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AP Psychology – Guided Reading

Unit 5 – States of Consciousness

1. Define consciousness:

Section 1 – Sleep and Dreams

2. EEG recordings confirm that:

3. What is a circadian rhythm?

4. When is thinking sharpest and memory the most accurate?

5. How does bright light in the morning tweak the circadian clock?

6. Why is our body more set to a 25-hour day?

7. About how often does our body pass through the sleep cycle?

8. What is REM sleep?

9. What are alpha waves?

10. What is sleep?

11. What are hallucinations?

12. Describe what happens during the following stages of sleep:

a. Stage 1

b. Stage 2

c. Stage 3

d. Stage 4 (and define delta waves)

e. REM sleep (be detailed)

13. The sleep cycle repeats itself about every _________________________.

14. How often do we dream?

15. Do we all need 8 hours of sleep? Explain.

16. Allowed to sleep undisturbed, most adults will sleep _________ a night.

17. List 5 – 6 effects of not getting enough sleep.

18. What are the five reasons we need sleep?

19. What is insomnia and how common is it?

20. How can sleeping pills and alcohol aggravate the problem of insomnia?

21. Describe these other sleep disorders:

a. Narcolepsy

b. Sleep apnea

c. Night terrors

d. Sleepwalking

22. What are dreams and how are they different from daydreaming?

23. We spend ______ years of our life in dreams and for most 8 in 10 dreams are:

24. What is manifest content?

25. List and describe the five explanations of why we dream.






26. What is REM-rebound?

Section 2 – Hypnosis

27. Define hypnosis:

28. Under the “Facts and Falsehoods” portion of the section, give a summary answer to the following sub-section questions.

a. Can anyone experience hypnosis?

b. Can hypnosis enhance recall of forgotten events?

c. Can hypnosis force people to act against their will?

d. Can hypnosis be therapeutic? (be sure to define posthypnotic suggestion)

e. Can hypnosis alleviate pain?

29. Advocates of the social influence theory of hypnosis contend that:

30. Define dissociation and relate it to the theory of hypnosis as a divided consciousness.

Section 3 – Drugs and Consciousness

31. What are tolerance, dependence, and addiction, and what are some common misconceptions about addiction?

32. What are depressants, and what are their effects?

33. What are hallucinogens, and what are their effects?

34. Why do some people become regular users of consciousness-altering drugs?


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