Chapter 6: Sentencing

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1. True or False: Three strikes you’re out laws are a recent sentencing innovation.

a. True

b. False

2. _______________ is the Supreme Court case that decided that mandatory crack penalties were advisory in nature and judges could take into account sentencing disparities related to different types of drugs.

3. True or False: Racial disparities in sentencing have only been found in studies focusing on felony sentencing.

a. True

b. False

4. The “get tough” approaches to crime includes all of the following except.

a. Determinate sentencing

b. Three-strikes-and-you’re-out legislation

c. Truth-in sentencing laws

d. Indeterminate sentencing

5. True or False: Once the Federal Sentencing Guidelines were enacted in 1984, federal parole was eliminated.

a. True

b. False

6. True or False: The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy was officially established under the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988.

a. True

b. False

7. Which sentencing philosophy is not tied to the conservative approach or crime control model?

a. Incapacitation

b. Retribution

c. Deterrence

d. Restorative Justice

8. True or False: Bill Clinton was the president who pushed to equalize the crack-cocaine and powder cocaine sentences.

a. True

b. False

9. True or False: Recent court cases have made a large number of prisoners convicted of crack-cocaine offenses eligible for early release.

a. True

b. False

10. True or False: Asian Americans have greater representation in the judiciary than African Americans.

a. True

b. False

11. The ________________________ was enacted to keep violent offenders in prison for at least 85% of their sentence.

12. An increasing finding in studies of both state and federal courts is that

_______________ are receiving the harshest sentences.

a. Asian Americans

b. Hispanic Americans

c. African Americans

d. Native Americans

13. True or False: The sentencing process has considerable potential for discrimination and errors.

a. True

b. False

14. True or False: Most people convicted of felonies in the U.S. are on probation.

a. True

b. False

15. True or False: Sentencing guidelines have been created to “equalize” or reduce the disparities in the sentencing process

a. True

b. False

16. True or False: Recent research has shown that Asians are sentenced more harshly than Blacks and Hispanics.

a. True

b. False

17. According to three-strikes-you’re-out legislation, after the third strike or felony charge the offender is charged with _____________________.

a. 5 – 10 years

b. probation

c. intermediate sentencing

d. 25 to life.

18. True or False: The War on Drugs has been shown to effectively reduce drug use in the United States.

a. True

b. False

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