Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology

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Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology

Multiple-Choice Questions

What is Psychology?

1 . Psychology is the scientific study of ______.

a. the physiological functions of the brain

b. how personality can be determined by the size and shape of one’s head

c. behavior and mental processes

d. how cultures and societies develop and interact with each other

2. Psychologists are interested in ______.

a. aspects of human behavior, but not human thought

b. aspects of human thought, but not human behavior

c. only major aspects of human thought and behavior

d. every aspect of human thought and behavior

3. A group of psychologists study human, mental, and physical growth from the

prenatal period through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. They are

most likely ______ psychologists.

a. personality c. organizational

b. social d. developmental

4. Child psychology, adolescent psychology, and lifespan psychology are specialty

areas within the field of psychology known as ______ psychology.

a. physiological c. personality

b. developmental d. health

5. Each of the following is a specialty area within developmental psychology EXCEPT


a. psychobiology c. child psychology

b. lifespan psychology d. adolescent psychology

6. A group of psychologists study the biological basis of human behavior, thoughts

and emotions. They are most likely ______ psychologists.

a. experimental c. clinical

b. psychometric d. physiological

7. Each of the following is a specialty area within the field of physiological psychology

EXCEPT ______.

a. neuropsychology c. psychobiology

b. experimental psychology d. behavioral genetics

8. ______ are interested in the workings of the brain and the nervous system.

a. Neuropsychologists c. Behavioral geneticists

b. Experimental psychologists d. Psychobiologists

9. A group of psychologists are interested in how the brain enables us to perceive the

world through our senses, and feel emotions such as anger, sadness, and joy. They

are most likely to be ______.

a. neuropsychologists c. behavioral geneticists

b. experimental psychologists d. psychobiologists

10. A group of psychologists study the differences among individuals traits such as

anxiety, sociability, self-esteem, the need for achievement, and aggressiveness. They

are most likely ______ psychologists.

a. psychometric c. developmental

b. clinical d. personality

11. A group of psychologists is attempting to determine what causes some people to

be optimistic and sociable, while others are pessimistic and reserved. They are most

likely to be _______ psychologists.

a. psychometric c. counseling/clinical

b. personality d. developmental

12. A group of psychologists seeks to determine in advance who will be effective as a

salesperson, as an airline pilot, or in any other career. They are most likely to be

________ psychologists.

a. experimental c. developmental

b. social d. industrial/organizational

13. Each of the following is one of five enduring issues that draws psychologists

together EXCEPT ______.

a. mind-body c. diversity-universality

b. situation-group d. stability-change

14. A systematic explanation of a phenomenon that organizes known facts, allows

the prediction of new facts, and permits a degree of control over the new

phenomenon is known as a ______.

a. postulate c. theory

b. hypothesis d. principle

15. Wilhelm runs an experiment and finds that males with high levels of testosterone tend

to be more physically aggressive than males with lower levels of testosterone. This

leads him to believe that testosterone has a direct effect on physical aggression in

males. Wilhelm’s belief is BEST described as a ______.

a. thesis c. theory

b. hypothesis d. prognosis

16. A specific, testable prediction about a phenomenon, usually derived from a theory,

is a ______.

a. prognosis c. principle

b. hypothesis d. theory

17. A teacher suspects that her students are unusually quiet during her Monday

morning classes because they stay up late on Sunday nights. She believes that

if she monitored the times they went to bed, she would find that the sleepy ones

went to bed later than the more alert ones. In scientific terms, her hunch, or

suspicion of what she would find if she monitored her students is called a ______.

a. theory c. prognosis

b. hypothesis d. postulate

The Growth of Psychology

18. The first psychology laboratory was founded by ______.

a. Wundt c. Titchener

b. James d. Watson

19. Wundt was the first ______.

a. psychologist to use an experimental laboratory

b. psychologist to analyze dreams

c. American-born psychologist

d. psychologist to use written tests to measure human abilities

20. The person who established the first American psychology laboratory at Johns Hopkins

University in 1883 was ______.

a. G. Stanley Hall c. William James

b. Edward Titchener d. J. M. Cattell

21. Titchener was a member of the ______ school of thought.

a. structuralist c. behaviorist

b. functionalist d. reductionist

22. William James is noted for founding the ______ school of psychology.

a. Gestalt c. structuralist

b. functionalist d. reductionist

23. Freud’s theories differed radically from the views of American psychologists of

his time because of ______.

a. its extensive use of laboratory research to support its claims

b. the emphasis it placed on Eastern philosophies and culture

c. the emphasis it placed on unconscious processes

d. its emphasis on environmental learning as the source for most personality


Human Diversity

24. Learning about human diversity will do each of the following EXCEPT ______.

a. provide us with the tools to reduce prejudice, aggression, and conflict

b. allow us to separate fact from fiction in our daily interactions with people

c. understand why proximity of diverse people always leads to harmony among them

d. appreciate the many universal features of humanity

25. Men in many cultures are expected to hold a paying job, provide resources, and to drive

a car whenever the family goes somewhere. These behavioral expectations of men are

known as ______.

a. display rules c. gender roles

b. gender stereotypes d. cultural universals

26. The term sexual ______ refers to whether a person is sexually attracted to members of

the opposite sex or same sex.

a. role c. preference

b. identity d. orientation

27. The term “ethnicity” refers to ______ heritage.

a. neither an individual’s cultural nor biological

b. an individual’s cultural, not biological

c. an individual’s biological, not cultural

d. an individual’s biological and cultural

Research Methods in Psychology

28. Observing behavior as it happens in real-life natural settings without imposing

laboratory controls is known as the ______.

a. naturalistic observation method

b. experimental method

c. correlational method

d. psychometric approach

29. Each of the following is a problem in conducting naturalistic observation EXCEPT


a. not being able to isolate and study one specific behavior

b. observer bias

c. not being able to observe spontaneous behavior

d. the inability to have the subject repeat the desired behavior many times

30. A detailed, well-researched biography of a famous historical person is technically

an example of the ______ method of research.

a. psychometric c. case study

b. naturalistic observation d. correlational

31. Research in which a carefully selected group of people is asked a set of predetermined

questions in interviews or through questionnaires is known as ______ research.

a. correlational c. survey

b. case study d. experimental

Ethics and Psychology: Research on Humans and Animals

32. Subjects in Milgram’s studies were TOLD they were taking part in studies on ______.

a. learning c. biofeedback

b. obedience d. pain thresholds

33. In Milgram’s studies, “learners” who made errors were punished with ______.

a. emotional deprivation c. electric shocks

b. public humiliation d. verbal insults

34. Subjects in Milgram’s studies were REALLY being tested on ______.

a. learning c. obedience

b. biofeedback d. pain thresholds

35. Each of the following is a basic principle of the APA’s code of ethics EXCEPT ______.

a. participants must be informed of the nature of the research in clearly

understandable language

b. participants can not be deceived or have information concealed from them at any

time during an experiment

c. risks, possible adverse effects, and limitations on confidentiality must be spelled out

in advance

d. informed consent must be documented

36. Each of the following is a basic principle of the APA’s code of ethics EXCEPT ______.

a. if participation is a condition of course credit, equitable alternative activities must

be offered

b. participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research that would affect

their willingness to participate, such as risks of unpleasant emotional experiences

c. participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli

d. deception about the goals of research can only be used when absolutely necessary to

the integrity of the research

37. Currently, in regards to research using animals, the APA ______.

a. has no ethical guidelines

b. only requires that animals may not be killed as a normal part of research

c. requires that researchers must ensure appropriate consideration of animals’ comfort

health, and humane treatment

d. forbids the use of animals except in research involving life-threatening disorders

Careers in Psychology

38. Which of the following mental health professionals is the only one who, in most states,

can prescribe medicine?

a. a psychologist c. a counselor

b. a social worker d. a psychiatrist


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