Practice Exam #2

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Practice Exam #4

1. The franking privilege is best described as

a. A request by the president for a senator’s approval of a judicial appointment

b. The ability of the Federal Reserve Bard or the Treasury to print money

c. The ability of members of Congress to mail information to constituents at public expense

d. A request by bureaucratic agencies seeking presidential approval of standing operating procedures

e. The ability of a senator to kill a bill through prolonged debate.

2. Which of the following offices requires Senate approval?

I. White House Chief of Staff

II. CIA Director

III. Secretary of Homeland Security

IV. Attorney General

a. I only

b. I, II, and III only

c. I, III, and IV only

d. II, III, IV only

e. I, II, III, IV

3. The incorporation doctrine involves which of the following?

a. Applying the Bill of Rights to the states

b. How the executive branch enforces a policy

c. Creating a new constitutional protection, such as privacy, that is an implied liberty

d. The ability of citizens to file a lawsuit against the government in federal courts

e. The ability of businesses to file for patent protection with the executive branch.

4. All of the following are features of the federal government EXCEPT

a. Separation of powers

b. Checks and balances

c. Unitary system

d. Popular sovereignty

e. Limited majority rule

5. The Supreme Court will most likely issue a writ of certiorari to

a. Require a lower court to retry a case

b. Explain its ruling in a decision

c. Overturn a previous precedent

d. Require a government official to act on an order issued by the Court

e. Clarify an issue in which there is disagreement among the lower courts.

6. Congress used its commerce power to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to

a. End discrimination in private as well as public institutions

b. Ensure that it would not be challenged in the courts

c. Counter the growing power of the executive branch

d. Implement affirmative action policies in places of public accommodation

e. Appease white Southerners who were against the legislation.

7. Which of the following socioeconomic classes most likely vote Republican?

a. Manual laborers and factory workers

b. Professionals and business owners

c. Intellectuals and women

d. Union members and women

e. Contract laborers and immigrant citizens

8. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about super-delegates?

a. They are Republicans who secure seats at the national convention for their fundraising prowess.

b. They are Democrats who successfully raised soft money for the national convention.

c. They are chosen by presidential primaries and caucuses.

d. They have tremendous influence over who will be the party’s vice presidential candidate.

e. They are Democratic Party leaders who are guaranteed a seat at the convention.

9. Which of the following best describes the purpose of shield laws?

a. To protect prosecutors from libel suits

b. To protect journalists from disclosing their sources

c. To protect state governments from national government incursions

d. To protect legislators from defamation suits

e. To protect the public welfare from national security threats.

10. The belief that a person’s vote is important and can significantly influence public policy is known as

a. Pocketbook voting

b. Representative government

c. Political participation

d. Political efficacy

e. Political polling

11. Trial balloons refer to

a. Impromptu presidential news conferences

b. The media’s tendency to define news as information that is entertaining to the average viewer

c. Information leaked to the media to see what the political reaction will be

d. Media experiments with different types of news coverage to evaluate public reaction

e. Staged events that promote a candidate’s image.

12. Which of the following are forms of political participation?

I. Campaigning for a candidate

II. Contacting government agencies on behalf of congressional constituents

III. Calling members of Congress to influence their votes on a policy

IV. Filing a lawsuit to stop development of a rural area

a. I only

b. I, II, and III only

c. I, III, and IV only

d. III and IV only

e. II, III, and IV only

Questions 13-14 refer to the following statement from Federalist #51

“Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. The interest of the man must be connected with the constitutional right of the place. It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices should be necessary to control the abuses of government. But what is government itself but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary….”

13. Which of the following fundamental principles does this statement best reflect?

a. Federalism

b. Preservation of property

c. Representative government

d. Separation of powers

e. Rousseau’s view of human nature

14. Which of the following aspects of the Constitution does this statement attempt to justify?

a. The establishment of the electoral college

b. The federal control of public education

c. The wall of separation between church and state

d. The strong economic powers of the national government

e. The division of the legislative branch into two chambers.

15. The fact that executive orders have been used at an increasing rate indicates which of the following?

a. Executive orders speed up the process by which Congress passes legislation

b. The executive branch continues to keep national security information secret from Congress and the courts

c. The power of the president is growing

d. Executive orders are a tactic used by the executive branch to challenge legislation the president opposes.

e. The president is using the power of persuasion to maintain party discipline.

16. The most recent change to the Constitution, the Twenty-Seventh Amendment

a. Guarantees equal rights for women

b. Requires the national government to pass a balanced budget

c. Provides an outline for the procedure of congressional pay raises

d. Expands the right to vote to those who are 18-21 years old

e. Prohibits women from fighting in combat.

17. Which type of government funding allows states the most discretion?

a. Categorical grants

b. Grants-in-aid

c. Matching grants

d. Block grants

e. Project grants

18. The Supreme Court declared the legislative veto unconstitutional because

a. It violates the presentment clause and the concept of separation of powers

b. It would give the president too much power

c. The Constitution does not specify that vetoes can be overridden by a two-thirds vote

d. Congress must present information to the courts if there is a challenge to its use of the legislative veto

e. The Constitution does not give the president the power to veto a portion of a bill.

19. When judges use rulings from previous cases, they are basing their decisions on

a. Remand

b. Amicus curiae

c. Stare decisis

d. Certiorari

e. Mandamus

20. Most congressional work takes place in which of the following committees?

a. Joint

b. Conference

c. Standing

d. Rules

e. Select

21. Miranda v. Arizona and Gideon v. Wainwright are similar in that they both

a. Reinforced a person’s right to counsel

b. Applied the exclusionary rule to questionable police tactics

c. Established protection against self-incrimination in state courts

d. Resulted in convictions of the accused

e. Were under funded mandates

22. Class elitism emphasizes that government will initiate reforms if they

a. Represent the will of the masses

b. Maintain the current system, allowing the few to rule

c. Result in a compromise among competing groups

d. Receive support from aristocrats in foreign states

e. Require bipartisanship

23. Minor parties can generally influence politics in all the following ways EXCEPT

a. Criticizing the major parties for not addressing critical issues

b. Affecting the final outcome of a presidential election

c. Proposing policies that the major parties will adopt

d. Developing new methods of mobilizing voters

e. Influencing the policy agenda by winning federal elections.

24. In contrast to iron triangles, issue networks are

a. Temporary and dissolve once a decision has been made on a policy

b. Historically more effective in influencing public policy

c. Durable alliances among groups

d. Necessary links between a congressional committee, federal agency and interest groups

e. Responsible for inefficient federal programs

25. James Madison believed that the latent causes of faction were rooted in

a. The nature of man.

b. Capitalist society.

c. Religious conflict.

d. An improperly designed constitution.

e. The two-party system.

26. Which of the following best exemplifies legislative oversight?

a. Congress passes a law with specific regulations they expect a federal agency to enforce.

b. The General Accounting Office (GAO) audits and monitors how a federal agency implements a federal policy.

c. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) reduces an agency’s budget for the following year.

d. The Sierra Club files a lawsuit to challenge an executive order issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

e. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) fines a television network for broadcasting indecent language.

27. In Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the Supreme Court decided

a. That states can place some restrictions on abortion with limitations

b. To overturn Roe v. Wade

c. That a right to privacy does not exclude state governments from denying funds for an abortion

d. To uphold Roe v. Wade by striking down any restriction states place on abortion in the first three months of pregnancy

e. That a right to privacy extends to consenting adults in their own home, regardless of their sexual orientation.

28. Republicans, more so than Democrats, support which of the following types of federal grants?

a. Categorical grants

b. Project grants

c. Cross-over sanction grants

d. Block grants

e. Pell grants

29. Which of the following committees has the most influence over the policy agenda in the House of Representatives?

a. Ways and means

b. Finance

c. Rules

d. Conference

e. Armed Services

30. Interest groups are likely to use the following tactics to influence public policy EXCEPT

a. Contacting the media for news coverage of a government employee union strike

b. Filing a lawsuit demanding an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) be completed before construction of a project begins

c. Nominating a candidate to run for public office

d. Filing an amicus curiae brief

e. Lobbying a congressman to support a bill that would benefit the interest group

31. Which of the following positions are most responsible for informing party leadership about the mood of the House of Representatives?

a. Speaker of the House

b. Majority leader

c. Party whip

d. Clerk of the House

e. President Pro Tem

32. Single-member districts in federal elections tend to

a. Make it more difficult for minor party candidates to win

b. Make it easier for minor party candidates to win

c. Result in run-off elections between the top two candidates

d. Make it difficult to determine the winner

e. Result in court challenges that threaten the legitimacy of the results

33. Voter apathy is most common among which of the following groups?

a. People who recently received the right to vote

b. Senior citizens

c. Blue-collar workers

d. Women

e. People who registered as a minor party member

34. Under the Articles of Confederation, a major weakness of the national government was

a. Congress’s passage of the excise tax

b. An overly strong executive branch

c. Congress’s inability to resolve economic disputes among states

d. Its suppression of civil liberties

e. The increasing economic power of Congress

35. Which of the following factors will have the greatest influence in determining which political party a person will join?

a. Education level

b. Socioeconomic status

c. Parents

d. Occupation

e. Age

36. Which of the following most accurately portrays the effect that media has on public opinion?

a. The media influence the public’s perception about which issues are important.

b. The media influence how people will vote in elections.

c. The media cover issues that are ignored by the public if they are not entertaining.

d. People look o the media for guidance on which political party to support.

e. People tend to participate more often when they are exposed to media news.

37. The original intent of the Bill of Rights was to

a. Ensure the Constitution was ratified by at least nine states

b. Protect citizens and states from an overly powerful national government

c. Guarantee citizens civil liberty protections from state governments

d. End discrimination against the freed slaves

e. Ensure political equality for all citizens

38. Which of the following characterizes the main difference between pluralist and democratic theorists?

a. Pluralists emphasize the role of the masses, whereas democratic theorists emphasize minority rights.

b. Pluralists emphasize competition among groups, whereas democratic theorists emphasize consent of the governed.

c. Pluralists emphasize the inability of officials to compromise, whereas democratic theorists emphasize the necessity of compromise.

d. Pluralists claim that government is dominated by the few, whereas democratic theorists claim that government agenda is controlled by the masses.

e. Pluralists claim that government is effective, whereas democratic theorists claim that government is efficient.

39. Symbolic speech refers to

a. Nonverbal communication

b. Billboards that support candidates

c. Unprotected speech that can be restricted

d. Government propaganda

e. Speech that espouses an idealistic view of the world.

40. Pocketbook voters best exemplify which of the following theories?

a. The rational party model

b. The responsible voter model

c. Retrospective voting

d. Republican voting

e. Rational choice theory

41. Political socialization is

a. The development and acquisition of particular attitudes and beliefs about the political system

b. The level of support that public officials receive

c. The range in political ideology that exists within the electorate

d. The methods by which government officials attempt to influence public opinion

e. The organization of groups formed to discuss and resolve political disputes

42. The Senate can assert itself over the president by

a. Denying the appointment of a federal judge

b. Vetoing a president’s proposal

c. Investigating the impeachment of the president

d. Impounding appropriated funds

e. Campaigning against the president in the next federal election

43. Which of the following can the president do without consulting Congress?

a. Declare war

b. Deploy troops

c. Appoint ambassadors

d. Ratify treaties

e. Appoint federal judges

44. Since the passage of the War Powers Resolution, the power of the president as commander in chief has been

a. Weakened, with all real power belonging to the Joint Chiefs of Staff

b. Strengthened due to the increased powers the resolution gave the president

c. Effectively restrained by Congress, preventing the president from sending troops abroad

d. Insignificant since the president must consult with the Pentagon before taking action

e. Extended, despite the limitation that the president must consult with Congress

45. When Congress presents legislation to the president, the president can

a. Line out sections to be vetoed

b. Send a section back to the chamber of origin for revisions

c. Reject the bill in its entirety

d. Send the bill to the Supreme Court

e. Send the bill to a conference committee

46. The power of judicial review was established in

a. Article III of the Constitution

b. Marbury v. Madison

c. McCulloch v. Maryland

d. The Fourteenth Amendment

e. The Judiciary Act of 1789

47. Thomas Jefferson described a “wall of separation” to refer to the

a. Necessary and proper clause

b. Protection of free speech

c. Power of judicial review

d. Protection of privacy as a constitutional liberty

e. Establishment clause

48. The exclusionary rule prohibits

a. Defendants from testifying on their own behalf

b. Illegally obtained evidence from being used in courts

c. Use of evidence seized by means of a search warrant

d. Defense counsel from having access to legally obtained evidence

e. Any confession from being used in court

49. One result of Lawrence v. Texas was that

a. The constitutionality of same-sex marriage prohibitions came into question

b. New interest groups emerged to protect children from endangerment

c. The federal government increased funding for child protective services

d. It increased discrimination based on sexual orientation by state governments

e. The Equal Rights Amendment was passed

50. Which of the following occurs when no presidential candidate receives a majority vote in the Electoral College?

a. The current president serves two more years, at which time another general election is held.

b. The candidate who receives a plurality of the popular vote is elected.

c. Electors cast a second vote to determine who will be elected.

d. The election is decided in the House of Representatives.

e. The election is decided by a majority vote in Congress.

51. Which of the following best describes how presidential campaigns have changed over the last four decades?

a. There has been a move from party-centered campaigning to candidate-centered campaigning.

b. There is increased importance placed on campaigning on a personal basis and less emphasis on the media.

c. There has been a major increase in the percentage of money that candidates receive from their party.

d. The power of delegates at the party’s national convention has greatly increased.

e. Candidates rely less on public opinion polls for determining what issues to address.

52. The primary goal of the political parties in the United States is to

a. Sign up a large number of deeply committed members

b. Win elections and gain party majorities in Congress

c. Collect dues from members to support candidates

d. Develop ideas that are ideologically correct for the party

e. Win primaries and caucuses

53. Which of the following actions would Congress most likely use in performing legislative oversight?

a. Hire and fire members of boards and commissions

b. Subpoena the president to explain an agency’s actions

c. Withhold appropriations of money to the bureaucracy

d. Influence the president to take action against a bureaucrat

e. Reorganize executive agencies without presidential approval.

54. Which of the following is most likely to occur when the president vetoes legislation?

a. The president submits legislation that would accomplish the same goal through different means.

b. Congress is unable to override the veto after receiving the veto message.

c. Congress overrides the veto with a two-thirds vote.

d. The Supreme Court declares the legislation unconstitutional.

e. After ten days, the legislation is considered to be a pocket veto.

55. Which of the following federal officials would be least likely to be influenced by a lobbyist?

a. President

b. Senator

c. Judge

d. Representative

e. Committee chairperson

56. If both chambers of Congress pass different versions of the same bill, which of the following is most likely to occur?

a. A joint committee is formed.

b. A conference committee is formed.

c. The president contacts the House Rules committee.

d. Party leaders form a caucus.

e. A cloture rule will be enacted.

57. Party dealignment is

a. Lack of party discipline in Congress

b. Lack of voter loyalty to either major political party

c. Divided government

d. Unified government

e. Changing one’s party affiliation

58. Since 1969, all of the following have created obstacles to balancing the federal budget EXCEPT

a. Incremental budget requests by federal agencies

b. Continuance of tax expenditures that are difficult to eliminate

c. The demands of interest groups to expand entitlements

d. A dramatic increase in number of federal agencies over the past three decades

e. Economic downturns that decrease projected tax revenues

59. Usually, in issues affecting foreign policy and national security,

a. Congress defers to the president

b. The president seeks advice and consent from the Senate

c. The president defers to Congress

d. The courts will overturn an executive action

e. The president seeks advice and consent from the United Nations

60. Left blank on purpose….

a. x

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