

|never 95 |

|next 157 |

|no 345 |

|no 55 |

|no matter 327 |

|non(continuous verbs 111 |

|non-defining relative clauses 279 |

|none 345 |

|nor 340 |

|not quite 314 |

|not only..but also 330 |

|not unless 319 |

|noun 24 |

|noun 14 |

|noun clauses 289 |

|now 111 |

|now that 319 |

|object pronoun 43 |

|of 45 |

|off 167 |

|often 95 |

|on 166 |

|on 167 |

|on account of the fact that 318 |

|once 319 |

|one and only 320 |

|one-ones 52 |

|one-ones-oneself 43 |

|only a few 58 |

|only if 317 |

|only to 318 |

|only too 318 |

|onto 171 |

|order of adverbs 68 |

|ought to 191 |

|owing to the fact that 319 |

|paragraph 14 |

|participle adjectives 68 |

|participles 298 |

|passive 219 |

|passive infinitive 230 |

|past continuous 128 |

|past modals 200 |

|past perfect 148 |

|phrasal verbs 397 |

|phrase 14 |

|physical appearance 375 |

|plural 14 |

|politics 375 |

|possessive pronoun 45 |

|preposition 163 |

|preposition 14 |

|present continuous 110 |

|present perfect 140 |

|present simple 94 |

|probably 308 |

|pronouns 43 |

|proverbs 404 |

|provide-providing that 321 |

|punctuation marks 411 |

|quantifier 60 |

|question 14 |

|question mark 411 |

|quite 313 |

|quotation mark 411 |

|rather 314 |

|rather than 314 |

|reducing adverb clauses 301 |

|reflexive pronoun 32 |

|relative clauses 267 |

|relative clauses of |

|time, place, reason 285 |

|religions 376 |

|reported command 243 |

|reported questions 239 |

|reported speech 237 |

|s’ 45 |

|say 359 |

|scarcely …when 316 |

|scarcely 144 |

|season 21 |

|seeing that 317 |

|seldom 95 |

|semicolon 411 |

|sentence 14 |

|shall 134 |

|shan’t 134 |

|she-her-hers-herself 43 |

|shops 376 |

|should 191 |

|simple future 134 |

|simple past 117 |

|since 141 |

|since 167 |

|since 308(319 |

|singular 24 |

|so … as 72 |

|so …that/such ..that 305 |

|so 340 |

|social situations 377 |

|society 375 |

|some-somebody 55 |

|sometimes 95 |

|still 310 |

|subject pronoun 43 |

|superlative adjectives 74 |

|suppose 321 |

|table of length 412 |

|tag question 203 |

|take 363 |

|telephone 18 |

|tell 359 |

|tenses 83 |

|than 71 |

|that 287 |

|the 34 |

|the same as 61 |

|the possessive 45 |

|there is/are 40 |

|they-them-their-theirs-themselves 43 |

|this-that-these-those 26 |

|till 169 |

|time 20 |

|tomorrow 134(157 |

|too 335 |

|town facilities 377 |

|traditions 367 |

|transport 378 |

|travel 378 |

|triple dots 411 |

|uncountable 60 |

|uncountable nouns 28 |

|unique 318 |

|unless 319 |

|until 167 |

|until 308 |

|used to 197 |

|usually 95 |

|verb 14 |

|verb+preposition combination 165 |

|was 128 |

|weather 379 |

|weights table 412 |

|were 128 |

|we-us-our-ours-ourselves 43 |

|Wh- questions 88 |

|what .. (be) sb like 90 |

|what … look like 90 |

|what 88 |

|where 88 |

|whereas 326 |

|whether or not 324 |

|which 88 |

|while 318 |

|who 88 |

|whose 52 |

|whose 52(276 |

|why 88 |

|will 134 |

|wish clauses 262 |

|won’t 134 |

|word order 297 |

|work 379 |

|would like 349 |

|would rather 351 |

|would you mind 350 |

|would-used to-will 200 |

|yet 142 |

|yet 310 |

|you-your-yours-yourself 43 |

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. J. Thomson and A.V.Martinet: A Practical English Grammar 1976,

Murphy: English Grammar in Use.

Oxford Advanced Learners’s Dictionary

Swan and Walter: How English Works

Michael Vince: Intermediate Language Practice.

McCarty ( O. Dell: English Vocabulary in Use

The Heinemann TOEFL Preparation Course

E.Moutsou ( S.Parker: Enter the World of Grammar

Michael Vince: First Certificate Language Practice

Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms

Oxford Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs

Betty Schrampfer Azar: Fundamentals of English Grammar

Caroll Washington Pollock: Communicate what you mean

E.Walker ( S.Elsworth: Grammar Practice

ANSWER KEY

1. İsim ( fiil ( sıfat ( zarf ( edat ( çoğul ( sözcük grubu ( cümle ( paragraf ( diyalog ( cevap.

2. h(i(f(a(c(d(g(b

3. 1. phrase 2. sentence 3. question 4. sentence 5. phrase 6. noun, singular 7. verb 8. preposition 9. sentence 10.question 11. answer 12. paragraph 13. dialogue 14. adverb 15. plural

4. twenty(seven / fifteen / forty(two / eighty(nine/ twenty(three/forty(four/ ninety / ninety(nine / thirty(nine / seventy(one / ninety(one / fifty(five/ ten / fifty(three

5. 21(89(7( 32(66(90(40(50

6. eleventh / forty(third / seventeenth / forty(second / eighty(ninth / twenty(seventh / seventy(first / twenty(sixth

7. 63rd / 97th / 33rd / 5th / 72nd / 89th / 1st / 4th

8. 1881 ( eighteen eighty(one / 1213 ( twelve thirteen/ 2001( twenty oh and one / 1961( nineteen sixty ( one/ 1903( nineteen oh and three

9. 1 ( It’s six o’clock 2( It’s half past eight 3. It’s a quarter to five. 4( It’s a quarter past twelve.

10. 1. Yes, it is. 2. April is the fourth month. 3. October is the next month. 4. Yes, it is. 5. No, it isn’t. It’s the fifth month.

11. The first of September / 14 March / the twelfth of September / 6 May / the twenty ( ninth of May / 11 May / the twenty ( sixth of July / 23 April / the eleventh of August.

12. birds ( Spoons ( cameras ( newspapers ( cups ( telephones ( bananas ( books ( chairs.

13. lorries ( families ( dictionaries

14. addresses ( watches ( churches ( waitresses ( sandwiches ( beaches ( dishes ( dresses

15. feet ( geese ( fish

16. wives ( leaves ( hooves ( handkerchiefs ( lives ( calves ( halves

17. two pairs of socks / two bottles of milk / two glasses of milk / two slices of bread

18. 2. These 3. These 4. These 5.This 6.these 7.those 8.This 9.Those

19. 2. No, it isn’t 3.That is a boy. 4.They are nurses 5.They’re newspapers

20. 2.She’s a nurse. 3.They’re radios 4.They’re houses 5.They’re apples.

21. 2.What are these? 3.What’s this? 4.What are these?

5. What are these/those? 6.What are these/those? 7.What’s this?

8.What are these? 9.What are these? 10.What’s this?

22. N + N / (ing+N / (ing+N / N+N / N+Preposition / adjective+N / N+N / (ing+N / N+N / (ing+N / (ing+N / (ing+N / N+N / N+N / Adj+N / Adj+N / Adj+N

23. 1.∅, ∅, ∅ 2. the 3.a 4. ∅ 5. the 6. the 7. the 8. ∅,a, 9. ∅ 10. the

24. 1.an 2.a 3.a 4.a 5.a 6.a 7.a 8.an 9.a 10.a 11.a 12.a 13.a 14.a 15.a 16.a 17.an 18.a 19.an 20.a

25. 2. ∅ 3. ∅ 4. the 5. ∅ 6. ∅, ∅ 7. ∅ 8. ∅ 9. ∅ 10.the

26. 1.a 2.a 3.the/the 4.the 5.the 6.a 7.the 8.a 9.the 10.the/the 11.the 12. ∅ - an 13.A 14.the 15. ∅ 16.a 17.the 18.the 19.the/the 20.the

27. 2.have got 3.has got 4.’s got 5.’ve got 6.’s got 7.’s got 8.Has-got 9.Have(got 10.have –got 11.have-got 12. has-got 13. Has 14.Have 15.have got

28. 2.She’s got seven gold fish. 3.It’s got a yellow kite. 4.They’ve got a new car. 5.It’s got a big house.

29. 2.Is there 3.There are 4.There is 5.Are there 6.There are 7.There are 8.There are 9.Is there 10. There is

30. 2.Yes, there are. 3.Yes, there is. 4.No,there isn’t / Yes, there is. 5.Yes, there are.

31. 2.There is a bottle of milk on the counter

3. There are a lot of bookstores in Ankara.

4. There are sixty universities in Turkey.

5. There are five apples in the basket.

32. 2.There are a lot of lakes in Turkey.

3.True

4.There isn’t a long river in Konya.

5.There weren’t millions of people in Ankara one thousand years ago.

6.True

7.True

8.True/There aren’t thirty students in this classroom.

9.There wasn’t a war between Turkey and Greece in 1974.

10.True

33. 2.our/ours 3.your/mine(yours 4.his(her 5.my/theirs 6.our/theirs/their

34. 2.your 3.our/yours 4.ours/theirs 5.my/her 6.his/hers

35. 2. Last week’s problems haven’t all been solved.

3.The children’s toys are all broken.

4.Your friends’ clothes are all over there.

36. 2.His 3.Our 4.His 5.their 6.Its 7.your 8.your 9.It 10.She

37. Hadiye(Fadime(Baki(Meryem(Sevil(Serdal

38. nephew(cousin(cousin(grandmother(grandfather(uncle(aunt

39. 2.S/O 3. S/O 4. S/O 5. O 6. S/O 7. S/O 8.S/O

40. 2.Their 3.It 4.We 5.His 6.Their 7.his 8.yours(Mine 9.her 10.She

41. 2.his 3.theirs 4.ours 5.theirs 6.its 7.yours 8.mine 9.hers 10.mine

42. 2.your 3.his 4.our 5.its 6.my 7.their 8.her 9.his 10.their

43. 2.us 3.you 4.them 5.her 6.him 7.it

44. 1.one 2.one/one/one 3.one/one 4.ones 5.ones

45. 1.one 2.ones 3.some/any 4. any(some)/any 5.everybody 6.Everything 7.everybody/someone 8.anything/everything 9.no one 10.Everything 11.Everyone 12.anything/anything 13.anyone 14.anyone(someone) 15. someone(anyone)/No one 16.nothing/something 17.somewhere/nowhere 18.something/nothing/one 19.Someone 20.No one

46. 2.Someone 3.anything 4.anyone 5.anywhere 6.somewhere 7. No one 8.anyone 9.no one 10. something 11.nothing 12. anyone 13. anything 14.Nobody 15.anything

47. 2.any/some 3.any 4.some 5.some/any 6.some/any 7.some/any 8.some 9.some/any 10.some

48. 2.No, there aren’t any eggs in the fridge. (Yes,there are.) 3.Yes, there is. 4.No, there aren’t 5.Yes, there are.

49. 2.any 3.a 4.a 5.some/any

50. 2.any 3.some 4.plenty of 5.a few 6.many 7.many 8.few 9.many 10.little

51. 2.many 3.much 4.many 5.much 6.many 7.many 8.much 9.much 10.many

52. 2.How much 3.Few 4.Little 5.How many/Many 6.Little 7.only a little/a few 8.only a little 9.few 10. Only a little

53. 2.How many 3.How many 4.How many 5.How much 6.How many 8.How much 9.How much 10.How many

54. 2.A smart blue American sports car.

3.A small new black paper bag

4.Five French plastic armchairs

5.Fine sparkling Turkish wine

55. All are true

56. Opinion / Quality(Colour(Origin(Material(Purpose

57. 1.boring 2.interesting 3.boring 4.confused 5. exciting

58. 2.well 3.slow 4.dangerous 5.well 6.intelligent 7.patiently 8.angry 9.badly 10.loud

59. 2.good(well 3.carefully 4. beautiful/beautifully 5.soft pletely 7.easy/easily 8.slowly 9.beautiful 10.serious(seriously

60. 2.careful 3.quickly 4.slowly 5.slow 6.rapidly 7. permanent 8.permanently 9.foolishly 10.softly

61. 2.The older/the quieter 3.The warmer/the better 4.the more

62. 1.miserable 2.adaptable 3.ambitious 4.unreliable 5.anxious 6.intolerant 7.calm 8.impatient 9.talkative 10.friendly

63. more astonished/the most astonished

worse/the worst

cleaner/the cleanest

more confusing/the most confusing

64. 2.older than 3.bigger than 4.better than 5.easier than 6.more attractive than 7.more expensive than 8.more difficult than 9.younger than 10.better than

65. 2.the oldest 3.the coldest 4.the largest 5.the most comfortable 6.the most intelligent 7.the most attractive 8.the prettiest 9.the longest 10.the largest

66. 2.sooner than 3.earlier than 4.more frequently than 5.more bravely than

67. 2.so thoughtful 3.more modern 4.so well 5.more slowly 6.more beautifully 7.more expensive 8.hard 9.the oldest 10.the fastest

68. 2.are 3.am 4.is 5.am 6. is 7.are 8.is 9.Are 10.is 11.is 12.is 13.are 14.is 15.is 16.are 17.is 18.Is 19.are 20.am

69. 1. ... is the Prime Minister of Turkey now.

2. Atatürk was the first president of Turkish Republic.

3. Neil Armstrong was the first man who landed on the moon.

4. They were born in ...

5. I was with .....

70. 2. Are they cats? 3.Ayşe isn’t from Ankara.

4. Are you a nurse? 5.Is she happy?

6. Is he from Germany? 7.They are here.

8.They are bananas 9. Isn’t it a ruler?

10.We are not students.

71. 1.Yes, I am/No, I am not 3.Yes, it is 4.No, it isn’t 5.Yes, he is. 6.Yes, they are 8.No, he isn’t. 9.No, it isn’t 10.Yes, it is/No, it isn’t.

73. 1.a / 2.l / 3.e / 4.n / 5.i / 6.a / 7.c / 8.j / 9.f / 10.b / 11.m / 12.d / 13.k / 14.h.

74. 2.speaks 3.attend 4.travel 5.use 6.sits 7.works 8.prepares 9.watch 10.have

75. dresses / gets / hurries / lives / says / teaches / walks / works / comes / finishes / goes / joins / makes / stops / tries / washes / does / flies / has / leaves / meets / takes / wakes / watches.

76. 2. Jane goes to the cinema in her free time.

3. I don’t go to a club in my free time.

4. Pınar goes to a club in her free time.

5.Jane goes to a club in her free time.

6.I do some sport in my free time.

7.Pınar doesn’t do any sport in her free time.

77. Students’ own answers

78. 2.My son doesn’t like to study English.

3.They don’t speak German well.

4.The bus doesn’t leave at ten o’clock every morning.

5.I don’t make many mistakes in spelling.

6.She doesn’t know Turkish perfectly.

7.The child doesn’t play in the park every afternoon.

8.We don’t use many books for prep classes.

9.My father doesn’t want to visit his hometown.

10.We don’t need any fun in this school.

79. 2.Do the students meet in front of the school?

3.Does he smoke a lot?

4.Do they sell newspapers there?

5.Does this book blong to him?

6.Do you speak English well?

7.Do you always take the red bus to school?

8.Do you go to the cinema once a month?

9.Does the shop close at eight o’clock in the evening?

10.Does it look like snow?

80. 1.Does my/your father go to bet at 10 o’clock?

2. I don’t study English at weekends.

I study English at weekends.

3.My mother cooks at home.

My mother doesn’t cook at home.

4.My English teacher doesn’t speak Turkish in class.

My English teacher speaks Turkish in class.

5.My brother doesn’t drink tea for breakfast.

Does my brother drink tea for breakfast?

6.The teachers smoke cigarettes at school.

Do the teachers smoke cigarettes at school?

7.We don’t do our homework at weekend.

Do we do our homework at weekend?

8. The boys don’t play football in the playground.

Do the boys play footbaall in the playground?

9.My father doesn’t read the newspaper in the evening.

Does my/your father read the newspaper in the evening?

10. We don’t listen to English songs in class.

Do we listen to English songs in class?

81. Students’ own answers

82. 2.goes 3.melts 4.eat 5.lives 6.closes 7.visits 8. comes 9.do 10.prefer 11.chooses 12.smokes 13.speak 14.obeys plain

83. 2.She always reads novels in her free time 3.True 4.True 5.True 6.She never watches TV at weekends, does she? 7.Mike always carries his umbrella in his bag. 8.The students often don’t do the shopping. 9.He never writes clearly. 10. Why doesn’t she wait for me on Wednesdays? 11. True 12.True 13.True 14.True 15.True

84. Student’s own answers.

85. Student’s own answers.

86. 1.lands 2.do you stay 3. does the journey to Berlin take? ( lasts

87. students own answers

88. 2.is watching 3.are dancing 4.is having 5.are sleeping 6.are having 7.is wearing 8.are preparing 9. is making 10. is cleaning

89. 2. aren’t 3.aren’t 4.am not 5. aren’t 6.aren’t 7.isn’t 8. isn’t 9.aren’t 10. isn’t

90. 1.She is wearing a long, blue coat, a green sweater, and dark red trousers.

2.Yes, she is / No, she isn’t wearing any shoes. 3.She is carrying some flowers. 4. No, she isn’t looking at him. 5. Because she is going to the cinema with him.

91. come(speak(serve(enjoy(is practising(am trying(get up ( work (finish(spend(hope.

92. 1.She is going to the cinema at seven p.m.

2. They are coming to visit their friends now.

3.We are trying to do our homework.

4.The cat is drinking milk at the moment.

5.What are you doing there?

93. 2.has 3.I’m leaving 4.I don’t understand 5.are being

94. 2.We are having dinner at 7.30 p.m.

3.I’m not going to the dentist until next month.

4.The new school is opening on 13th September.

5.Are you flying to İzmir tomorrow?

6.What time are they leaving Berlin?

7.She is having an English lesson tomorrow morning.

8. We are not playing football on Saturday.

9.He is coming for tea tomorrow afternoon.

10.I am meeting my parents at the bus stop.

95. 1. are (staying/stay 2.are you doing/am studying / do(live / share / do ( live / have 3.do ( do / are ( doing / work.

97. 1. are 2.was ( is 3. were (are 4.was 5.was(is

98. 2.studied 3.watched 4.visited 5.waited 6.rained 7.painted 8.listened 9.talked 10.posted

99. 2.They didn’t listen... 3.Pınar and I didn’t watch... 4.I didn’t study ... 5.She didn’t wait...

100. 2.ate 3 .left 4.bought 5.read

101. 2.Did you have...? 3.Did your father go...?

4. Did he return...? 5.Did you watch...?

102. 2.What did your brother do?

3.What did you listen to?

4.Where did they stay yesterday?

5.When did she walk to school?

6.What did you do together?

7. What did she eat yesterday morning?

8.When did you spend a lot?

9.Where did you stay?

10.What did she listen to with her girlfriend?

103. 2.True 3.Did you buy those magazines? 4.True 5.We didn’t borrow money from our parents

104. Students’ own answers.

105. Student’s own answers.

106. I finished primary school 1971

I started high school 1974

I finished high school 1977

I graduated from university 1981

I completed military service 1983

I got married 1983

We moved to Ankara 1985

107. Students’ own questions

108. discovered ( was ( seemed ( belonged ( told ( rode ( spent ( liked missed ( were ( joined

109. discover / be / seem / belong / tell / ride / spend / like / miss / be / join

110. 2.Yes, she was. 3. under her thick black hair

4.No, he didn’t 5.The author and his friend.

6.With Count and Countess. 7.The Count and Countess 8.For dinner 9.Forty 10. Yes, they did.

111. 2.He hurt his foot while he was climbing the ladder.

3. The gas was cut off as I was cooking the dinner.

4. They found your tie while they were sweeping the floor.

5. She was run over by a lorry as she was crossing the street.

6. My mother was doing the shopping when it started to rain.

7. Everybody was watching TV when the rocket was launched.

112. 2.Pınar was dancing. 3.The other boys were singing a song.

4. Erdal’s parents were watching TV in the living room.

5.Erdal’s cat was sitting on the sofa.

113. 2.was reading 3.was doing 4.was working 5. were studying

114. 2.were eating / saw 3.was studying/were listening

4. were living / started 5.got up / was shining

6. died / was working 7.got / were driving

8. was raining / left 9.happened / were travelling

10. fell / was getting

115. 2.was taking ( rang 3.didn’t see / missed

4. went 5.arrived / were waiting

116. 2.am going to meet 3.are going to help

4.Are(going to make 5.is going to look for

6. is going to live 7.are going to build

8. is going to rain 9.is going to buy 10. are going to move

117. 2. They’re not going to go to the party.

3. It’s going to rain.

4. He’s not going to play basketball.

5. I’m going to do my homework.

6. Are you going to do your homework?

7. They’re not going to visit their parents.

8. I’m going to write the letters.

9. Is she going to make a cake?

10. It’s going to eat its food.

118.2.will fly 3.will watch 4.will come 5.will study

119. 2.d 3.c 4.b 5.a

120. students’ own answers.

121. 2.are going to 3.it is going to be, it is going to be 4. will 5.will, will

122. 2. are you leaving 3.will she study. She won’t 4.will she meet. 5.will you be away 6.will they live. 7. will you move. 8. aren’t going to come 9.won’t 10. will

123. 2.will be working 3.will be making 4.will be travelling 5.will be raining

124. 2.have finished 3.has visited 4.have seen 5.have learnt 6.have been 7.has lost 8.has gone 9.have moved 10. have lived

125. 2. for 3.since 4.for 5.for 6.since 7.for 8.for 9.for 10.for

126. 2.have watched 3.have learnt 4.went 5.was 6.has read 7.started 8.did 9.has helped 10.began(ended

127. 2.hasn’t 3.hasn’t 4.haven’t 5.haven’t 6.hasn’t 7.haven’t 8.hasn’t 9.haven’t 10.hasn’t

128. Students’ own answers

129. 2.am reading es 4.have been reading 5.has been living 6. is raining 7. are listening

130. 2.How long have they been studying English?

3.My sons have been watching football on TV since seven o’clock.

4.My brothers have been living in Kdz.Ereğli for thirty years.

5.We have been working for hours.

6.They have been studying for a fortnight on their project.

7.I have been teaching for over twenty years.

8.How long have you been riding as a hobby?

9.Your roommate has been speaking on the phone for an hour.

10.Why has he been visiting them so often?

131. 2.After she had told me his name he left.

3.When they arrived the dinner had already begun.

4. When he was in Turkey he soon remembered all he had learnt.

5. We had learnt English before we left for New Zealand.

6. I had wanted to see her again as soon as she left.

7.Did you post the letter after you had written it?

132. 2.The little boy asked what had happened to his bicycle.

3.I could not help thinking that I had seen them somewhere before.

4.It seemed ages since the ship had set off.

5.We worried a lot before we had heard that he was out of trouble.

133. 2.had had 3.had done 4.had left 5.had found 6.had left 7.had been 8.had met 9.had made 10.had taken

134. 2. the test had already started

3.had almost finished

4.had forgotten to write his name on the paper

5.had let him write his name on the paper

135. 2.Machines opened the roads and the cars served the people.

3.Heavy duty machines opened the roads because all the roads were damaged.

4.I arrived home too late so I had a late dinner.

5. I cleaned my teeth and then I went to bed.

136. had spent / was / mixed / kept on / seemed / had turned / left / was sitting / had to / is fixing / wondered / rang / entered.

137. 2. I had been waiting for her for over an hour when she rang me up.

3.They had walked in the park for an hour before they came home.

4.He had worked with his class since September when he learnt this.

138. 2.They had been learning English for nine months in May.

3. We had been investigating the event for thirty ( one months in May 1998.

4. I had been working for the Ministry for five years in 1990.

5.They had been fighting for the right to vote for 82 years in 1932.

139. was working / were not going / lost / were working / told / was / were / went / had worked / were / talked / heard / said / laughed / started / knew / had lost / had not develop / decided / bought / were / worked/ had / turned / have done / took on / was / have not regretted.

140. 2.the prime minister, the president, and their interpreters

3.had breakfast meeting, conference with presidential advisors,

4.Between 10:00 and 10:50.

5.They will be visiting an automobile factory.

6.visited an automobile factory, had a televised speech,...

7.for discussion of import(export needs of the two countries

8.A new trade agreement

9.Between 15:35 ( 16:00

10.No

11.17:00

12.Five

141. 2.will have studied 3.will have travelled

4.will have lived 5.will have slept

142. b.Shake hands! c.Fly the plane! d.Drive the car! e.Kick the ball!

143. 2.Buy expensive clothes! 3.Study in the evenings!

144. 2.Don’t come and help me!

3.Don’t take your umbrella!

4.Don’t go downstairs!

145.2.Leave home earlier!

3.Put on your coat!

4.Go to bed early!

146. 2.on 3.in 4.in 5.at 6.at/in 7.in 8.on 9.in 10.in 11.at/in 12.on 13.at 14.on 15.on 16.on 17.on 18.at 19.in 20. on 21.in 22.in 23.in 24.on 25.at

147.2.on 3.to 4.into 5.on/at 6.for 7.at/at 8.on 9.for/in 10.of 11.off 12.in/in 13.into/on 14.during/to 15.since

148. 2.from/at 3.to 4.at 5.at

149. 2.in 3.onto 4.on 5.off 6.off 7.on 8.on

150. 2.in 3.out of 4.into 5.out of

151. 2.at 3.at 4.from 5.at 6.to

152. 2.into 3.along 4.up 5.down 6.around/across 7.through 8.past 9.at 10.of 11.from 12.of 13.on 14.in(at(in 15.on 16.beside 17.across 18.in/of 19.on/under 20.in/next to

153.into ( along(up(down(a round(across(through(past(at(of

154. on(on(in(of(at(on(of(behind(of

155. 1.between two cars

2.beside YKM Kızılay

3.at YKM Kızılay

4.to the right of the building

5.next to Pompey’s

6.on the opposite side of YKM Kızılay

7.above the parking lot

8.below the YKM sign

9.on the right of the parking lot

10.behind the parking lot

156. Students will draw

157. ((((

158. 2.Serdal shouldn’t come tomorrow.

2.I can not swim

3.I should have passed the exam.

4.I will be able to go to the party.

5.He must be on leave.

6. I should have bought that record.

7.He can’t have been working.

8.Paul needn’t have washed the car.

9.I couldn’t do anything.

10.You must get an invitation.

11. He must have been obliged to drive very fast.

12.He might have been a thief.

13.She needn’t do the cooking.

14.I should learn English.

15.He might be a teacher.

159. Students’ own answers:

e.g. 1: Yes, I can.(speak English)

No, I can’t (speak English)

160. 2.permission 3.possibility 4.ability 5.possibility 6.permission 7.negative deduction 8.negative deduction. 9. negative deduction 10.permission

161. 2.can/can’t 3.can’t/can 4.can/can’t 5.can/can’t 6.can’t/can 7.can/can’t

162. 2.can 3.can’t 4.can’t 5.can 6.can’t 7.can’t 8.can’t 9.can 10.can

163. 2.Serdal can play basketball

3.Mary can cook.

4.Mary can play chess.

5.Bilgesu can swim.

164. 1.a)Who can eat three loaves of bread?

b) How many loaves of bread can she eat?

c) What can she do?

2.a) Who can speak two languages?

b) How many languages can Erdal and Serdal speak?

165. 1.Do you have to use special glasses to observe the eclipse?

2.She doesn’t have to read daily newspapers.

Does she have to read daily newspapers?

3. I dont’t have to go now.

Do you have to go now?

4.Gülay has to work for the state.

Does Gülay have to work for the state?

5.They have to read a lot.

Do they have to read a lot?

6.He didn’t have to leave the house early.

Did he have to leave the house early?

7.She didn’t have to help them.

She had to help them.

8.My mother doesn’t have to work all day.

My mother has to work all day.

9.I don’t have to go to school every day.

I have to go to school every day.

10.She doesn’t have to go and see what is going on.

Does she have to go and see what is going on?

166. Students’ own answers.

167. 2.must 3.must 4.mustn’t 5.must 6.must 7.mustn’t 8.must

168. 2.should 3.should 4.ought to/should 5.should

169. 2.At the age of nine, I could not write a letter.

3.Can you come and help me tonight?

4.She must save some money.

5.We must sign the book every morning.

6.You mustn’t tell anything about this. It must remain a secret.

7.Can the students smoke at school?

8.She will write to me soon.

9.I will learn a seventh language next year.

10.You should leave home at this age.

170. 2.to work 3.can’t find 4.to spend 5.can buy 6.may pass 7.can’t climb 8.can do 9.can’t understand 10.might die

171. 2.should 3.don’t have to 4.could 5.mustn’t 6.mustn’t 7.had to 8.needn’t 9.had to 10.must

172. 1.No. I daren’t stay out during the night.

2.No.She daren’t go to the cinema alone.

3.No.They daren’t watch TV all the time.

4.No.She daren’t drive my father’s car.

5.No.He daren’t stay out late.

173. 1.We had better take an umbrella.

2.You had better stay at home and relax.

3. You had better stay home

174. Students’ own answers.

175. 2.eating out 3.speaking English 4.pronouncing English words. 5.drinking white wine.

176. 2.Americans are accustomed to living abroad.

3.Turkish people are accustomed to buying big houses.

4.We are accustomed to working less and talk a lot.

5.They were accustomed to surviving without being paid regularly.

177. 2.We’re getting accustomed to living in big cities,.

3.She was getting accustomed to staying in the hostel.

178. 2.used to 3.would 4.would 5.used to

179. 2.He shouldn’t have spent too long in the sun.

3.They shouldn’t have eaten too much or they should have eaten less.

4.You shouldn’t have waited for them so long.

5. I should have come by car.

180. 1.I might have forgotten them at home.

2.We might have taken a taxi.

3.He might have been late.

4.The door could have been locked.

5.The girls could have been here.

181. 1.He must have been ill.

2.It must have rained a lot.

3.They can’t have come by bus.

4.She must have done it by mistake.

5.He must have been very angry.

182. 1.doesn’t she? 2.aren’t they? 3.isn’t she?

4. won’t he? 5.haven’t they? 6.doesn’t it? 7.does it?

8.didn’t you? 9.does she? 10.doesn’t he? 11.does she?

12.will he? 13.don’t you? 14.didn’t she? 15.should she?

16.didn’t we? 17.will we? 18.shall we? 19.have they?

20.can’t you? 21.wouldn’t you? 22.doesn’t he?

23.aren’t I? 24.usedn’t he? 25.is she?

183. 2.learning 3.travelling 4.to help 5.reading 6.having 7.seeing 8.looking after 9. to move 10. making 11.taking 12.being 13.to see 14. posting 15.drinking

184. 2.buying 3.being 4.to be 5.buying 6.to eat 7.talking 8.getting 9.raining 10.cleaning 11.to be 12.to look 13.to hear 14.to get 15.to contradict 16.visiting 17.to come 18.to tell 19.sleeping 20.riding 21.giving 22.working 23.being 24.having 25.taking 26.starting 27.seeing 28.to get 29.to leave 30.answering

185. 2.Çalıkuşu was written by Reşat Nuri Güntekin.

3.Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.

4.Gunpowder was invented by the Chinese.

5.Fiat cars are made in Italy.

6.America was discovered by Columbos.

7.The phyramids were built by the Pharaohs.

8.The atomb bomb was invented by the Americans.

9.The Blue Mosque was built by Süleyman the Magnificent.

10.The telephone was invented by Bell.

186. 2.These books are published in Great Britain.

3.The car is painted every year.

4.The head of the association was killed yesterday.

5.Jam is made from cherries.

187. 1.The newspapers are sent to the south of Anatolia by trucks.

2.The workers are paid a lot for the job.

3.Hundred of books are imported every year.

4.The letters were posted last week.

5.All the exercises are checked thoroughly.

6.The car was washed (by him) yesterday.

7.He was told the story again.

8.The meeting had been cancelled by the minister.

9.More than two hundred people were arrested last week.

10.Turkish Kilims are exported to many countries.

11. The food should be carried in a container.

12.My shoes are being mended (by her) at the moment.

13.This machine can be used after 4.30.

14.The applicants are being interviewed by the boss now.

15.Maths will be studied (by him) at the university.

188. 1.Has your homework been done?

2.Were all the jewels stolen by him himself?

3.Is the housework being done by her now?

4.What languages can be spoken here?

5.Were the letters being written?

6.Was A Midsummer Nights Dream written by Shakespeare?

7.Are clean towels provided by the hotel?

8.Will our room be cleaned by a maid?

9.Is Chinese spoken by a large number of people in China?

10.Was the cat killed by a bird?

11.Was the window broken by Erdal?

12.Is the car going to be mended by the mechanic?

13.Was İnce Memed written by Yaşar Kemal?

14.Was she ever hypnotised by anyone?

15.Were they confused by his directions?

16.Will the mail be delivered by someone tomorrow?

17.Where was your radio made?

18. When was the Bosphorus Bridge built?

19.Was the accident heard about?

20.Where was that tree cut?

21. Why was that composition being written?

22. Has backgammon ever been played?

23.Has milk to be drunk before you go to bed?

24.Were the necessary things being bought yesterday?

25.Have they been accepted by the university?

189. 2.are played 3.is spoken 4.is cleaned 5.is sold 6.is drunk 7.are not obeyed 8.are prepared 89.are used 10.are trained

190. 1.I was invited to dinner by my younger uncle?

2.The Turkish republic was founded by Mustafa Kemal.

3.An island is surrounded by water.

4.İnce Memed was written by Yaşar Kemal.

5.The instructor was embarrassed by their mistakes.

6.The letters are going to be answered by the secretary.

7.Chinese is spoken by a large number of people.

8.The baby has been examined by a sleepy doctor.

9.They will be disturbed by this news.

10.The petition has been signed by everybody.

11.Beer and wine are served by someone at the restaurant.

12.The meeting was cancelled by the Prime Minister.

13.Hammers are used to pound the nails by people.

14.That house was bought by my grandfather.

15.My radio was made in Germany.

16.The rubbish will be collected by no one tomorrow.

17.That composition was written by Pınar.

18.A new house is being built on Yunus Emre Street.

19.Afşin(Elbistan power plant was built by the Foster Wheeler Intercontinental Corporation.

20.The assignment must be done by all of the students.

21.My flat in Elvankent ought to be painted by someone.

22.The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.

23.Turkish is spoken in Turkey.

24.Rice is grown in India.

25.The ball was caught by the baseman.

191. 1.same 2.same 3.same 4.you are agreed with

5.An exam was announced by the professor.

6.same 7.same 8.same 9.same 10.same

192. 1.We’re supposed to be on time for class.

2.We’re supposed to read chapter 7 before class next week.

3.I was supposed to help with the housework yesterday, but I didin’t.

4.I am supposed to work late every day.

5.The plane is supposed to arrive before 11 p.m.

193. 1.She wants the housework to be finished.

2.We want that cottage to be rebuilt.

3.I expect that film to be seen.

4.My son wants his room to be painted.

5.They expect the car to be bought.

194.2(m:present cont./3(l: past simple / 4(k: past cont./ 5(j: future simple / 6(i: future cont. / 7(h: present perfect / 8(g: Present Perf.Cont. / 9(f: past perfect / 10(e: past perfect cont. / 11.d: past simple / 12(c: present simple / 13(b: necessity / 14.a: imperative.

195. 2.My father will have the long grass cut.

3.My sister will have the long dress shortened.

4.Jack will have the old house repaired.

5.My brother will have the dirty dishes washed.

196. 1.I will get my son to got to university.

2.I had the electrician mend the fuses.

3.They made them pay for the goods.

4.I made the customers come early.

5.She had the hairdresser cut her hair.

197. 2.She said ‘We need an early night’.

3.Kathy said, ‘We are both tired.’

4.She said, ‘I am listening to music.’

5.He said, ‘I haven’t seen them for years.’

6.She said ‘I did my homework yesterday.’

7.He said, ‘This will happen tomorrow.’

8.I said, ‘They can come to the party next week.’

9.She asked , ‘Do you have to come with us?’

10.They asked, ‘Where will you go tomorrow? ‘

11.She told him, ‘Go shopping!’

12.He told me, ‘Don’t forget me!’

13.She asked, ‘Have you been abroad before?’

14.He asked, ‘Did you have dinner together?’

15.They said, ‘We had lunch at home.’

198. 2.whose English was not good.

3.which boy they had caught.

199. 1.She says (that) she does not like this city.

2.She tells him that she will explain it to him.

3.The teacher tells his friend that his mother is going to get well soon.

4.She tells her that she hasn’t met these boys before.

5.She tells me that she always does the housework herself.

6.He tells him that it is not his car, his is red.

7.They tell them that they are learning English.

8.She tells me that she does not watch TV a lot.

9.He tells me that she doesn’t work on Sundays.

10.He says that he will help her.

200. 1. “Would you like a lift?”, he said.

2. “I will pay you ten million TL.”, he said.

3. “Don’t trust this man!”, she said.

4. “I will take a taxi.”, she said.

5. “I will ring when I get home.”, he said.

201. 1.Pınar said that it was wonderful.

2.Erdal said that it was cold.

3.He said it was a lovely day.

4.The girl with green eyes said it was a delicious meal.

5.The boy in the blue leather coat said it was dreadful.

202. 1.She asked if the girl was wearing them and said that they were really nice.

2.She asked me if I had read the story and said it was really interesting.

3.She asked me what time I would come and said she wouldn’t be there the following day.

4.She told me not to forget to bring my lunch and said I could not find anything to eat there.

5. She said that they had to be punctual and sad it was the second time they would be late.

203. 1.Ali said (that) he was sleepy.

2. Mrs. Beydilli said that that was a very expensive flat.

3.Bilgesu said she had already eaten lunch.

4.Deniz said he would call me the following day.

5.İnan said my pronunciation was very bad.

6.Bob said he couldn’t move until the end of the semester.

7.Tom asked me where I lived.

8.She asked me if I lived in a students’ hostel.

9.He admitted that he had stolen the money.

10.He asked me where Jane was.

11.She said she was going to quit school and get a job.

12.They asked her if she had mailed the letter.

13.He asked us what we were thinking about.

14.She said that she had to go to the chemist’s.

15.Ali told me that he couldn’t pick me up at the airport.

16.I told her that I would take a taxi.

17.She told us that we should speak English as much as possible.

18.Gülay asked me if I had already eaten lunch.

19.Safiye asked me what time I wanted to leave for home.

20.Serdal said he had made a mistake.

21.The teacher announced that the exam would be on the 10th of that month.

22.She said that she couldn’t and she had to study.

23.He asked where Özgür was and he was surprised he wasn’t there.

24.My friend said he thought I should take a long holiday.

25.My mother told me to make an appointment with the doctor.

204. 1.Mrs. Kent said her gums were very sore.

2.Mrs. Kent said that as she had been brushing her teeth the day before she had noticed that her gums had been bleeding.

3.Mrs Kent asked if there was anything wrong with them.

4.Mrs Kent asked how she could stop bleeding.

5.Mrs Kent asked what she should do.

6.Dentist told her not to panic.

7.Dentist told her that if she took his advice, she wouldn’t have any problems.

8.Dentist told her to buy a soft toothbrush and brush her teeth twice a day to keep her gums healthy.

9. Dentist told her that he would make an appointment for her the following week, so that he could remove the plaque that had built up and was causing her problems.

10. Mr Parker said that he had bad breath for the past year.

11. Mr Parker said that he brushed his teeth regularly.

12.Dentist asked him if he ate onions, garlic or food with lots of spices.

13.Dentist asked him if he smoked.

14.Mr Parker said that he did all those things.

15.Mayor said that they had evacuated the houses and asked what else they could do.

16.Mayor asked when help was coming and sad that they had been waiting for over two hours.

17.Mayor said that he wished they had had some help.

18. Fire Protection Officer said that the important thing was not to panic and added that help would arrive soon.

19.Mrs Coşkun asked why they didn’t invite Pınar to dinner that night.

20.My Geography teacher asked where Mount Everest was.

21.The robber told the girl that if she screamed, he would shoot.

22.The woman said that she had been standing in this queue for three hours.

23.His mother told Serdal that he would burn himself if he kept playing with matches.

24.Mrs Coşkun told Erdal that she was really sorry that she had waken him up that morning.

25.Mrs Coşkun said that she was going on a business trip and asked if I would mind looking after her house while she was away.

205. 2.doesn’t pass 3.will buy 4.will complain 5.will visit / go 6.will lend/asks 7.are 8.will stay 9.will come/invite 10.will ask/have

206. 1.If you asked me for tickets, I could buy you a few.

2.I would not marry her if I knew what she was like.

3.I would visit you in jail if I knew you were there.

4.I could give you a lift if my car wasn’t broken down.

5.If you were born a year earlier, you wouldn’t have to do military service.

207. 1.Falls/freezes 2.gets/call 3.doesn’t work 4.boils/changes 5.fill/rises

208.1.stayed/would be 2.will take 3.saw 4.stopped 5.ate

209. 1.would have come 2.invited 3.hadn’t given 4.had phoned 5.had stayed.

210. 1.If the weather was nice, we could have the picnic.

2.If I had time, I could go.

3.If the countryside wasn’t wet and it wasn’t raining I would go.

4.If you were an experienced footballer, you could teach me.

5.If the principal let us have the party at school, we could have it at school.

211. 2.I wish I were a lawyer.

3.I wish we had a modern car.

4.I wish I spoke more than two languages.

5.I wish I had enough time to visit my relatives.

212. 1.I wish I hadn’t decided to work for the state.

2.I wish we hadn’t gone to Alanya last summer.

3.I wish I hadn’t driven home alone.

4.I wish I hadn’t spent all my money on clothes.

5.I wish we had spent our holiday with my parents.

213. 1.I wish my sister would visit her friends.

2.I wish he would wear a tie.

3.I wish my cousin would take a shower very often.

4. I wish everybody would stop smoking.

5.I wish Serdal would prepare for his exams regularly.

214. 2.This is the lady who gave me a lift yesterday.

3.There is a visitor outside who wants to see you.

4.The girl who is going to marry Yusuf looks very nice.

5.The boy who bought my motorbike lives next door.

215. 2.Who 3.Who 4.Whom 5.Who 6.that

216. 1.It is a wonderful idea which will change the world.

2.You must stop eating things which make you fat.

3. A dictionary is a book which explains what words mean.

4.This grey book which is on the table is mine.

5.The chair which was broken yesterday is now mended.

6.The shop which sells postcards is around the corner.

217. 1.Who 2.who 3.which 4.which 5.which 6.who 7.which 8.which 9.which 10.who

218.1.∅ 2.which 3. ∅ 4.which 5. ∅ 6. ∅ 7.which

219. 1.The pilot whose plane landed in the desert was not hurt.

2. He is a writer whose books are very famous.

3. She is the girl whose mother I saw the other day.

4.He asked a question whose purpose I don’t understand.

5.The man whose children go to school with mine told me the whole story.

6.The fisherman whose boat was sold was in despair.

220. 1.They do not agree which is not surprising.

2.He wants to continue which surprises me a lot.

3.We hoped to have his own boat which would allow him to fish in the open sea.

4.He caught several fish which he couldn’t believe.

5.He drives like a maniac which I hate.

6.I found the house empty which surprised me.

7.She apologized which I appreciated.

221. 1.who 2.which 3.who 4.who 5.which 6.which 7.which 8.who 9.who 10.which

222. 1.This is the boy whom I was telling my mother about

2. The children who made me feel terrible live next door.

3.That’s the tiger to which the vet gave very strong medicine.

4.I sold my old computer which was really slow.

5.She’s the woman who distributed bread to the poor people in Diyarbakır.

6. The machine which didn’t work very well was very expensive.

7.The old waiter who met me at the door was very gentle.

8.Footballers who make a lot of money play football for several years.

9.She who drinks a lot is my neighbour.

10.The students who came to this course only a few weeks ago are very intelligent.

223. 1.whose 2.that 3.which 4.which 5.that

224.1.Erdal telephoned his teacher, who lives in Dikmen.

2.The watch, which my sister bought for me, is a little bit slow.

3.The boys, with whom she got angry, are playing football in the garden.

4.Serdal invited his friends, who always help him with his work, to dinner.

5.Mary interviewed Sally Jones, whose department head was thinking of sending abroad.

225. 1.This new book, which was published two months ago, has good points for use as a course book.

2.Next week I am going to visit Mehmet, whom I like very much.

3.Our English teacher, who is very friendly to the students, has written a wonderful grammar book.

4.His mother, who suffered from liver cancer, died in May.

5.Orhan Pamuk, who is known all over the world, is a famous writer.

226. 1.S 2.O 3.O 4.O 5.O

227. 1.She wants the house which has five bedrooms.

2.We went to the film about which you told us.

3.The man who robbed the bank has been sent to prison.

4.We’ve bought the car which has air(conditioning.

5.They’re removing the tree fell on my house tomorrow.

6.The man phoned me yesterday was a police officer.

7.The mountains we saw were covered in snow.

8.She stayed in a hotel which I recommended.

9.The computer they bought isn’t powerful enough.

10.I went to the restaurant which has a fixed price menu.

228. 1.The late afternoon is a bad time when I can’t work well.

2.This is the place where we had a serious accident last year.

3.His friendly behaviour is the reason why I like him.

4.This is a picture of the place where we always go for holidays.

5.My childhood was the first time when I became interested in Turkish folk music.

229. 1.I am sure that she’s telling the truth.

2.They still believe the story that he will come and pay his debts.

3.I’m delighted that they’re being successful.

4.I don’t know how many learners have difficulty in learning the language.

5.Have you decided where we are meeting tomorrow?

230. 2.how old my sister is

3.where I can buy a loaf of bread

4.why Yasemin left.

5.were Sevil went.

6.where Yaprak is.

7.where Karşıyaka is.

8.where Ümit lives.

9.what time it is.

10.what Senem was talking about.

11.what country Mr Rmouch is from

12. why Mehmet was absent yesterday.

13. when Hüseyin arrived.

14.when the semester ends.

15.where the nearest bank is.

231. 1.who you saw at the party.

2.who came to the party.

3.who she is.

4.whose shirt this is.

5.who I am.

6.who they are.

7.who Meryem invited.

8.how old their children are.

9.what that is.

10.whose car is in the school playground.

232. 2.but 3.because 4.so 5.and 6.but 7.so 8.becasuse 9.but 10.so

233. ...................................................................................................

234. 2.Trapped 3.Not knowing 4.Surprised 5.giving 6.polishing 7.Reading 8.Making 9.Walking

235. 1.∅

2.Being dissatisfied with the result of the match, the fans blamed the referee.

3.People taking the train to Paris must go to platform four.

4.The man sitting over there is my boss.

5.Having spent all my money I asked my brother to lend me some.

236. 1.Before leaving the picnic area, we put out the fire.

2.We talked about our old good days while having our coffee.

3.After writing seven letters, we stopped working.

4.When having the operation, Erdal seemed relaxed.

5.Before leaving for the mountains, they checked all their equipment.

237. 1.She left the letter on the table so that I could see it.

2.You should tell him the truth so that he can help you.

3.My parents are sending me to England so that everybody might know about it.

4. He went fishing so that his family could eat.

5.They advertised the concert so that everybody could come.

6.I’ll read the exercise carefully so that I won’t make any mistakes.

238. 1.There was so much traffic on the way home that we got home late.

2.There were so many cars in the car park that we couldn’t find our car.

3.The cinema was so crowded that we couldn’t breathe.

4.The young people behind us talked so loudly that we couldn’t hear.

5.The meal tasted so salty that we asked for our money back.

6.She was so thirsty that she had to get a drink in the middle of the film.

7.The seats were so comfortable that they didn’t want to get up.

239. 1.You can go swimming as long as the sea is not rough.

2.He will be satisfied as long as you go with him.

3.You can use that dictionary as long as you do not ruin it.

4. I could have the room as long as I don’t have a bath late at night.

5.My wife will get a raise as long as she works extra hours.

6.Her boss promised her a raise as long as she doesn’t take any days off.

240. 1.As long as you don’t drink too much, you won’t get a headache.

2.You won’t throw the blankets off so long as you don’t drink too much.

241. ...................................................................................................

242. 1. No sooner had the plane taken off than it immediately returned to the airport.

2.No sooner had he arrived than everybody wanted to shake hands with him.

3.No sooner had she sat down than someone immediately knocked at the door again.

4.No sooner had we left the office than he arrived.

5.No sooner had I got back to the kitchen than the doorbell rang.

243. 2.He won’t go unless you pay him.

3.Unless they put on their raincoats they’ll get wet.

4.Unless he insists, I won’t give him my book.

5.Your car won’t make it to İstanbul unless you put some petrol in it.

6.She won’t help us unless you ask her.

7.We will fail unless we work harder.

244. 2.They bought many candles in case there was no electricity.

3.She’s putting on a pull(over in case it rains.

4.He went to the airport by bus in case he had a flat tyre.

5.He always wore a helmet in case he had an accident.

6.I took my typwriter in case I wanted to do some typing.

245.2.You can’t get a driver’s licence unless you go to a course.

3.You can’t open a bank account unless you put some money in it.

4.You can’t learn a new language unless you go to university.

5.You can’t get into a good university unless you study hard.

246. 1.The game will start at 3 o’clock provided that it doesn’t rain.

2.The police will leave you alone providing you don’t cause trouble.

3.We’ll end the meeting provided that there aren’t any more questions.

247. 1.as long as 2.unless 3.provided that 4.as long as 5.unless 6.providing 7.unless

248. 2.I’ll be happy to drive you to Mexico provided that you promise to help me pay for gas.

3.Supppose we run out of fuel in the middle of the desert?

4.Don’t worry. In case we run out of fuel, I’ll have some extra gas in the trunk of my car.

5.Unless you remember to put an extra can of gas in the trunk, we could be stranded in the middle of nowhere.

6.Stop worrying. In case that happens we can call for help on my CB radio.

7.That’s a good idea provided that someone is around to hear our call.

8.Suppose we had not had the CB last year on our way to Alaska?

9.Unless you stop worrying, I’ll cancel the whole trip.

10.All right, provided you discover that your car can’t make such a long trip, I’m going to find out about the bus schedule.

11.Provided that Tom decides to go with us, we should agree on what to charge him for gas.

12. He can go with us providing that he promises to leave his dog at home.

13.You know that he won’t leave his dog unless he finds a responsible person to take care of it.

14.That’s not our problem. We will simply tell him that he can’t go with us in case he insists on taking the dog.

249. 2.They hadn’t eaten for days and yet they looked strong and healthy.

3. She worked hard and yet she lost her job.

4.He wrecked the car though he was driving slowly.

5.It was very cold and yet he went out without his coat.

6.Although I am very tired I’ll stop to help you with your work.

7.He can’t cook, however he’ll try to prepare the dinner.

250. 2.However unhappy he was, he smiled all the time.

3.However strong they were, they never managed to lift that box.

4.However fast I ran, I always lost.

5.However upset my parents felt, they didn’t let us see it.

251. 1.They prefer to travel by bus in spite of the fact that travelling by train is fast and safe.

2.Even though there are many people in the world who are afraid to fly, air travel is very popular.

3.Though one of my relatives is very afraid of flying, he flies when he has to.

4.Even though most of the computer courses offer free courses to the poor, very few people know about these courses.

5.When I am busy, I can not see the people around me even though I usually hear what they talk about.

6.Much as I love spaghetti, I don’t eat it every day.

7.Much as I adore ice cream I’m watching my weight so I’d better not have any.

252. 2.We enjoyed ourselves in spite of the terrible weather.

3.In spite of a very high salary, he keeps complaining.

4.Despite many brothers and sisters, she feels lonely.

253. 1.While I believe our English teacher is a good teacher, I can’t learn anything from her lessons.

2.While I think it is necessary to practise speaking in class, I don’t do that.

254. 2.They were very tired, they were very hungry as well.

3.She is a first rate house wife, and she is also an excellent scientist.

4.He is a successful business man, he is a good actor as well.

5.I forgot to take my bag and I forgot to take my umbrella as well.

6.He spoke very carefully and he also spoke very clearly.

7.They pointed at me and they laughed at me as well.

255. 2.She doesn’t only phones her uncle but also her aunt.

3.Not only he works but also his wife.

4.She doesn’t only clean the house but also her car.

5.Se doesn’t only want to see her friends but also her school.

256. 2.Both he and his daughter could speak English.

3.Both he and I went to the cinema.

4.He both teaches and plays tennis.

5.That hotel is both expensive and noisy.

6.Both children and adults enjoy being on holiday.

257. 2.Shall we have fish instead of having meat?

3.She took a summer job instead of going on holiday.

4.I’ll make a birthday cake instead of buying it myself.

5.My brother was given a new pair of shoes instead of me.

6.He should have been more careful instead of driving so fast.

7.She asked me instead of asking him.

258. 2.too 3.isn’t a doctor, either 4.is from K.Maraş, too 5.were rich, too.

259. 2.She can speak either English or German.

3.Either Abidin or Mustafa won the race.

4.Either they talk too much or don’t talk at all.

5.He is either travelling or on holiday.

6.Djamila either wants to be a teacher or a doctor.

7.She is either washing the dishes or airing the room.

8.He plays either soccer or rugby.

9.They will either spend the evening at home or go to the cinema.

10.I’ll either have a shower or a bath.

260. 2.They can neither read nor write.

3.Neither John nor Mustafa will come.

4.Their doctor allowed them neither smoke nor drink.

5.She eats neither potatoes nor meat.

6.Neither Ayşe nor her sister sleeps well.

7.He likes neither reading nor writing.

261. 2.Neither my mother nor my father was in Afşin in May.

3.Neither my sons nor I wanted to go on holiday last summer.

4.Neither my sons nor I can speak Arabic.

5.Neither Erdal nor Serdal has been to Germany.

6.Neither Ali nor Ayşe learnt a foreign language.

7.Neither Serdal nor Erdal is interested in Maths.

262. 1.We’ll either study or watch TV.

2.I’d like to have either tea or coffee.

3.The students must go to school either now or later.

4.You can have lunch either now or later.

5.I will spend my holiday either in the mountains or on the beach.

263. 2.so can 3.so do 4.nor does 5.nor will 6.speaks English well, too 7.so does 8.so did 9.so 10.so

264. 2.The children were listening to the music loudly enough to hear.

3.I woke up too late to have breakfast with them.

4.He left too early to say goodbye.

5.She arrived at the station too late to catch the rain.

265. 1.to 2.for 3.for 4.to 5.to

266. Students’ own anwers.

267. 1.How well he sings! 2.What 3.What a 4.How tall she has grown! 5.What a 6.How quickly they have learned! 7.What an 8.What

268. Center(gray(theater(color(honor(tire(glamor(odor.

269. chips(crips/French fries(crisps / vest(waist coat/parking lot(car park/public school ( state school / druggist ( chemist / gas(petrol / pants ( trousers / subway ( underground / faucet / tap / main street ( high street / stop lights ( traffic lights / bill ( bank note.

270. motorway ( secondary school ( holiday ( dustbin ( flat ( biscuit ( term ( taxi ( overpass ( university ( fortnight ( toilet ( ground floor ( sweets ( women / men ( return ( pavement ( drop ( rubbish ( wardrobe ( lift trainer.

271.A(B(A(B(B(A(A(B(B(B(B(B(A(B(A(A(A(B(B(B(A(B(B(B(B(B(A(B(B(B(A(B(A(A(B(B(A(A(B(B(B(B(B(B(A(A(A(A(B(B(A(A

272. 2. told 3.told 4.told 5.told 6.said 7.tell 8.told 9.told 10.tell

273. students will look up a dictionary.

274. students will look up a dictionary.

275. Students will complete on their own, as it changeable.

276. 2.give up 3.look after 4.looking forward 5.look up

277. Student will do on their own.

279.Students will do n their own.

280. Students will do on their own.

-----------------------

Index

said

lorry

We were driving slowly enough that we enjoyed the beautiful scenery.

so does

Neither Erdal nor Serdal will be travelling next month.

I like neither these books nor these records.

Either her or she plays the piano.

either

He stayed in bed instead of getting up early.

I trust both her and him.

She does not only study Maths but also German.

You must wash the dishes, you must sweep the floor as well.

He went out despite the rain.

However rich he is he’ll never be as rich as my neighbour.

Altough the weather was bad we enjoyed ourselves.

The energy shortage will get worse unless everyone begins to

conserve fuel.

I’ll put on comfortable shoes in case we walk in the mountains.

Unless you write first, she won’t write.

eaten

so

O

O

O

O

O O

who

The shop( assistant served the customer who is standing behind the counter.

I wish I lived alone.

He will call you if he has time.

how much I paid for that shirt.

Tony said, ‘We are both seventeen’

P1[pic]nar will have the brochures distributed.

is played

This computer was made in Taiwan.

Computers are made by Apple.

to cook

She shouldn t have come by train.

used to

I m getting accustomed to eating American food.

I am accustomPınar will have the brochures distributed.

is played

This computer was made in Taiwan.

Computers are made by Apple.

to cook

She shouldn’t have come by train.

used to

I’m getting accustomed to eating American food.

I am accustomed to hot weather.

drinking tea

I used to play football when I was ten.

should

can play

Can anyone go there?

should

mustn’t

We don’t have to use special glasses to observe the eclipse.

can’t

can’t

can

permission

YKM

KIZILAY

at

NEWSAGENT’S

ALANYA

ANTALYA

to

from

MT AĞRI

TOWN

SEA

to

out of

in

on

at

to

at

Have a rest!

Don’t speak slowly!

Drive fast!

Stop at the traffic sign!

will have worked

He will be having a breakfast meeting.

had to

She had been doing the housework for three hours at noon.

They had lived in Italy for 7 years when they left in the U.S.A.

looked

Because it had rained a lot the roads were closed, so workers went home late.

had

had seen

The room was much smaller than she had thought at first.

After he had left the cinema he went to the cafeteria.

What have you done today? I have rewritten my project work.

In the USA, they speak American English.

Yes, I have / No, I haven’t been to a foreign country.

She hasn’t prepared for the exam for two years.

went

since

have spoken

will be buying

will they be here

will they be here

I will look up

will leave

She is going to read a book.

is going to be

was talking

rang

was playing

Serdal was eating a piece of cake.

I was watering the lawn when the postman arrived.

Eloise was already capped.

I got up at 7 o’clock.

Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.

She made a cake for her friends.

Who had breakfast all together?

Did you help your mother with the breakfast?

had

We didn’t work in the garden all day yesterday.

worked

were

Yesterday I went to Antalya.

are going

She is seeing the doctor.

are doing

The telephone isn’t ringing.

are waiting

We have six lessons every day.

takes off

She is a housewife.

I am a doctor.

I never do my homework in the evening.

has

I usually get up at 7 o’clock.

My father doesn’t go to bed at 10 o’clock.

Does she live in Ankara?

I don’t work at Ankara Anatolian High School.

Pınar doesn’t go to the cinema in her free time.

carries

read

Who finds it impossible to stop the fighting?

I am not a doctor

Atatürk was the first president of Turkish Republic.

is

more generously

better than

the biggest

younger

than

as

My father is talkative

friendly

The harder

carefully

bad

careless

carelessly

T

A round wooden table

How many

How many

many

some

some

Yes, there is. / No, there isn’t.

some

any

somewhere

one

me

her

mine

She is very thin.

S

O

niece

BAKİ

my

yours

Tom’s old books are on the shelves.

mine

ers

er

There are twenty(six letters in the English alphabet.

There are twenty teachers in the school.

Yes, there is / No, there isn’t.

Is there

Tony’s got a red ball.

have got

a

the

an

A

(

(

Noun + noun

What is this?

It’s a desk.

This

addresses

pencils

21st

thirteen

17

third

phrase

e

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