Argumentative Essay – School Start Times
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Argumentative Essay ? School Start Times Current research suggests that because teenagers have different sleep patterns, they would benefit from beginning the school day at a later time. Some are in favor of this change, while others oppose it.
Read the following seven sources carefully, including the introductory information for each source. Then, in a well-organized essay that synthesizes at least three of the sources for support, argue for or against a shift in school to a later start time.
Make sure your argument is central; use the sources to illustrate and support your reasoning. Avoid merely summarizing the sources. Indicate clearly which sources you are drawing from.
Why School Should Start Later in the Morning by E M I L Y R I C H M O N D A U G 1 7 , 2 0 1 5
For the first time, the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is urging education policymakers to start middle- and high-school classes later in the morning. The idea is to improve the odds of adolescents getting sufficient sleep so they can thrive both physically and academically.
The CDC's recommendations come a year after the American Academy of Pediatrics urged schools to adjust start times so more kids would get the recommended 8.5 to 9.5 hours of nightly rest. Both the CDC and the pediatricians' group cited significant risks that come with lack of sleep, including higher rates of obesity and depression and motor-vehicle accidents among teens as well as an overall lower quality of life.
"Getting enough sleep is important for students' health, safety, and academic performance," Anne Wheaton, the lead author and epidemiologist in the CDC's Division of Population Health, said in a statement. "Early school start times, however, are preventing many adolescents from getting the sleep they need."
"Everybody learns better when they're awake."
In more than 40 states, at least 75 percent of public schools start earlier than 8:30 a.m., according to the CDC's report. And while later start times won't replace other important interventions--like parents making sure their children get enough rest--schools clearly play an important role in students' daily schedules, the report concluded.
While the federal recommendation is making headlines, the data on the potential risks of chronically tired adolescents isn't new information. Indeed, the research has been accumulating steadily for years, including some recent large-scale studies.
As the Minneapolis Star-Tribune reported in April, the University of Minnesota's Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement "finally put to rest the long-standing question of whether later start times correlate to increased academic performance for high-school students":
Researchers analyzed data from more than 9,000 students at eight high schools in Minnesota, Colorado, and Wyoming and found that shifting the school day later in the morning resulted in a boost in attendance, test scores, and grades in math, English, science, and social studies. Schools also saw a decrease in tardiness, substance abuse, and symptoms of depression. Some even had a dramatic drop in teen car crashes.
Here's what the research shows: Adolescents' "internal clocks"--the circadian rhythms that control a human's responses to stimuli and determine sleep patterns--operate differently than those of other age groups. It's typically more difficult for adolescents to fall asleep earlier in the evening than it is for other age demographics. And while teenagers are going to bed later, their school start times are often becoming earlier as they advance through middle and high school.
In a landmark study in 1998 of adolescent sleeping habits, the Brown University researcher Mary Carskadon followed 10th-graders who were making the switch to a 7:20 a.m. start time, about an hour earlier than their schedule as ninth-graders. Despite the new schedule, the students went to bed at about the same time as they did the year before: 10:40 p.m. on average.
The students bordered on "pathologically sleepy."
Carskadon's team found that students showed up for morning classes seriously sleep-deprived and that the 7:20 a.m. start time required them to be awake during hours that ran contrary to their internal clocks. Fewer than half of the 10th-graders averaged even seven hours of sleep each night, which is already below the recommended amount. Indeed, Carskadon's team concluded the students bordered on "pathologically sleepy."
So, if the science is so strong, what's getting in the way of changing the policy?
Carskadon, a professor of psychiatry and human behavior, notes that passionate arguments abound on both sides of the debate--just about all of which she's heard over the years. In some districts, the start times are largely dictated by local transportation companies, with school boards and superintendents contending they lack the funds or authority to change things. Meanwhile, parents are often reluctant to have teens start later, whether because they rely on having older children at home in the afternoons to take care of younger siblings or because they're concerned that it will interfere with extracurricular opportunities. Indeed, there's always a vocal chorus warning that later start times will hurt high-school sports.
But none of those worries override the reality that, as Carskadon put it, "everybody learns better when they're awake."
Implementing later start times can be feasible without causing major disruptions, as many school districts have demonstrated, Carskadon said. But it requires that all stakeholders commit to what's often a time-consuming process of finding creative solutions, which, she added, isn't always easy.
The medical writer and mother of three Terra Ziporyn Snider, who's emerged as a national advocate for later start times, also cited widespread challenges hindering schools from making the switch. Getting school systems to change takes more than just presenting scientific evidence, said Snider, the co-founder and executive director of the nonprofit advocacy group Start School Later. The organization deploys volunteers to communities that are considering later school start times to bolster grassroots efforts.
"Social norms are at the root of this problem--most people don't take [adolescent sleep deprivation] seriously and don't see it as a public-health issue," Snider said. "That kind of thinking has to change."
"The real obstacles are failure of imagination."
One of the problems facing advocates of later school start times is that the people sympathetic to their cause seldom have the authority to reset the academic clock, Snider said. Parents typically only care about the issue when it affects their own families' schedules, she said. That means roughly every four years the key players are replaced, and the grassroots efforts have to start from scratch.
"You start talking about changing start times, and people immediately jump to [all kinds of conclusions]. Teens will miss out on sports. Little kids will go to school in the dark and get run over by a car. What will happen to my child care?" Snider said. "A lot of these fears and speculations turn out to be red herrings. The real obstacles are failure of imagination."
Snider is hopeful that the policy pressures are reaching a tipping point, though, with the help of major voices like the CDC weighing in.
"It's becoming increasingly embarrassing to say, `If we start school later, what happens to my kid's three-hour soccer practice?'" Snider said. "We have to convince school systems this has to happen for the health of kids. It's not a negotiable school budget item--it's an absolute requirement."
Backgrounder: Later School Start Times
Adolescents today face a widespread chronic health problem: sleep deprivation. Although society often views sleep as a luxury that ambitious or active people cannot afford, research shows that getting enough sleep is a biological necessity, as important to good health as eating well or exercising. Teens are among those least likely to get enough sleep; while they need on average 9 1/4 hours of sleep per night for optimal performance, health and brain development, teens average fewer than 7 hours per school night by the end of high school, and most report feeling tired during the day (Wolfson & Carskadon, 1998). The roots of the problem include poor teen sleep habits that do not allow for enough hours of quality sleep; hectic schedules with afterschool activities and jobs, homework hours and family obligations; and a clash between societal demands, such as early school start times, and biological changes that put most teens on a later sleep-wake clock. As a result, when it is time to wake up for school, the adolescent's body says it is still the middle of the night, and he or she has had too little sleep to feel rested and alert.
The consequences of sleep deprivation during the teenage years are particularly serious. Teens spend a great portion of each day in school; however, they are unable to maximize the learning opportunities afforded by the education system, since sleep deprivation impairs their ability to be alert, pay attention, solve problems, cope with stress and retain information. Young people who do not get enough sleep night after night carry a significant risk for fall asleep automobile crashes; emotional and behavioral problems such as irritability, depression, poor impulse control and violence; health complaints; tobacco and alcohol use; impaired cognitive function and decision-making; and lower overall performance in everything from academics to athletics.
The Biology of Adolescent Sleep
Research shows that adolescents require at least as much sleep as they did as children, generally 8 1/2 to 9 1/4 hours each night (Carskadon et al., 1980). Key changes in sleep patterns and needs during puberty can contribute to excessive sleepiness in adolescents, which can impair daytime functioning. First, daytime sleepiness can increase during adolescence, even when teens' schedules allow for optimal amounts of sleep (Carskadon, Vieri, & Acebo, 1993). Second, most adolescents undergo a sleep phase delay, which means a tendency toward later times for both falling asleep and waking up. Research shows the typical adolescent's natural time to fall asleep may be 11 pm or later; because of this change in their internal clocks, teens may feel wide awake at bedtime, even when they are exhausted (Wolfson & Carskadon, 1998). This leads to sleep deprivation in many teens who must wake up early for school, and thus do not get the 8 1/2 - 9 1/4 hours of sleep that they need. It also causes irregular sleep patterns that can hurt the quality of sleep, since the weekend sleep schedule often ends up being much different from the weekday schedule as teens try to catch up on lost sleep (Dahl & Carskadon, 1995).
Adolescents in Study Show Changing Sleep Patterns
Since the 1970s, there has been a growing awareness of the changes in sleep patterns as children transition to adolescence. In a study at a summer sleep camp at Stanford during the 1970s, boys and girls who enrolled at 1012 years of age were monitored every year for 5-6 years. While researchers had thought older children would need less sleep during the 10 hour nocturnal window they were given, from 10 pm to 8 am, they found that regardless of age, the children all slept about 9 1/4 of the 10 hours. As they progressed through adolescence, participants continued to get the same amount of sleep, but they no longer woke spontaneously before the end of the sleep window at 8 am (Carskadon et al., 1979). In addition, when the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)--given at designated periods throughout the day to determine the speed of falling asleep, to measure sleepiness--was given to the adolescents, they showed more alertness at 8 pm than earlier in the day, and even greater alertness at 10 pm. Also, at midpuberty, adolescents became sleepier in the middle of the day.
According to the tests, more mature adolescents showed signs of reduced alertness during the day even though they slept an equivalent amount at night (Carskadon et al., 1980).
Changes in Melatonin
Another experiment, conducted by Dr. Mary A. Carskadon of Brown University, found that more mature adolescents had later circadian rhythm timing, based on melatonin secretions in saliva samples. This finding shows that melatonin secretion occurs at a later time in adolescents as they mature; thus, it is difficult for them to go to sleep earlier at night. The melatonin secretion also turns off later in the morning, which makes it harder to wake up early (Carskadon et al., 1998).
Another important finding from many studies is that the circadian timing system can be reset if light exposure is carefully controlled (Carskadon et al., 1997). In studies where adolescents are paid to keep a specific sleep schedule and wear eyeshades to exclude light during evening hours, measurements of melatonin secretion show that the rhythm had moved significantly toward a designated time. This means that with time, effort, and money, researchers can get adolescents to reset their clocks. This approach, however, is not necessarily realistic for teens who have full and busy lives. Nevertheless, the interaction of light exposure and sleep timing is important to keep in mind.
A Widespread and High-Impact Part of Teens' Lives
Findings of the tendency for adolescent sleep patterns to be delayed have been reported not only in North America, but also in South America, Asia, Australia and Europe (Andrade & Menna Barreto, 2002; Carskadon & Acebo, 1997; Ishihara, Honma & Miyake, 1990; Bearpark & Michie, 1987; Strauch & Meier, 1988; LeBourgeois et al., 2005; Thorleifsdottir et al., 2002). The diversity of such research supports the view that intrinsic developmental changes play a role in delayed sleep patterns in adolescents. This biological shift sets the stage for other social and environmental conditions that make it easier for these adolescents to stay awake at night and wake up sleepdeprived. The effects of changing sleep patterns are compounded by the demands older students face in academics, extracurricular activities, social opportunities, after-school jobs, and other obligations.
"Sleep isn't a priority for teenagers, and it typically isn't made one by parents or schools."
--Jodi Mindell, PhD, Director of Graduate Program in Psychology, St. Joseph's University and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
The School Start Time Issue
Adolescent sleep deprivation is largely driven by a conflict between teens' internal biological clocks and the schedules and demands of society. Therefore, it makes sense to look at school start times, which set the rhythm of the day for students, parents, teachers and members of the community at large.
"Given that the primary focus of education is to maximize human potential, then a new task before us is to ensure that the conditions in which learning takes place address the very biology of our learners."
Mary A. Carskadon, PhD, Director of E.P. Bradley Hospital Research Laboratory and professor in Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at Brown University School of Medicine
Research on School Start Times and Biology
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