Global Higher Education Rankings 2010

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´╗┐Global Higher Education Rankings 2010

Affordability and Accessibility in Comparative Perspective

Alex Usher Jon Medow

October 2010

Table of Contents

Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1 Part I: Methodology .................................................................................................................... 3

Affordability Indicators and Weightings .................................................................................. 3 Indicators ............................................................................................................................ 3

Defining "Ability to Pay" .......................................................................................................... 6 Weighting the Indicators......................................................................................................... 8 Accessibility Indicators and Weightings ................................................................................. 9

Indicators ............................................................................................................................ 9 Weighting the Indicators ................................................................................................... 10 Part II: Affordability Rankings ................................................................................................... 11 Education Costs................................................................................................................ 12 Living Costs ...................................................................................................................... 14 Total Costs ........................................................................................................................ 16 Grants ............................................................................................................................... 18 Net Costs.............................................................................................................................. 19 Tax Expenditures .............................................................................................................. 21 Net Costs After Tax Expenditures ..................................................................................... 22 Loans ................................................................................................................................ 24 Out-of-Pocket Costs .......................................................................................................... 26 Out-of-Pocket Costs, After Tax Expenditures .................................................................... 28 Scenarios for the UK: ............................................................................................................... 32 Composite Affordability Rankings and Concluding Remarks ................................................... 36 The American Way(s)............................................................................................................... 38 Part III: Accessibility Rankings ................................................................................................. 41 Participation (Best four-year enrolment) rate ..................................................................... 42 Attainment Rate................................................................................................................. 44 Educational Equity Index .................................................................................................. 45

Gender Parity .................................................................................................................... 48 Composite Accessibility Rankings .......................................................................................... 50 Affordability and Accessibility in Latin America........................................................................ 52 Part IV: Conclusion................................................................................................................... 54 Appendix I: Data Sources ........................................................................................................ 56

Australia ............................................................................................................................... 56 Canada................................................................................................................................. 57 Denmark ............................................................................................................................... 58 Estonia.................................................................................................................................. 59 Finland.................................................................................................................................. 60 France .................................................................................................................................. 61 Germany............................................................................................................................... 62 Japan ................................................................................................................................... 63 Latvia.................................................................................................................................... 64 The Netherlands ................................................................................................................... 66 New Zealand ........................................................................................................................ 67 Norway ................................................................................................................................. 68 Sweden ................................................................................................................................ 69 United Kingdom/England and Wales.................................................................................... 70 United States ........................................................................................................................ 71 Appendix 2: Indicator Scoring and Weightings Sensitivity ....................................................... 72

Table of Tables

Table 1: Possible Affordability Indicators .................................................................................... 4 Table 2: Median Household Income in 2008 $ PPP .................................................................... 7 Table 3: Affordability Indicator Weightings.................................................................................. 8 Table 4: Accessibility Indicator Weightings............................................................................... 10 Table 5: Education Costs .......................................................................................................... 12 Table 6: Education Cost Affordability Rankings ........................................................................ 13 Table 7: Living Costs 2008........................................................................................................ 14 Table 8: Total Costs .................................................................................................................. 16 Table 9: Total Cost Affordability Rankings................................................................................. 17 Table 10: Grants ....................................................................................................................... 18 Table 11: Net Costs................................................................................................................... 19 Table 12: Net Cost Affordability Rankings ................................................................................. 20 Table 13: Tax Expenditures....................................................................................................... 21 Table 14: Net Costs After Tax Expenditures.............................................................................. 22 Table 15: Net Cost After Tax Expenditures Rankings................................................................ 23 Table 16: Loans ........................................................................................................................ 24 Table 17: Out Of Pocket Costs .................................................................................................. 26 Table 18: Out of Pocket Costs Rankings ................................................................................... 27 Table 19: Out Of Pocket Costs After Tax Expenditures ............................................................. 28 Table 20: Out of Pocket After Tax Expenditures Affordability Rankings .................................... 29 Table 21: Post-Browne Cost Comparisons under various Scenarios, in GBP............................ 33 Table 22: Comparison of High-cost Public Systems, in GBP..................................................... 34 Table 23: Overall Affordability Rankings ................................................................................... 37 Table 24: Public and Private costs in the US and Mexico ......................................................... 39 Table 25: Participation Rankings............................................................................................... 42 Table 26: Attainment Accessibility Rankings............................................................................. 44 Table 27: EEI Accessibility Rankings ........................................................................................ 47 Table 28: GPI Accessibility Rankings........................................................................................ 49

Table 29: Composite Accessibility Rankings............................................................................. 50 Table 30: Example of scoring.................................................................................................... 72 Table 31: Composite Affordability Scores ................................................................................. 73 Table 32: Composite Accessibility Scores ................................................................................ 74

Table of Figures

Figure 1: Loan/Grant Mixes ....................................................................................................... 25 Figure 2: The Role of Grants, Loans and Tax Expenditures in Reducing Total Costs................ 30 Figure 3: Average Total Aid as a Percentage of Total Average Costs ....................................... 31

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