AP Human Geography Notes - Home
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Ethnicity – Identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a homelandRace – Identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestorWhere Are Ethnicities Distributed?Distribution of Ethnicities in the United StatesThe two most numerous ethnicities in the US are Hispanic or Latinos (15%) and African Americans (13%).Clustering of EthnicitiesEthnic groups may live in a particular region and they may live in particular neighborhoods.Regional Concentration of EthnicitiesHispanic or Latino:Clustered in Southwest (Mostly in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and California).“Hispanic” is coined by the US government in 1973.African Americans:Clustered in Southeast (Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, South Carolina, and Mississippi).New England has less than 1%.Asian Americans:Clustered in the West (Hawaii and California)American Indians and Alaska Natives:Most numerous in the Southwest and Plains.Concentration of Ethnicities in CitiesAfrican Americans and Hispanics are highly clustered in urban areas. They are mostly together in specific cities. (i.e. Detroit, Chicago)In 1910, when Detroit’s auto production was expanding, ? of the city were immigrants.For descendants of Europeans, ethnic identity is found in religion and food instead of location. (i.e. Little Italy)African Americans Migration PatternsForced migration from Africa to the American colonies in the eighteenth centuryImmigration from the US South to North during the first half of the twentieth centuryImmigration from inner-city ghettos to other urban neighborhoods during the second half of the twentieth centuryForced Migration From AfricaThe first African slaves arrived at Jamestown, Virginia on a Dutch ship in 1619.The British shipped about 400,000 slaves.In 1808, America banned the bringing of new slaves.Slavery was widespread during the time of the Roman Empire.During the Middle Ages, slavery was replaced by a feudal system where serfs had to work.The height of slave trade was between 1710 and 1810 (10 million)Forced migration started when Africans on the West and East coast captured members living further inland and sold them.The Spanish and Portuguese first started slave trading in the sixteenth century and soon the British, Dutch, and French joined.The Portuguese shipped slaves from Angola and Mozambique to Brazil. Triangular Slave Trade – European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to AfricaSome ships also took molasses from the Caribbean to America and rum from America to Europe.Nearly all Africans ended up in the Southeast colonies.Sharecropper – Works fields rented from landowners by giving the landowner a portion of the crops. Caused high interest rates.Immigration To The NorthSharecropping became less common in the 20th century because of the invention of farm machinery, as well as landowners heading North for economic opportunities.East Coast: From the Carolinas north to Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York along US Route 1 (I-95)East Central: From Alabama and eastern Tennessee north to Detroit (US Route 25) or Cleveland (US Route 21)West Central: From Mississippi and western Tennessee north to St. Lois and Chicago along US routes 61 and 66Southwest: From Texas west to California along US routes 80 and 90First wave in 1910s (WW1) and second in 1940s (WWII)Expansion of the GhettoAfrican Americans clustered in one or two neighborhoods. These became known as ghettos.African Americans moved from ghettos to adjacent neighborhoods during the 1950s and 1960s.Differentiating Ethnicity and RaceIn the US, there are the main ethnic groups: Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans.Asian is a race and Asian Americans is an ethnicity. Asian Americans include many more people.African Americans and Blacks are different groups.The term African American identifies a group with cultural tradition. The term black just states the color of their skin. Hispanic or Latino is not a race, so they choose their race –black, white.Racism – The belief that a race determines the humans characteristicsRacist – A person who believes in racismRace in the United StatesWhiteBlack, African American, or NegroAmerican Indian or Alaska NativeAsian IndianChineseFilipinoJapaneseKoreanVietnameseOther AsianNative HawaiianGuamanian or ChamorroSamoanOther Pacific IslanderOther RaceIn 2000: 75% White, 12% Black and 4% Asian.“Separate But” Equal DoctrineThe US Supreme Court, in 1896, said blacks and whites must ride in separate railway cars. This is because they are both equal. These are called the “Jim Crow” laws named after an offensive dance.“White Flight”Segregation laws were eliminated in the 1950s and 1960s.In the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in 1954, the court stated that separate schools were unconstitutional.The expansion of the black ghettos occurred because of “white flight,” the large immigration of whites. Blockbusting – A real estate technique that convinces white homeowners living near black communities to sell their houses at cheap prices so they won’t be surrounded by blacks and then selling the houses for high prices to the blacks looking to leave the ghettoDivision by Race in South AfricaDiscrimination reached its peak in the late 20th century.Apartheid – The physical separation of different races into different geographical areas.In South Africa, a baby is classified as black, white, colored, or Asian. The apartheid laws determine where the baby could live, work, shop, etc...The apartheid system was created by whites from Holland in 1652.When all South Africans were permitted to vote, Mandela was the first black president in 1994.Why Have Ethnicities Been Transformed into Nationalities?Nationality – Identity with a group of people who come from the same countryRise of NationalitiesNationality determines where a citizen is born (i.e. The United States).Ethnicity identifies groups with distinct ancestry (i.e. African Americans).Race distinguishes colors (i.e. blacks).The United States forged a nationality through the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights.Nation-StatesTo preserve and enhance distinctive cultural characteristics, ethnicities seek to govern themselves.Nation-State – A state whose borders coincides with the ethnicity.Self-Determination – The concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.Denmark: There Are No Perfect Nation-StatesThe territory occupied by the Danish ethnicity closely corresponds with the state of Denmark.Nearly all Danes speak the same language and nearly all of the world’s speakers of Danish live in Denmark.10% of Denmark’s population consist of the ethnic minorities of Turkey and Yugoslavia.Denmark also controls the Faeroe Islands and Greenland.Only 12% of Greenland are Dutch, the rest are native born.Nation-States In EuropeEthnicities were transformed into nationalities in the 19th century.Germany became a nation-state in 1871, it used to be small states.In 1871, Prussia (The most powerful German state) forced others to join the Prussian empire.Germany lost much of its territory after WWI.During the 1930s, the Nazis claimed that all German-speaking parts of Europe are one nationality and should be one state. Other European powers did not stop Germany from taking over Austria and Czechoslovakia. Not until Germany invaded Poland (Which was clearly not a German-speaking country) in 1939 did England and France try to stop them. This started WWII.NationalismNationalism – Loyalty to a nationality. It emphasizes its culture and interests.States use flags and symbols.Nationality can have a negative impact. In a nation-state, they usually have negative images of other nation-states.Centripetal Force – An attitude that tends to unify people and support a stateMultinational StatesMultiethnic State – A state that contains more than one ethnicity (The United States)Multinational States – Contains two ethnic groups that live together peacefully. They contain two or more nationalities.The United Kingdom consists of four nationalities: England, Scotland, Whales, and Northern IrelandWales: Conquered by England in 1282. Welsh laws were abolished when it joined England in 1536.Scotland: In 1603, when King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England, the two countries united. The Act of Union in 1707 formally merged them. England, Wales, and Scotland comprise Great Britain and are the term that British refers to.Northern Ireland: During the 1920s, Northern Ireland split from Ireland because they were Protestant and wanted to remain with Great Britain.The strongest unity of them is in sports. The most important rugby tournament is the Six Nations’ Championship and includes Italy and France. Former Soviet Union: The Largest Multinational StateCollapsed in 1990s.Contained 15 republics.Three Baltic: Estonia, Latvia, LithuaniaThree European: Belarus, Moldova, UkraineFive Central Asian: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, UzbekistanThree Caucasus: Azerbaijan, Armenia, GeorgiaRussiaNew Baltic Nation-StatesNamed because of location by the Baltic Sea.Lithuania most closely represents a nation-state because Lithuanians compromise 85% percent of the population.Most Estonians are Protestant, most Lithuanians are Roman Catholics, and Latvians are Lutheran.New European Nation-StatesThe ethnic distinctions between the three countries are blurred. They speak East Slavic languages and are Orthodox Christians. Belarusians and Ukrainians became distinct wthnicities because they are isolated from Russia because of the Mongolians.Moldova was once part of Romania until captured by Soviet Russia. Now it wants to join band to Romania because of how ethnically similar. This is a problem because Moldova’s boarders were extended when it was seized.New Central Asian StatesIn Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, the leading ethnic group has an overwhelming majority. Both are Muslims and were captured in the 19th century.Kazakhstan, the largest, is a recipe for ethnic conflict. The Kazakhs are Muslim, while the Russians are Orthodox Christians. Tajikistan should be stable but has been in a civil war.Russia: Now the Largest Nultinational State39 nationslities are in Russia.Some located at the boarders and others in central Russia.There are a lot of independence movements , especially with the Chechens.Chechens declared independence. Russia ingnored them and sent in an army. If they were to become independent, so would others. That area also contains petroleum.Turmoil in the CaucasusIt is the size of Colorodo, between the Black and Caspian Seas.Azeris, Armenians, and Georgians are the major ethnicities. Each nation wants their own state.AzerbaijanAzeris came from Turnkish invaders.91% of their population lives in Nakhichevan, and piece of land separated from Azerbaijan.Azeris hold positions of responisbilty in Iran, but Iran does not teach the Azeri language.ArmeniaThey lived under the rule of Turkish Muslims.Hundreds of thousands of Armenians were killed by the Turks and were forced to migrate.After WWI, the allies created Armenia, but the surrounding neighbors tok control over it. In 1921, Turkey and The Soviet Union divided Armenia between them.It is the most ethnically homogeneous country in the region.Azerbaijan and Armenia went to war over the part of Azerbaijan.GeorgiansMore diverse, unrest.Fighting among the Ossetians and Abkhazians. Abkhazians want Northern Georgia to be independent and the Ossetians fought a war with Georgia to declase the South Ossertia peotion of Georgia independent. Russia recognizes their independence but only a few others.Revival of Ethnic IdentityEuropeans thought ethnicity has been left behind as insignificant relics.Karl Marx wrote that nationalism was a means for dominant social classes to maintain power over workers and that workers would identify with other working class people instead of with an ethnicity.Writers and artists were conformed to a style known as “socialist realism,” which emphasized Communist values.Ethnic Identity has became more important that nationality.The Soviet Unior, Yugoslavia, and Czechloslovakia were dismantled because of minority ethicities opposing the government. (Russians in Soviet Union, Serbs in Yugoslavia, ans Czechs in Czechloslovakia)They wanted complete nation-states.Why Do Ethnicities Clash?Ethnic Competition to Dominate NationalitySub-Saharan AfricaEthnic Competition in the Horn of AfricaCountries of Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eretrea, and SomaliaEthiopia and EritreaEritrea became an Italian colony in 1890. Ethiopea was captured by Italy in the 1930s.After WWII, Ethiopia regained independence and the UN awarded Eritrea to Ethiopea. They expected that Ethiopia would let Eritrea govern themselves, but instead, Ethiopea dissolved the use of their major language, Tigrinya.The Eritreans rebelled in a civil war (30 years).Eritrea won and became an independent country in 1991. There was then a dispute about the boarder and Ethiopa won that in 2000.During the first years of independence, Eritrea experienced a stron sence of nationality.Even with the loss of Eritrea, Ethiopia remained a complex multiethnic state. Until the 1990s, it was controlled by Christian Amharas. The Oromo (Muslim) are the strongest ethnic group in the South.SudanSeveral civil wars have been raged since the 1980s between the Arab north and other thnicities in the east, south, and west.South: The Black Cristain South fought a civil war between 1983 and 2005, which resulted in South Sudan, a country of its own.West: Black Muslim groups fought against the government in 2003. The US considers the mass murders and rapes by the Sudanese troops to be genocide.East: Ethnicities fought against the government with the help of Eritrea because of the profits of oil.SomaliaSomalia should face fewer conflicts. They are overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim and speak Somali.The population is divided into clans and when the dictatorship collapsed in 1991, Several major clans wanted to separate including the state of Somaliland in the north, Puntland in the northeast, Galmudug in the center, and Southwestern Somalia in the south.The US tried to help by sending in troops to protect food delivery to refugees and women but when peace talks between the clans collapsed in 1994, the US withdrew.Islamist militias took control over much of the country between 204 and 2006. Eritrea was with them and Ethiopea was against them. The US also opposed the Islamists, saying that their leaders are terrorists and lauched an airstrike in 2007 causing several hundred thousand refugees. Islam withdrew, but then took control again in 2006.Ethnic Competition in LebanonLebonon has 4 milion people in a 4,000 square country.Lebabon has recently been damaged by fighting between ethnic groups in the 1970s.It is divided by 60% Muslims and 39% Christians. No census has been taked since 1932.Lebanon’s diversity appears to be religious instead of ethnic.When Lebanon became independent in 1943, it required each religion to be present in the Chamber of Deputies. The president was a Maronite Christian, the premier a Sunni Muslim, the speaker a Shiite Muslim, and the foreign minister a Greek Orthodox Christian.Different religion groups live in different regions of the country. Maronites in the west and east, Sunnies in the northwest and Shiites in the south and east. During the civil war, each religious group formed its own militia.Dividing Ethnicities Among More Than One StateIndia and PakistanWhen the British ended their rule on the India Subcontinent in 1947, they divided the colony into two irregularly shaped countries, India and Pakistan.East Pakistan became the independent state of Bangledesh in 1971.The people living in the two areas of Pakistan were primarily Muslim and the people living in India were primarly Hindu.After Brisish took over India in the 1800s, a thre-way struggle began with Hindus, Muslims, and the British rulers.When Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated, it ended the abiliy to live together, peacefully.About 17 million people caught on the wrong side of the religion boundary were forced to migrate in the 1940s. Both types of refuges were murdered while migrating.Pakistan and India have never agreed on a boundary location in the region of Kashmir. Muslims, who compromise a majority, attack the Indian troops. India blames Pakistan for the unrest and will not give up Kashmir. Pakistan says the people of Kashmir should vote and Pakistan feels confident that they will choose to be a part of Pakistan.India also has 25 million Sikhs who are angry that they were not given a state.Sinhalese and Tamil in Sri LankaSri Lanka is home to 2 principle ethnicities, the Sinhalese and Tamil. They have been in a war between 1983 and 2009.Sinhalese compromise 82% of the island and migrated from Northern India to the Southern part of the island in the 5th century. Later, they were converted to Buddhism.Tamils consist of 14% of the population and migrated across the Palk Strait to the Northern part of the island in the 3rd century. They are Hindus.When it became independent in 1948, the Sinhalese have dominated the government and the Tamils feel they suffer from discrimination. A rebellion began in 1983 with suppot from Tamils living in other countries.After their defeat in 2009, the Tamils fear their ethnic identity. The Sinhalese leaders made Buddhism the official religion and Sinhala the official language.What Is Ethnic Cleansing?Ethnic Cleansning – Process in which a more powerful ethnicity forces out a lesser ethnicity in order to creat a homogenous regionEthnic cleansing has primarily happened in Europe and Africa.Ethnic Cleansing in EuropeThe largest forced migration came during WWII (1939-1945).When a portion of eastern Germany became part of Poland, the Germans were forced to migrate out.Creation of Multiethnic YugoslaviaThe Balkan Peninsula has been a hotbed of unrest. Northern portions were claimed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, southern porions were ruled by the Ottomans.In June 1914, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serb who wanted independence in Bosnia. This started WWI. After WWI, Yugoslavia was created for the Slavics.“Yugoslavia has 7 neighbors, 6 republics, 5 nationalities, 4 languages, 3 religions, 2 alphabets and 1 dinar”Seven neighbors3 democracies: Austria, Greece, and Italy4 communists: Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and RomaniaSix republics:Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia.Five nationalities:Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrens, Serbs, and Slovenians.Four languages:Croatian, Macedonian, Serbian, and Slevene.Three religions:Roman Catholic in the North. (Croats and Slovenes)Orthodox in the East. (Serbs and Macedonians)Islam in the South. (Bosnians and Montenegrens)Two alphebets:Croatian and Slovene were written in the Roman alphabet.Macedonian and Serbian were written in Cyrillic.Serbian and Croation are the same languages, but with different alphabets.One dinar:One type of currency kept them united.Destruction of Multiethnic YugoslaviaRivalries resurfaced in the 1980s when Tito died and the country went bankrupt.When Yugoslavia was one country, the six republics were fine. But when the country split into five separate countries, wthnicities fought to redefine the boundaries.Ethnic Cleansing in BosniaThe population of Bosnia & Herzegovnia was 48% Bosnian Muslim, 37% Serb, ad 14% Croat.Bosnian Muslim was considered an ethnicity instead of a nationality. Rather than live in a country dominated by Muslims, the Serbs and Croats fought for portions for their own countries.Serbs and Croats engaged in ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Muslims. This allowed them to connect with Serbia and Croatia.Bosnia & Herzegovnia was split into three sections, each dominated by Croats, Muslims, and Serbs. The Bosnian Croat and Muslim regions formed a federation, but the Serb region becam independent in everything but its name.Ethnic Cleansing in KosovoAfter the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia remained a multiethnic country.Serbia was given control of Kosovo when Yugoslavia was created in the early 12th century.When Yugoslovia broke up, Serbia took control of Kosovo and used ethnic cleansing to get rid of the Albanian majority.The US and Western European countries were outrage so they formed the Noth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and launched an air attack over Serbia. It ended when Serbia agreed to withdraw all of its soldiers from Kosovo. Kosovo became independent in 2008, but only 60 countries recognize its independence. Russia does not.BalkanizationBalkanized – A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more states because it was inhabited by more than one ethnicities with antagonisms between themBalkanization – The process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among ethnicitiesEthnic Cleansing in Central AfricaEthnic cleansing is widespread in Africa because the boundaries do not math the boundaries of ethnic groups. During the late 19th century, European countries divided the land with little regard for distribution of ethnicities.The most important unit of African society was the tribe rather than the state. There are several thousand ethnicities (tribes) with a common language and religion.When the European colonies in Africa became independent states in the 1950s, the boundaries typically matched those of the Europeans which split tribes up.A major conflict exists between the Hutus and Tutsis. The Hutus were famers in present-day Rwanda and Burundi. The Tutsis were herders who migrated there 400 years ago. The Tutsis tok control of Rwanda and made the Hutus their surfs.When Rwanda gained independence in 1962, they were ably to vote and since they were the majority, they won. Once in power, they killed many Tutsis. This is ethnic cleansing. The Tutsis who survived launched a conter attack and took control of Rwanda. Recently, they have been calm.The Democating Republic of Congo has also been in a war. It is thought to have been the deadliest war since WWII.Tutsis were able to overthrow Congo’s longtime president, Joseph Mobutu in 1997. He was wealth from minerals while impoverishing the rest of the country. After succeeding him, Laurent Kabila relied of the Tutsis and allowed them to kill some of the Hutus. When Kabila split with the Tutsis, they supported the rebels and assassinated him in 2001. His son tried to negotiate a peace with the rebels, but fighting still continues, especially in the east. ................
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