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Researchers in Social PsychologyLearning Target: Discuss the implementation, organization, ethical concerns, and results of Stanley Milgram and Philip Zimbardo’s experiments. Describe Solomon Asch’s work with conformity and the impact of group size on one’s behavior. Be able to explain the key components of Leon Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance and ways to reduce it.Directions: Step One—spend some time online researching the work of each of the Big Four Researchers in Social Psychology: Stanley Milgram, Philip Zimbardo, Solomon Asch and Leon Festinger. What are they known for? When did they do their famous studies? Record basic information for each individual. Step Two—For each of the following examples indicate which of the major four social psychologists (Festinger, Asch, Zimbardo, Milgram) is being referenced. In some cases the question will require you to identify a specific aspect of one of the main studies. 1. Which social psychologist is known for demonstrating the tendency of individuals to conform to group pressures?2. Which social psychologist had participants engage in a boring knob turning experiment in which those who were paid the least expressed the most positive attitudes?3. Which social psychologist found that a majority of participants would be willing to shock a complete stranger with high levels of electricity in response to the directions of an experimenter?4. Which social psychologist had to shut down his experiment after only six days because the participants were suffering?5. Which social psychology experiment demonstrated the strong tendency for individuals to obey authority?6. What percentage of participants in the “Shock” experiment went all the way to the highest level of shock (450 volts)?7. What was one significant factor that reduced the amount of obedience in Milgram’s studies?8. What is the psychological term for yielding to group pressure when no direct request has been made?9. Which social psychology experiment demonstrated the effect that the situation has on a person’s behavior?10. In which social psychology experiment was it discovered that individuals would be willing to ignore their own personal beliefs in order to be accepted by a group?11. ____________discovered that the amount of conformity (decreased/increased) if the participants were allowed to submit their answers privately in writing instead of sharing them aloud with the group which showed that the participants did in fact know the correct answer. 12. Who were the confederates in Milgram’s experiment (teachers or learners)?13. Which social psychologist is associated with research on cognitive dissonance?14. An individual is (more/less) likely to conform to a group norm if they are from a collectivist culture than someone from an individualist culture.KEY1.Which social psychologist is known for demonstrating the tendency of individuals to conform to group pressures?Festinger2. Which social psychologist had participants engage in a boring knob turning experiment in which those who were paid the least expressed the most positive attitudes?Festinger3. Which social psychologist found that a majority of participants would be willing to shock a complete stranger with high levels of electricity in response to the directions of an experimenter?Milgram4. Which social psychologist had to shut down his experiment after only six days because the participants were suffering?Zimbardo5. Which social psychology experiment demonstrated the strong tendency for individuals to obey authority?Milgram6. What percentage of participants in the “Shock” experiment went all the way to the highest level of shock (450 volts)?65%7. What was one significant factor that reduced the amount of obedience in Milgram’s studies?Watching others who were ‘disobedient’; proximity of the learner/ and the experimenter 8. What is the psychological term for yielding to group pressure when no direct request has been made?Conformity9. Which social psychology experiment demonstrated the effect that the situation has on a person’s behavior?Zimbardo’s prison study10. In which social psychology experiment was it discovered that individuals would be willing to ignore their own personal beliefs in order to be accepted by a group?Asch’s line study11. Asch discovered that the amount of conformity (decreased/increased) if the participants were allowed to submit their answers privately in writing instead of sharing them aloud with the group which showed that the participants did in fact know the correct answer. 12. Who were the confederates in Milgram’s experiment (teachers or learners)?13. Which social psychologist is associated with research on cognitive dissonance?Festinger14. An individual is (more/less) likely to conform to a group norm if they are from a collectivist culture than someone from an individualist culture. ................
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