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-74295868680Grammatical units I-Word00Grammatical units I-WordWord:-A sound or letter or group of sounds or letters that express a particular meaning.The Formation of wordsOrder of wordAffix:-A letter or group of letters that are added to the beginning or end of a word and that change its meaning.The ‘un-’ in ‘unhappy’ and the ‘–less’ in ‘painless’ are affixes.It has two types.Prefix: - A letter or group of letters that you put at the beginning of a word to change its meaning.Suffix: - A letter or group of letters that you add at the end of a word, and that changes the meaning of the word or the way it is used.To form the noun from the adjective ‘sad’, add the suffix ‘-ness’.How words are formed:Words has 2 types (according to modern grammar)Form classes- Words that are affected by affixes, called Form classes, it divided into four types.Noun Adjective Verb AdverbStructure words-Words that are not affected by affixes, called Structure Words, It is divided into ten types.DeterminerConjunctionPronounPrepositionInterjectionSentence Connectors AuxiliariesSubordinatorsIntensifiers Question wordsSome modern grammars include determiners among the parts of speech. Determiners are words like a, an, the, this, that, these, those, every, each, some, any, my, his, one, two, etc., which determine or limit the meaning of the nouns that follow. In this book, as in many traditional grammars, all determiners except a, an and the are classed among adjectives.Word classes or Parts of speech (according to traditional grammar)-The word classes of English are the different types of words you use in making sentences. Each word class has special job to do:For example, a noun names things and a verb tells you what someone or something is doing.Word classes are also called parts of speech.Many words belong to more than one word class.For example, the word back can be a noun (a sore back), an adjective (the back seat), an adverb (to fall back), or a verb (to back a plan), depending on how it is used in a sentence. Sometimes, words form new word classes as their meanings develop over time.For example, the verb to access (as in accessing data) has developed from the noun access (the right to use or look at something).55372086360Word Classes, According to Their usages0Word Classes, According to Their usagesThe names of the word classes are:Noun-PronounAdjectiveAdverbVerb: - A word or group of words that is used to indicate that something happens or exists or a word or phrase indicating what somebody or something or something does, what state somebody or something is in, what is becoming of something or somebody or a verb is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing.Dive, chew, heal, thaw, think, know, believe, and remain. A sentence usually contains at least one verb. Verbs change their form according to which person and tense. An auxiliary verb is used to form the tenses of another verb.I have just received this mail, and They will never find us here.The auxiliary verbs can, will, shall, may, and must are also called modal verbs; they are used to express a wish, need, ability, or permission to do something.A phrasal verb includes a preposition or adverb.Drop in, chill out, and wrap up.Verb: (According to object priority)It is divided into two parts:TransitiveintransitiveVerb: (According to Subject and time priority)finite Nonfinite .It is divided into three parts.Verbals: Infinitive It has two parts.Infintive with or To – Infinitive Infinitive without to Or Bare infintiveVerbals: GerundVerbals: ParticipleIt has three types.Linking verb copular Auxiliary verb.It has three parts.Primary AuuxiliaryModal Auxiliry Semi modal or Marginal Auxiliary verbCopularCausative verbRegularIrregularAGREEMENT OF THE VERB WITH THE SUBJECTPrepositionConjunctionExclamation (also sometimes called interjection)Removal tooQuestion TagNoun-A word (not a pronoun ) which can function as the subject or object of a verb , or the object of preposition . a word like oil, arm, which can be used with an article. Nouns are most often the names of people or things. Personal names (e.g. George), and place-names (e.g. Birmingham) are called 'proper nouns'; they are usually used without articles.Classes of noun according to usageClasses of noun according to countability.Countable- a noun like car, dog, idea, which can have a plural form, and can be used with the indefinite article a/an.Uncountable- a noun which has no plural form and cannot normally be used with the article a/an. mud; rudeness; furniture.Proper Noun- proper noun a noun (normally with no article) which is the name of a particular person, place, organization, etc. Andrew; Brazil; Marks and mon NounCollective NounMaterial Nounabstract noun (the opposite of a concrete noun) the name of something which we experience as an idea, not by seeing, touching etc. doubt; height; pound A compound noun, verb, adjective, preposition, etc is one that ismade of two or more parts. bus-driver; get on with; one-eyed; in spite ofconcrete noun (the opposite of an abstract noun) the name of something which we can experience by seeing, touching etc. cloud; petrol; raspberry.The noun : Number contrast - Number denotes the numerative ability of a thing. the way in which differences between singular and plural are shown grammatically. The differences between house and houses, mouse and mice, this and these are differences of number.Classes of noun according to Number.Singular number- A noun that denotes one person or thing , is said to be in the singular number. a grammatical form used to talk about one person, thing, etc, or about an 'uncountable' quantity or mass. me; bus; water; is; much; this.Plural number- A noun that denotes more than one person or thing , is said to be in the plural number. grammatical form used to refer to more than one person, thing etc. we; buses; children; are; many; these.How Plurals are formed 1.The plural of nouns is generally formed by adding The noun :Gender-The noun which denotes male of female sex. the use of different grammatical forms to show the difference between masculine, feminine and neuter, or between human and nonhuman. he, she, it; who, which. Classes of noun according to GenderMasculine-Feminine-Common-Neuter-How Feminines are formedPronoun-A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun. a word like it, yourself; their, which is used instead of a more precise noun or noun phrase (like the cat, Peter's self, the family's) . The word pronoun can also be used for a determiner when this 'includes' the meaning of a following noun which has been left out. 'Which bottle would you like?'-'I'll take both.' (Both stands for both bottles, and we can say that it is used as a pronoun.)Classes of Pronounperson the way in which, in grammar, we show the difference between theperson speaking (first person), the person spoken to (second person), andthe people or things spoken about (third person). The differencesbetween am, are and is are differences of person.emphatic pronoun reflexive pronoun (myself; yourself, himself etc) used to emphasise a noun or pronoun. I'll tell him myself; I wouldn't sell this to the King himself. Adjective-An adjective is a word used to qualify a Noun or Pronoun . a word like green, hungi,,,, impossible, which is used when we describe people, things, events etc. Adjectives are used in connection with nouns and pronouns. a green apple; she's hungry.relative pronoun one of the pronouns who, whom, whose, which and that (and sometimes what, when, where and why). A relative pronoun is used to repeat the meaning of a previous noun; at the same time, it connects a relative clause to the rest of the sentence (so it acts as a conjunction and apronoun at the same time). Is this the child that was causing all that trouble?A demonstrative pronoun is used instead of a noun to show something or point to something. This, that, these, those are demonstrative pronouns, e. g. Those are myshoes.An object pronoun is used instead of an object noun. Me, you, him, her, it us, you, them are object pronouns, e.g. Igave him the book.Personal pronouns are words, which are used instead of the name of a person. I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they are personal pronouns, e.g. She's Spanish.A possessive pronoun is used instead of a noun and shows something belongs to someone, Mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs are possessive pronouns, e.g. the house is mine.A reflexive pronoun is used when the object of sentence is the same person or thing as the subject of the sentence. Reflexive pronouns end with self or selves: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, e.g. He cut himself.A relative pronoun introduces a relative clause. Who, which, that, whose, whom are relative pronouns, e.g. the book which I'm reading is interesting.Classes of adjectiveAdverb-A word that adds more information about place, time , manner , cause or degree to a verb , an adjective ,a phrase or another adverb.superlative the form of an adjective or adverb made with the suffix -est (e.g. oldest, fastest); also the structure most + adjective/ adverb, used in the same way (e.g. most intelligent, most politely). Classes of adverb Classes of verb according to Subject & Time.bare Infinitive the infinitive without to. Let me go.infinitive the 'base' form of a verb (usually with to), used after another verb, after an adjective or noun, or as the subject or object of a sentence. I wantto go home; It's easy to sing; I've got plan to start a business; To err is human, to forgive divine.Finite verb- Every sentence typically has at least one verb which is either past or present tense. Such verbs are called 'finite'. The imperative verb in a command is also finite. Verbs that are not finite, such as participles or infinitives, cannot stand on their own: they are linked to another verb in the sentence.Lizzie does the dishes every day [present tense] Even Hana did the dishes yesterday. [past tense] Do the dishes, Naser! [imperative] Not finite verbs:I have done them. [combined with the finite verb have]?I will do them. [combined with the finite verb will?I want to do them! [combined with the finite verb want]Classes of verb according to object.Intransitive An intransitive verb is one that cannot have an object or be used in the passive, smile; fall; come; go.transitive A transitive verb is one that can have an object. eat (a meal); drive (a car); give (a present).Classes of verb according to role.main verb the verb which is used as the basis for the main clause in a sentence. In the sentence Running into the room, she started to cry, started is the main verb.modal auxiliary verb one of the verbs can, could, may, might, must, will, shall, would, should, ought.Modal verbs are used to change the meaning of other verbs. They can express meanings such as certainty, ability, or obligation. The main modal verbs are will, would, can, could, may, might, shall, should, must and ought. A modal verb only has finite forms and has no suffixes (e.g. / sing – he sings, but not I must - he musts).auxiliary verb a verb like be, have, do which is used with another verb to make tenses, passive forms etc. She was writing Where have you put it?The auxiliary verbs are: be, have, do and the modal verbs. They can be used to make questions and negative statements. In addition: ?be is used in the progressive and passive ?have is used in the perfect ?do is used to form questions and negative statements if no other auxiliary verb is presentThey are winning the match. [be used in the progressive] Have you finished your picture? [have used to make a question, and the perfect] No, / don't know him. [do used to make a negative; no other auxiliary is present] Will you come with me or not? [modal verb will used to make a question about the other person's willingness]copular verb be, seem, feel and other verbs which link a subject to a complement which describes it. My mother is in Jersey; lie seems unhappy; This feels soft. Semi-modal A verb which has a modal meaning but does not have all the grammatical features of modal verbs. Examples of semi-modals are ought to, be able to, used to. Semi-modal noun A verb which has a modal meaning but does not have all the grammatical features of modal verbs. Examples of semi-modals are ought to, be able to, used to. Finite verb noun There are two types of verb: finite verbs and non-finite verbs. A finite verb shows person, number and tense; e.g. in the sentence He goes away, laughing, ‘goes’ shows tense (present simple) and number and person (he) whereas ‘laughing’ shows neither.Non-finite verb noun There are two types of verb: finite verbs and non-finite verbs. A non-finite verb does not show person, number or tense. Infinitives and present/past participles are non-finite verbs, e.g. the infinitive (He needed to have a holiday), the present participle (Not understanding the question, he gave the wrong answer).Verb noun A word used to show an action, state, event or process, e.g. I like cheese; He speaks Italian. An auxiliary verb is a verb used with other verbs to make questions, negatives, tenses, etc.; e.g. be, do, have; He has gone home. The base form of a verb is the infinitive form of a verb without ‘to’, e.g. go, sit, look. The infinitive form is the base form of a verb with ‘to’. It is used after another verb, after an adjective or noun or as the subject or object of a sentence, e.g. I want to study, It’s difficult to understand. An irregular verb does not follow the same pattern as regular verbs. Each irregular verb has its own way of forming the past simple and past participle, e.g. go ? went (past simple) ? gone (past participle). A modal verb is a verb used with other verbs to show ideas such as ability or obligation or possibility. They include can, must, need, will, should, e.g. I can speak French, but I should study even harder. A multiword verb/phrasal verb is made up of a verb and one or more particles (adverbs and/or prepositions). The meaning of a multiword verb is not the same as the meaning of the individual verbs and participles that make it. One multiword verb may have more than one meaning, e.g. Get your coat on and then we can leave (wear); How are you getting on with that job? (progressing). A regular verb changes its form by adding –ed in the past simple and past participle, e.g. walk ? walked. A reporting verb is a verb such as tell, advise, suggest used in reported speech to report what someone has said, e.g. Jane advised John to study harder. Verb pattern noun The form of the words following a verb, e.g. He advised me to get there early = advise + object pronoun + infinitive; I love travelling = love + –ing word. Used to verb A structure that shows something happened habitually in the past but does not happen now, e.g. I used to live in London, but now I live in Paris.A word used to show an action, state, event or process, e. g. I/ike cheese; He speaks Italian.An auxiliary verb is a verb used with other verbs to make questions, negatives tenses etc.; e.g. be, do, have; He has gone home.The base form of a verb isthe infinitive form of a verb without 'to', e. g. go, sit, look.The infinitive form is the base form of a verb with 'to'. It is used after another verb, after an adjective or noun or as the subject or object of a sentence, e.g. I want to study, It's difficult to understand.An irregularverb does not follow the same pattern as regularverbs. Each irregularverb has its own way of forming the past simple and past participle, e.g. go - went (past simple) - gone (past participle).A multiword verb/phrasal verb is made up of a verb and one or more particles (adverbs and/or prepositions). The meaning of a multiword verb is not the same as the meaning of the individual verbs and participles that make it. One multiword verb may have more than one meaning e.g. Get your coat on and then we can leave (wear); How are you getting on with that job? (progressing).A regular verb changes its form by adding —ed in the past simple and past participle, e.g. walk --> walked.A reporting verb is a verb such as tell, advise, suggest used in reported speech to report what someone has said, e.g. Jane advised John to study harder.Subjunctive The subjunctive form of the verb is used to express possibilities, recommendations and wishes: If he WERE a gentleman (and he's not) he would apologise on bended knee. (X If he was a gentleman...) If I WERE rich (and I'm not), I would help you. (X If I was rich...) I wish I WERE going with you (and sadly I'm not!). (X I wish I was going with you.) I recommend that he BE sacked immediately. (X ... he is sacked) I propose that the treasurer LEAVE the room. (/ .... leaves) It is vital that these questions BE answered. (X ... are answered) The subjunctive is also used in these expressions but there is no change to the verb. God SAVE the Queen. God BLESS you. Heaven FORBID.Classes of preposition according toVerb factor: Voiceactive An active verb form is one like breaks, told, will help (not like is broken, was told, will be helped, which are passive verb forms). The subject of an active verb is usually the person or thing that does the action, or is responsible for what happens.agent In a passive sentence, the agent is the expression that says who (orwhat) an action is done by. This picture was probably painted by a child.passive a passive verb form is made with be + past participle (e.g. is broken, was told, will be helped- not breaks, told, will help, which are active verb forms). The subject of a passive verb is usually the person or thing that is affected by the action of the verb. Compare: They sentLucas to prison for five years (active); Lucas was sent to prison for five years (passive).Narrationdirect speech speech reported 'directly', in the words used by the originalspeaker (more or less), without any changes of tense, pronouns etc.She looked me straight in the eye and said, 'This is my money.'indirect speech a structure in which we report what somebody said by making it part of our own sentence (so that the tenses, word order, and pronouns and other words may be different from those used by the original speaker). Compare: He said, 'I'm tired' (the original speaker's words are reported in direct speech); He said that he was tired (the original speaker's words are reported in indirect speech).A reporting verb is a verb such as tell, advise, suggest used in reported speech to report what someone has said, e.g. Jane advised John to study harder.Reported speech is used when we want to say what someone else said (to report what was said). When we say what someone else said we do not repeat the exact words because it is necessary to make some grammatical changes such as changing the pronoun and the verb tense, e. g. Sarah said she was sorry. Sarah's exact words were: I'm sorry.2108205526405Grammatical units III-Sentence00Grammatical units III-SentenceSentence: – A sentence is a group of words that are put together to mean something or the group of words bearing a proper meaning. It has at least a subject and a Predicate. A complete sentence has at least a subject and a main verb to state (declare) a complete thought. According to meaning and formation, it has five types and four types respectively.Bats are nocturnal creatures.If a sentence is a statement, it ends with a full stop (.):There was nothing to do but wait for the ice to thaw.A sentence which is a question ends with a question mark (?):When would the ice begin to thaw? One which is an exclamation or command ends with an exclamation mark (!):Come and see the ice beginning to thaw!A single verb can form a sentence, especially if it is a command, like help! Or stop! Short sentences can be formed without a verb; For example, in direct speech: ‘Where are you, Lieutenant?’ ‘Over here!’A sentence may consist of a single clause or it may contain several clauses held together by subordination or co-ordination joined by conjunctions or punctuation:Desert animals are often nocturnal because it is cooler for hunting at night. Classifying sentences as ‘simple’, ‘complex’ or ‘compound’ can be confusing, because a ‘simple’ sentence may be complicated, and a ‘complex’ one may be straightforward. The terms ‘single clause sentence’ and ‘multi-clause sentence’ may be more helpful.John went to his friend’s house. He stayed there till tea-time. John went to his friend’s house, he stayed there till tea-time. [This is a ‘comma splice’, a common error in which a comma is used where either a full stop or a semi-colon is needed to indicate the lack of any grammatical connection between the two clauses.]Ali went home on his bike to his goldfish and his current library book about pets. [single-clause sentence] She went shopping but took back everything she had bought because she didn’t like any of it. [multi-clause sentence]Sentence elementsSubject: - The person or thing that does the action described by the verb in a sentence or What/Who is being talked about. A noun or pronoun that comes before the verb in an ordinary affirmative sentence .It often says (in an active sentence) who or what does the action that the verb refers to.Helen broke another glass today, and Oil floats on water.Preparatory subject, Preparatory object -When the subject of a sentence is an infinitive or a clause, we usually put it towards the end of the sentence and use the pronoun it as a preparatory subject (e.g. It is important to get enough sleep). There can also be used as a kind of preparatory subject (usually in the structure there is); and it can be used as a preparatory object in certain structures (e.g. He made it clear that he disagreed).The subject's normal position is: just before the verb in a statement, just after the auxiliary verb, in a question. Unlike the verb's object and complement, the subject can determine the form of the verb (e.g.I am, you are).Raja's mother went out, That is uncertain, The children will study the animals, and Will the children study the animals?Object: - The noun or phrase describing the person or thing that is affected by the action of verb. A noun or pronoun that normally comes after the verb, in an active clause .The direct object refers to a person or thing affected by the action of the verb. In the sentence Take the dog for a walk, the dog is the direct object. The indirect object usually refers to a person who receives the direct object. In the sentence Annu gave me a watch, the indirect object is me, and the direct object is a watch.A direct object shows who or what is affected by the action of the verb or things expressing words are said to be direct object. He gave the book to me. In this sentence, the book is the direct object.An indirect object is an object affected by a verb but not directly acted on or persons expressing words are said to be indirect object.He gave the book to me. In this sentence, the book is the direct object and me is an indirect object.An object is normally a noun, pronoun or noun phrase that comes straight after the verb, and shows what the verb is acting upon. Objects can be turned into the subject of a passive verb, and cannot be adjectives (contrast with complements)Year 2 designed puppets. [noun acting as object] I like that. [pronoun acting as object]Some people suggested a pretty display. [noun phrase acting as object] Contrast: ? A display was suggested. [object of active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb] ? Year 2 designed pretty. [incorrect, because adjectives cannot be objects]Complement: - Words or phrases that complete the meaning of another word or a sentence;We often need to add something to a verb, noun or adjective to complete its meaning. If somebody says I want, we expect to hear what he or she wants; the words the need obviously don't make sense alone; after hearing I'm interested, we may need to be told what the speaker is interested in. It comes after a linking verb.I want a drink, and then I want to go home. Does she understand the need for secrecy? I'm interested in learning to fly.A verb's subject complement adds more information about its subject, and its object complement does the same for its object. Unlike the verb's object, its complement may be an adjective. The verb be normally has a complement.She is our teacher. [adds more information about the subject, she] They seem very competent. [adds more information about the subject, they] Learning makes me happy. [adds more information about the object,]A part of a sentence that gives more information about the subject (after be, seem and some other verbs), or, in some structures, about the object. You're the right person to help; She looks very kind;The President appointed Bristow his confidential adviser. Structure or words needed after a noun, adjective, verb or preposition. The intention to invest; full of water; try phoning; down the street.The complement of an intransitive verb serves to describe the subject, and is therefore called a subjective complement.The earth is a planet. The complement which refers to the object is called an objective complement.His words filled us with terror.Predicate-What we say about the subject is called the Predicate.Girls play hockey, Mountains add to the beauty of a country, and The students of our class made Jyoti captain.Adverbial –Verb: - A word or group of words that is used to indicate that something happens or exists or a word or phrase indicating what somebody or something or something does, what state somebody or something is in, what is becoming of something or somebody or a verb is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing.Dive, chew, heal, thaw, think, know, believe, and remain. A sentence usually contains at least one verb. Verbs change their form according to which person and tense. An auxiliary verb is used to form the tenses of another verb.I have just received this mail, and They will never find us here.The auxiliary verbs can, will, shall, may, and must are also called modal verbs; they are used to express a wish, need, ability, or permission to do something.A phrasal verb includes a preposition or adverb.Drop in, chill out, and wrap up.Sentence structureSubject + verb Subject + verb + object Subject + verb + complement Subject + verb + adverbial Subject + verb + object + object ...........Adjuncts-Adjuncts contribute various types of additional information to a sentence.For example, the S+V sentence The sky darkened can be extended by the addition of adjuncts, to become:The sky darkened suddenly. (S+V+A)In the following examples, we show how each of the ?ve sentence patterns may be extended by adding an adjunct:Pattern 1: S+V+A Amy laughed loudly (A).Pattern 2: S+V+SC+A My tea is cold as usual (A).Pattern 3: S+V+DO+A The soldiers destroyed the village deliberately (A). The principal information types are set out below.1 Time (when something happens):The play opened yesterday.Our guests arrived at seven o’clock.2 Place (where something happens):Amy attended university in New York.We met Simon outside the restaurant.3 Manner (how something happens):She sings beautifully.The children listened intently.Pattern 4: S+V+IO+DO+A We gave David the prize in the end (A).Pattern 5: S+V+DO+OC+A The dye turned the water blue in just a few seconds (A).Adjuncts can also appear at the beginning of a sentence, before the subject:Suddenly, the sky darkened. (A+S+V)VocativesA vocative is used to identify the person or persons to whom a sentence is addressed:James, your dinner is e inside, children.Doctor, I need a new prescription.centertopon the basis of sense & meaning, Types of sentence00on the basis of sense & meaning, Types of sentenceAssertive Sentence: – A sentence which denotes a general assertion.Virat Kohli plays Cricket, and you are not a pretty girl.It is divided into two parts.Affirmative: – A sentence which denotes a general affirmation. An affirmative sentence is one that makes a statement - not a negative sentence or a question. Compare I agree (affirmative); I don't agree (negative).They are farmers.Negative: – A sentence which denotes a general Negation.We are not ruthless people. Interrogative: – A sentence which is used for asking a question. Interrogative words and structures are used for asking questions. In an interrogative sentence, there is an auxiliary verb before the subject (e.g. Can you swim?). What is your name?My name is Rupaly Singh. Are you married or unmarried? Yes/No, I am married. It is divided into two parts. Wh Word Question: - A sentence that is used primarily to seek new information or to confirm our existing beliefs, view, and knowledge. Wh-questions begin with who, whom, what, which, whose, how, why, where, when (except for how which is known as a Wh-question). Wh-questions expect information in reply, not just yes or no.Where do you live? I live in France. In which class do you read? I read in fifth standard. Yes/No Question: - A sentences that is generally used only to seek confirmation “Yes ’’or Otherwise “Not”Have you learnt you lesson completely. No / Yes.Tag Question: - It is usually the short form of an interrogative sentence to turn it into a question. An expression like isn't it? or don't you? (Consisting of auxiliary verb + pronoun subject) put on to the end of a sentence. It's a nice day, isn't it? , and You are an obedient boy, aren’t you?A phrase that is added to the end of a sentence to make it a question, or to check that someone agrees with the statement just made. It’s very cold, isn't it? It isn't very far, is it?Affirmative – Auxiliary verbs + subject (pronoun/there) +? Negative –Auxiliary verbs + n’t + subject (appropriate pronoun/there) +?Subject-tag -A tag which repeats or identifies the subject. She's an idiot, that girl.Short answer -An answer consisting of a subject and an auxiliary verb. 'Who's ready for more?'— 'l am.'Reinforcement tag-A tag which repeats (and so reinforces or strengthens) the meaning of the subject and verb. You're a real idiot, you are.Reply question-A question (similar in structure to a question tag) used to reply to a statement (for instance to express interest).'I've been invited to spend the weekend in London.'- 'Have you, dear?'Closed question-A question which leads to a yes/no answer or another very short response.Did you come to school by bus? Yes. What did you have for breakfast? Toast.Open question- A question which can lead to long response.How did you spend last weekend? Why do you think many people prefer to drive rather than use public transport?Alternative interrogative- A question which offers two or more alternative responses: Do you want tea or coffee?; Is that William or Harry? Imperative: – A Sentences which indicates a Command, Request, Advice and an entreaty etc. The form of a verb used to give orders, make suggestions, etc.Fetch me a glass of water; Turn to page 10; Help me; Bring me a pen; Have a good holiday. V1+ Other words. Optative: - A sentence which indicates a blessing, desire, cause, wish, desire, pray, and curses .May my mother live long!May + Sub + V1 + Other words! Exclamatory: - A sentence which indicates inner feelings of the heart like sorrow, joy, surprise or sudden feelings, contempt, anger, and applause.Exclamations structuresExclamations are often constructed with how and what or with so and such; negative question forms are also common.Exclamations with howThese are often felt to be a little formal or old-fashioned.how + adjectiveStrawberries! How nice!how + adjective/ adverb + subject + verbHow cold it is! (NOT How it is cold!)How beautifully you sing! (NOT How you sing beautifully!)how + subject + verbHow you've grown! Exclamations with whatwhat a/an (+ adjective) + singular countable nounWhat a rude man! (NOT What rude man!) What a nice dress! (NOT What nice dress!) What a surprise!what (+ adjective) + uncountable/ plural nounWhat beautiful weather! (NOT What a beautiful weather!) What lovely flowers!What fools!Exclamations with so and suchso + adjectiveYou're so kind!such a/an (+ adjective) + singular countable noun He's such a nice boy! (NOT ... a such nice boy!)such (+ adjective) + uncountable / plural nounThey talk such rubbish! (NOT . . .-such a rubbish!) They're such kind people! (NOT .. ...so kind people!)what + object + subject + verb (note word order)What a beautiful smile your sister has! (NOT .. .-has your sister.) Negative question formsIsn't the weather nice!Hasn't she grown!Americans and some British speakers may use ordinary (non-negative) question forms in exclamations.Boy, am I hungry! Wow, did she make a mistake!Was I furious!Exclamation expressing word! + Simple sentence.Alas! I am ruined.What a pleasant surprise!3867157181850According to formation, types of sentence00According to formation, types of sentenceSimple sentence-A simple sentence is one which has only one subject and one predicate or, A sentence which has only one finite verb is called simple sentence.Rain falls, He speaks, and Dogs bark at pound sentence-A compound sentence is one made up of two or more principal (main or independent) clauses.The moon rose and everything looked plex sentence-A complex sentence consist of one principal clause and one or more subordinate clause.The rested when evening came.Mixed sentence –A mixed sentence consist of at least two principal clauses and at least one subordinate clause.left760095Grammatical units IV-clause00Grammatical units IV-clause22059902324100Ii- phrase00Ii- phrasecentertopIII-Phrase00III-PhrasePhrase-A phrase is a group of words that are grammatically connected so that they stay together, and that expand a single word, called the 'head'. The phrase is a noun phrase if its head is a noun, a preposition phrase if its head is a preposition, and so on; but if the head is a verb, the phrase is called a clause. Phrases can be made up of other phrases.She waved to her mother. [a noun phrase, with the noun mother as its head]She waved to her mother. [a preposition phrase, with the preposition to as its head]She waved to her mother. [a clause, with the verb waved as its head]There are these kinds of phrase:Noun Adjective- An adjective phrase is either an adjective on its own, e.g sweet; tall, hopeful, or an adjective with an adverb of degree, e.g. very sweet, a lot taller, quite hopeful.Adverb- An adverb phrase is either an adverb on its own, e.g. care/id/v, ojien., probably, or an adverb which is modified by an adverb of degree, e.g. very careiidly, more often, quite probably.Prepositionalcentertop00Clause-A clause is group of words forming part of a Sentence, and containing a subject and predicate. A clause is a special type of phrase whose head is a verb. Clauses can sometimes be complete sentences. Clauses may be main or subordinate. Traditionally, a clause had to have a finite verb but most modern grammarians also recognize non- finite clauses. A sentence can contain one or more main clauses, linked by a conjunction such as and, but, or, yet, by a semicolon: It was raining. [single-clause sentence] It was raining but we were indoors. [two finite clauses] If you are coming to the party, please let us know. [finite subordinate clause inside a finite main clause]Usha went upstairs to play on her computer. [non-finite clause]Independent/Principal/Main Clause-A sentence contains at least one clause which is not a subordinate clause' such a clause is a main clause. A main clause may contain any number of subordinate clauses.It was raining but the sun was shining. [two main clauses]The man who wrote it told me that it was true. [one main clause containing two subordinate clauses.]She said, 'it rained all day." [one main clause containing another.]Co-ordinate clause-Two equal rank clause.He neither obtains success nor deserves it.Subordinate clause- A clause that depends on other clause for its meaning .A clause which is subordinate to some other part of the same sentence is a subordinate clause. It begins with conjunction such as because, if or when, and it come before or after the main clause. For example, in The apple that I ate was sour, the clause that I ate is subordinate to apple (which it modifies). Subordinate clauses contrast with co-ordinate clauses as in It was sour but looked very tasty. (Contrast: main clause) However, clauses that are directly quoted as direct speech are not subordinate clauses.I’ll never speak to you again if you lose that CD.That's the street where Ben lives. [relative clause; modifies street] He watched her as she disappeared. [adverbial; modifies watched]What you said was very nice. [acts as subject of was]She noticed an hour had passed. [acts as object of noticed] Not subordinate: He shouted, "Look out!"He went to market and bought a costly wrist watch that was stolen a few weeks later.Type of subordinate clause;Noun Clause-A noun clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own, and does the work of a noun.He expects that he will get a prize.Adjective clause- An adjective clause is a group of words which contains a subjects and a predicate of its own, and does the work of an adjective.The chair which has a broken leg is mine.Adverb clause- An adjective clause is a group of words which contains a subjects and a predicate of its own, and does the work of an adverb.Strike the Iron, while it is hot.Relative clause-A relative clause explains or describes something that has just been mentioned , and is introduced by that, which , who, whom, whose, when, or where that modifies a noun. It often does this by using a relative pronoun such as who or that to refer back to that noun, though the relative pronoun that is often omitted. A relative clause may also be attached to a clause. In that case, the pronoun refers back to the whole clause, rather than referring back to a noun. In the examples, the relative clauses are underlined, and both the pronouns and the words they refer back to are in bold.That's the boy who lives near school. [who refers back to boy]The prize that I won was a book. [that refers back to prize]The prize I won was a book. [the pronoun that is omitted]Tom broke the game, which annoyed Ali. [which refers back to the whole clause]Conditional clause-For now as a conjunction, see 383. For once, see 390. For the moment and immediately, see 267.444 present tenses (2): the simple present tense1 formsAffirmativeIworkyou workhel she f it workswe workthey workQuestiondolwork?do you work?does he/she/it work? do we work?do they work?NegativeI do not workyou do not workhe/she/it does not work we do not workthey do not workFor passives (e.g. The work is done), see 407.2 spelling of third person singular formsMost verbs:work-* worksadd -s to infinitivesit -4 sitsstay-p staysVerbs ending in consonant + y:cry-p crieschange y to i and add -eshurry- hurriesreply-+ repliesVerbs ending in -s, -z, -ch, -sh or -x:miss--+ missesadd -es to infinitivebuzz-, buzzeswatch-, watchespush —+ pushesfix-4 fixesExceptions:have-,' has-go- goesdo-, does3 pronunciation of third person singular formsThe pronunciation of the -(e)s ending depends on the sound that comes before it. The rules are exactly the same as for the pronunciation of the plural -(e)s ending - see 502 for details.Note the irregular pronunciation of says (/sez/, not Iseiz/) and does (Id,z/, not /du-.z/).4 use: general timeWe often use the simple present to talk about permanent situations, or about things that happen regularly, repeatedly or all the time.What do frogs eat? (NOT What are frogs eating?)Water boils at 1000 Celsius. (NoT -Wter4s-boilingat 100'Gelsius.) I play tennis every Wednesday.Alice works for an insurance company.progressive vero rorms : non-progressive veros 431She phoned while 1 was cooking. (past progressive tense) I didn't know how long she had been sitting there.(past perfect progressive tense)Will you be going out this evening? (future progressive tense) I'd like to be lying on the beach now. (progressive infinitive)terminology and useA progressive form does not simply show the time of an event. It also shows how the speaker sees the event - generally as ongoing and temporary, rather than completed or permanent. (Because of this, grammars often talk about 'progressive aspect' rather than 'progressive tenses'.) Compare:- I've read your letter. (completed action)I've been reading a lot of thrillers recently. (not necessarily completed) - The Rhine runs into the North Sea. (permanent)We'll have to phone the plumber - water's running down the kitchen wall.(temporary)When a progressive is used to refer to a short momentary action, it often suggests repetition.Why are you jumping up and down? The door was banging in the windFor more details of the use of progressives, see the individual entries on the various forms.451 progressive verb forms (2):non-progressive verbs1 verbs not used in progressive formsSome verbs are never or hardly ever used in progressive forms.I like this music. (NOT I'm liking this music;) I rang her up because I needed to talk.(NOT ...because! was nceding4elk)Some other verbs are not used in progressive forms when they have certain meanings. Compare:I'm seeing the doctor at ten o'clock.Isee what you mean. (NOT 4!mseeing hat y-mea.)Many of these non-progressive verbs refer to states rather than actions. Some refer to mental states (e.g. know, think, believe); some others refer to the use of the senses (e.g. smell, taste).2 common non-progressive verbsHere is a list of some common verbs which are not often used in progressive forms (or which are not used in progressive forms with certain meanings).mental and emotional states6172200believe doubtfeel (= 'have an opinion')imagine know(dis)like00believe doubtfeel (= 'have an opinion')imagine know(dis)like21443950lovesee (= 'understand')hatesupposePreferthink (= 'have an opinion')realiseunderstandrecognisewantrememberwish00lovesee (= 'understand')hatesupposePreferthink (= 'have an opinion')realiseunderstandrecognisewantrememberwishpage 464progressive verb forms (2): non-progressive verbs 451 use of the sensesappearlook (= 'seem')seemsoundhearseesmelltastecommunicating and causing reactionsagreedenyimpresspleasesatisfyastonishdisagreemeanpromisesurpriseotherbedeservemeasure (= 'have length etc')belongfitneedconcernincludeoweconsistinvolveowncontainlackpossessdependmatterweigh ('have weight')More details of the use of some of these verbs are given in other entries in the book. See the Index for references.3 progressive and non-progressive usesCompare the progressive and non-progressive uses of some of the verbs listed above.- I'mfeelingfine. (OR Ifeelfine. - see 445.7)Ifeel we shouldn't do it. (NOT 44mfceling we shouldn't do it.) - What are you thinkingabout?What do you think of the government?(NOT What are you4hinkingof the government?)- I'm seeing Leslie tomorrow.Isee what you mean. (NOT 4m seeing what you mean.)- Why are you smelling the meat? Is it bad?Does the meat smell bad? (N OT Is the meat smelling-bad?) - I'm just tasting the cake to see if it's OKThe cake tastes wonderful. (N 01' The e,eke!s tasting wonderful.) - The scales broke when I was weighing myself this morning.I weighed 68 kilos three months ago - and look at me now!(NOT 4-was weighing 68 kilos...)Note also that many 'non-progressive' verbs are occasionally used in progressive forms in order to emphasise the idea of change or development.These days, more and more people are preferring to take early retirement. The water's tasting better today.4 can see etcCan is often used with see, hear, feel, taste, smell, understand and remember to give a kind of progressive meaning, especially in British English. For details, see 125.I can see Sue coming down the road. Can you smell something burning?page 458Double parts of speechVerb factor: TenseVerb factor: MoodVerb factor: PersonVerb factor: Numbercentercenter ................
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