MODERN EDUCATIONAL THINKERS - Utkal University
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MODERN EDUCATIONAL THINKERS
S. P. Pani & N. R. Dash
D.D.C.E. Education For All
DIRECTORATE OF DISTANCE & CONTINUING EDUCATION UTKAL UNIVERSITY, BHUBANESWAR-751007
Modern Educational Thinkers
S. P. Pani & N. R. Dash
Published by :
DIRECTOR, DIRECTORATE OF DISTANCE & CONTINUING EDUCATION UT KAL UNIVERSITY, VANIVIHAR, BHUBANESWAR-751007 Phone No.: 0674-2376700
? Copyright : PUBLISHER
Published : 2014
Copies : 500 nos.
Printed at :
442, Saheed Nagar, Bhubaneswar - 751 007 Tel. : 0674 - 2544 631
D.D.C.E. Education For All
DIRECTORATE OF DISTANCE & CONTINUING EDUCATION UTKAL UNIVERSITY : VANI VIHAR BHUBANESWAR:-751007
From the Director's Desk
The Directorate of Distance & Continuing Education, originally established as the University Evening College way back in 1962 has travelled a long way in the last 52 years. `EDUCATION FOR ALL' is our motto. Increasingly the Open and Distance Learning institutions are aspiring to provide education for anyone, anytime and anywhere. DDCE, Utkal University has been constantly striving to rise up to the challenges of Open Distance Learning system. Nearly ninety thousand students have passed through the portals of this great temple of learning. We may not have numerous great tales of outstanding academic achievements but we have great tales of success in life, of recovering lost opportunities, tremendous satisfaction in life, turning points in career and those who feel that without us they would not be where they are today. There are also flashes when our students figure in best ten in their honours subjects. In 2014 we have as many as fifteen students within top ten of honours merit list of Education, Sanskrit, English and PublicAdministration, Accounting and Management Honours. Our students must be free from despair and negative attitude. They must be enthusiastic, full of energy and confident of their future. To meet the needs of quality enhancement and to address the quality concerns of our stake holders over the years, we are switching over to self instructional material printed courseware. Now we have entered into public private partnership to bring out quality SIM pattern courseware. Leading publishers have come forward to share their expertise with us. A number of reputed authors have now prepared the course ware. Self Instructional Material in printed book format continues to be the core learning material for distance learners. We are sure that students would go beyond the course ware provided by us. We are aware that most of you are working and have also family responsibility. Please remember that only a busy person has time for everything and a lazy person has none. We are sure you will be able to chalk out a well planned programme to study the courseware. By choosing to pursue a course in distance mode, you have made a commitment for self improvement and acquiring higher educational qualification. You should rise up to your commitment. Every student must go beyond the standard books and self instructional course material. You should read number of books and use ICT learning resources like the internet, television and radio programmes etc. As only limited number of classes will be held, a student should come to the personal contact programme well prepared. The PCP should be used for clarification of doubt and counseling. This can only happen if you read the course material before PCP. You can always mail your feedback on the course ware to us. It is very important that you discuss the contents of the course materials with other fellow learners.
We wish you happy reading.
1. UNIT I M.K GANDHI : BASIC TENETS OF BASIC EDUCATION
2. UNIT II VIVEKANANDA : MAN MAKING EDUCATION
3. UNIT III RABINDRANATH TAGORE (1861-1941)
4. UNIT IV AUROVINDO : INTEGRAL EDUCATION,
ITS BASIC PREMISES ; STAGES OF DEVELOPMEN
5. UNIT V GIJUBHAI BADHEKA ( 1885 -1939 )
6. UNIT VI GOKHALE, GOPAL KRISHNA (1866-1915)
UNIT - I M.K Gandhi : Basic tenets of Basic education
A Brief Life-sketch
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1949) was born on Octobor 2, 1869 at Porbandar on the Western coast of India. He was the sixth and youngest child of his parents. His family belonged to the Baina or trader caste and its members were originally grocers, but his grandfather Uttamchand Gandhi and father Karamchand Gandhi occupied the high office of the diwan (Chief Minister) in the Kathiwar princely state. Karamchand Gandhi, also known as Kaba Gandhi, was courageous, truthful, generous but keen practical wisdom. Thought a Vaishnava, he had great reverence for Jainism and other sects of Hindusim. He also had many Muslim and Sufi friends also. Mohandas, thus, grew up in an eclectic atmosphere. The strongest formative influence on young Mohandas, however, was that of his mother Putlibai. She was deeply religious and orthodox in temperament. She would not take any food until she said her prayers, and she used to visit temples regularly. She was very scrupulous in the observance of rituals like vows and fasts. ''Once in a cloudy weather, she vowed not to eat till she saw the sun. the children watched for the sun to appear and rushed into tell her when it did. By the time she got outside to look, it had vanished again. 'It does not matter', she said, 'God does not want me to eat today.'" She was, on the other hand a sparkling Conversationalist and a welcome guest at the princess' courts. Her children adored her. "In her moral guidance she at least tried to be positive rather than prohibitive. She taught Mohan the importance of telling the truth and sticking to his undertakings."
Young Mohandas was first admitted to the pathshala or primary school at Porbandar. When he was seven he accompanied his father to Rajkot and there he attended, first, a pathshala and then a school and at. The age of twelve he was admitted into the High School III the town. "He was a mediocre student shy and slow to mix. Every day he walked to school and ran home, trying to be exactly punctual, neither early nor late." However, progress reports of school never contained any unfavourable comments about him. He would do his best to prepare his lessons and never told lies to his fellow pupils or to his teachers. Mohandas, once, read a drama book named Shravana Pitribhakti (Shravana's devotion to his father) and greatly enjoyed reading it. He thought of emulating Shravana's filial devotion. As a child he used to act out the role of Harishchandra to himself for "times without number". The idea of truth as supreme good was thus early implanted in him and appears to have grown naturally in him as a tree or a flower. His love for nursing the sick and compassionate attitude towards poor and down-trodden section of the society, might have been the result of Mohandas's long experience of attending to his sick father.
Like most growing children, Mohandas also passed through a rebellious phase. In his adolescence he tried meat eating, smoking and petty pilfering; but he not only confessed his chicanery before his parents immediately but also resolutely refrained from repeating such practices, having once discovered the pitfalls. His father was also loving and gentle when Mohandas most needed him in a crisis of conscience.
Mohandas was married at the age of thirteen to Kasturbai, the daughter of Gokuldas Makanji, a merchant Porbandar. The marriage had been settled six or seven ars back by the two families, the bridegroom and the ride having had no say in the matter. Kasturbai and Mohandas were of the same age. They settled down in the family home at Rajkot. Being motivated by the vow of life-long fidelity to each other,
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