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The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project:Reducing Conflict Through Compromise and Collaboration in SpaceMason KINseySenior DivisionIndividual DocumentaryProcess Paper: 498 WordsProcess PaperThroughout my experience in high school, I have always been fascinated by space exploration and the complex, awe-inspiring history that has accompanied this topic. My interest in this subject was primarily sparked by my reading of Neil deGrasse Tyson, a famous astrophysicist and writer who discusses these topics with great fascination and clarity. Although most space exploration has been the byproduct of competition and conflict between nations, I wanted to choose a topic that was driven out of compromise and collaboration to show the importance of these concepts in reducing political conflict. This is how I stumbled upon the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, which perfectly embodies these characteristics and has a strong connection to this year’s NHD theme. After thoroughly researching the importance and lasting effects of this mission, I decided that it would be my topic this year. I began researching by accessing all available primary sources I could find on the internet, such as newspapers, films, and photographs created at the time. I also supplemented this with secondary sources such as websites and books to help me analyze and understand the context of the mission. I was able to interview a local history professor that teaches Cold War History and a former NASA astronaut who had worked on the Apollo-Soyuz and had spent time in space, which was detrimental in my research by offering comprehensive analyses of the topic and the context within it. Since there is such a wide variety of primary sources pertaining to the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, I decided the best way to display these vivid events was through a documentary. Additionally, I have access and experience using the necessary editing software to produce a project through this medium. To start my project, I first created a script and voice recordings, which were then transferred to the Final Cut Pro editing program I used. I then inserted videos, photographs, music, and interview recordings I had obtained to create a final product. By lessening decades of threatening political conflict in exchange for compromise and collaboration through space exploration, the United States and Soviet Union were not only able to generate considerable scientific discovery, but also establish a precedent for peaceful interaction both politically and scientifically between the two countries. These ideals were reflected in the friendly and synergistic nature of the mission, as examples of compromise between the crew members and scientists working together displayed that cordiality and cooperation could trump the conflict and unease produced by the Cold War and Space Race. Although conflict both politically and scientifically did yield major scientific discovery through the Space Race and the Nuclear Arms Race, the Apollo-Soyuz Test project showed that equally important discovery could be achieved by means of compromise. In a modern political climate of increased conflict between these two superpowers, it is important that we look back to the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project as an inspiration for compromise and cordiality in order to prevent conflict and the possibility of a second Cold War. Works CitedPrimary SourcesDocuments:“Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: Information for Press.” MSFC History Office. 1975, pp. 1–205, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. . Accessed 18 Nov 2017. This source consists of the official mission documents released directly after the Apollo-Soyuz mission was completed. The documents provide very detailed and specific information on a wide variety of subjects, including a description of the purposes of the mission, the crew members involved, planning involved with the creating the Apollo and Soyuz space crafts, and the subject matter and purpose of all experiments conducted by both space programs throughout the entire mission. This source was extremely important in my research because it broadened my understanding of the topic and helped me understand the importance and success of the mission from both a scientific and political perspective. Boggs, Hale and Gerald R. Ford. “Impressions of the New China.” U.S. Government Printing Office. June 23 to July 7, 1972, pp. 27, Gerald R Ford Presidential Library and Museum. . Accessed 12 Jan 2018. This government document from the Gerald R. Ford presidential library discusses a visit that Ford and Hale Boggs made to China in the summer of 1972. This visit was part of the détente policy pushed by the Nixon administration, as political tensions between the United States and communist regimes began to occur. The document discusses American impressions and concerns with the Chinese communist system, and gives a full report of the government and policies demonstrated by the Chinese during the early 1970s. This document was helpful in my understanding of détente policies during the Nixon administration as well as the major concerns Americans had about the communistsystem. Ford, Gerald R. “Telephone Conversation with Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Crews Following Rendezvous and Docking of the Spacecraft”. White House. 17 July 1975, pp. 1-4, Gerald R Ford Presidential Library and Museum. . Accessed 7 Oct 2017. This source is a telephone call between the crew members of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and President Gerald Ford that occurred directly after the rendezvous of the Apollo and Soyuz modules. During the call, Ford congratulates the crew members and thanks them for their hard work and perseverance throughout the mission. He also provided a positive and hopeful message about further joint efforts between the two space programs, declaring, “It has taken us many years to open this door to useful cooperation in space between our two countries, and I am confident that the day is not far off when space missions made possible by this first joint effort will be more or less commonplace.” Reading the monologue of this phone call was significant in my research because it provided contextual information of détente policies and displayed the importance of the mission in cooling political tensions as well as furthering collaborative efforts between the United States and Russia during the 1970s. Ford, Peyton. “Operation Paperclip.” Department of Justice. 20 Feb 1948, pp. 1-27, National Archives at Atlanta. . Accessed 20 Mar 2018. Operation Paperclip was a government operation that aimed to recruit a group of 104 German rocket scientists, many of whom had originally worked under the Nazi Regime. Many of these scientists, including Werner von Braun, would prove to be instrumental in the success of the NASA and the United States’ victory in the space race. These documents on this operation, which provide extensive detail on how the mission was carried out, were very important in my understanding of how and why tensions between the United States and Soviet Union were emerging, eventually leading to the Nuclear Arms Race and Space Race. Jones, Jerry. “The President’s Participation at the Televised Launch of the Russian Soyuz Spacecraft.” State Department Auditorium. 14 July 1975, pp. 1-21. Gerald R Ford Presidential Library and Museum. . Accessed 15 Dec 2017. This government document from the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library gave a brief timeline and transcript of the president’s involvement with the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The document includes a brief schedule and a transcript of his interaction with the mission crew. By reading this transcript between Ford and the astronauts and cosmonauts, I was better able to understand the goals and purpose of the mission under the mission under the context of how it eased political tensions between the nations and set the stage for further space exploration and compromise through the international space station. Nicogossian, Arnauld E. “The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Medical Report.” Scientific and Technical Information Office. 1977, pp. 1–140, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. . Accessed 5 Feb 2018. These mission documents focus primarily on the medical reports of the astronauts and cosmonauts who took part in the Apollo-Soyuz Test project, as well as some information about the experiments performed and the systems maintained on the Apollo and Soyuz modules in order to ensure the safety of the crew members throughout the mission. This document furthered my understanding of my subject by providing extremely valuable information pertaining to the pressure systems invented and utilized during the mission because it is a prime example of the new technology created because of the compromise and collaboration undertaken by the two space programs. I also learned a great deal about the experiments undertaken throughout the mission and the design and use of space suits in order to create conditions necessary to sustain human life in space. Page, Lou and Thornton Page. “Apollo-Soyuz Pamphlet No. 1” U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. 1977, pp. 1-67, National Institute of Education. . Accessed 13 Feb 2018. This in depth government document provides a great deal of information about the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. From it, I was given a general timeline of the mission training and operations, information about the experiments performed during the mission, and information about the primary goals of the mission. This was useful in my research as it helped me understand many of the scientific experiments and discoveries made while the crew members were in space. Wilson, Carroll. “Russian Atomic Bomb Progress.” Oak Ridge Operations Office. 20 Oct 1945, pp. 1, National Archives at Atlanta. . Accessed 20 Oct 2018. This document from the National Archives at Atlanta displays an official government report on the advancement of the Soviet Atomic Bomb. Much of the scientific information utilized by the Soviet Union to create the atomic bomb was from spies stationed in America during the Manhattan project, so this document calls for greater secrecy in future nuclear production. This document was important in my research as it helped me understand the amount of secrecy and conflict between the United States and Soviet Union during the early Cold War and Nuclear Arms race, which would eventually change during the détente policy of the Nixon administration. Films:“1961: Kennedy Speech to Congress.” YouTube, uploaded by International Astronautical Federation, 24 Oct 2011, . Accessed 24 Jan 2018. This source is a speech that president John F Kennedy spoke to congress during the height of the Space Race. In this famous and pivotal speech, Kennedy urges congress to help the United States land a man on the moon by the end of the decade. I used this speech in my documentary when I discussed the space race and the United States’ eventual victory in this endeavor. “American V-2 Rocket at White Sands (1947).” YouTube, uploaded by AIRBOYD, 6 Apr 2012, . Accessed 22 May 2018. This video depicts the United States army testing the launch of a German V-2 rocket at White Sands. This video gave me a lot of information about how the United States utilized German rocketry technology to help catapult their space program to victory during the Space Race. I used some clips from this film in my documentary when I discussed the German rocketry program and its effects on the space race. “The German War Files German Jets and V1 and V2 Flying Bombs of WW2.” YouTube, uploaded by BlueCrystalGem, 19 Jan 2013. . Accessed 20 Nov. 2017. This video displays a vast amount of information on German rocketry and Jet technology utilized during World War II. Much of this technology was utilized by the United States during the Space Race, as German scientists like Werner Von Braun helped lead the American space program to victory. I used clips from this film in my documentary when I discussed the German rocketry and its importance to NASA later on. “The Latest Revelation That Ties the Trump Campaign to Russia.” YouTube, uploaded by Vox and CBS News, 31 Oct 2017, watch?v=w2crPDgnHeo. Accessed 20 Nov 2018. This video is from CBS news and shows allegations of Russian involvement with the last American election. This video is reflective of increasing tensions between the two countries and I used I tin my video when I discussed these tensions rising in recent years.Mauer, Raymond J., Writer. Duck and Cover. Produced by Anthony Rizzo, US Federal Civil Defense Administration, 1951. Accessed 19 Nov 2017. This video was a propaganda piece created by the United States Federal Civil Defense Administration in the early 1950s. The video was shown to millions of school children across the United States, and teaches these children to “Duck and Cover” in the event of an atomic bomb striking somewhere in the United States. This is a major reflection of the propaganda and unease created during the early Cold War as a result of the threat of the arms race and possible nuclear destruction during the time period. I used this video in my documentary when I discussed this conflict to help support this argument. “NASA rocket launch - The Mission of Apollo / Soyuz – 1975.” YouTube, uploaded by Charlie Dean Archives, 19 Oct 2013, . Accessed 4 Apr 2018.This video depicts the liftoff of the Apollo spacecraft during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. It displays much of the excitement and nervousness exhibited by crew members in the control center, as the Unites States and Soviet Union would eventually make history through this mission. I used this video in my documentary when discussing the liftoff of this historic mission. “Newly Declassified Films Show US Nuclear Tests.” YouTube, uploaded by Atomic Tests Channel, 16 Mar 2017, . Accessed 24 Jan 2018. This source consists of video footage of the first hydrogen bomb ever tested by the United States. This video we important in my understanding of the significant power the bomb had and the damage the bomb could inflict. I decided to use this video in my documentary when I talked about unease in both American and Soviet societies created by the production of nuclear weapons like these bombs because it shows why these weapons cause so much unease. “Russian Forces Officially Enter the Crimea Region of Ukraine.” YouTube, uploaded by ABC News, 2 Mar 2014, watch?v=YR_cmn2qeck. Accessed 9 Apr 2018. This video is a new source from ABC News that aired in 2014 that showed the Russian annexation of the Crimean Republic and the United States government’s response to this action. It is reflective on the reasoning behind recent conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union and I used it in my documentary when I discussed this conflict as I connected the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project to modern times. “Stalin’s Final Speech 1952.” YouTube, uploaded by Scott W. Palmer, 30 Aug 2015, . Accessed 27 Oct 2017. This source is a Russian video with English subtitles that displays Joseph Stalin’s last speech. It provided me with contextual evidence and new information about the nature of communism and consequently why it was so threatening to American democracy from this video. I used this video when I discussed the reasons that the Cold War started and the varying viewpoints about capitalism and communism from the two superpowers during the Cold War. The Truman Doctrine. Pronouncement of the Truman Doctrine. 12 Mar. 1947. ics/cold-war/cold-war-history/videos/the-truman-doctrine. Accessed 14 Nov 2017. This source contains a film of president Harry Truman pronouncing the Truman Doctrine to the American public and the rest of the world. The Truman Doctrine was a political statement made in 1947 that declared that the United States would take any action they deemed necessary to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion, largely as a result of attempts by the Soviets to annex Turkey and Greece. I used this video in my documentary because when I discussed reasons for tensions between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. as the Cold War began because of it provides great evidence for this conflict between the two countries. Interviews:England, Anthony. Personal interview. 10 Nov. 2017.I was lucky enough to interview Dr. Anthony England, a former astronaut, flight engineer, and mission specialist for the NASA program. Mr. England has had a long and successful career with NASA, as he served on the Apollo 13 and Apollo 16 backup astronaut crews, worked as a mission scientist on the Apollo-Soyuz Mission, and even went to space on the STS-51F space shuttle, logging over 3,000 flying hours and 188 hours in space. He is currently Dean of the College of Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan. Talking to Dr. England was extremely important in my research and understanding of the topic, as he provided firsthand accounts about what it was like to work with the Soviets, what life was like as an astronaut, and even talked about flying in space. We also discussed the context of the Cold War and the space race during the time period and the importance of compromise and collaboration between space programs today, as demonstrated by the International Space Station. Overall, this interview was extremely important in my research because it provided me with great firsthand accounts about the Apollo-Soyuz test project and showed me why political compromise through space exploration is so important. Stafford, Thomas P., Vance D. Brand, Deke Slayton, Alexey Leonov, and Valeri Kubasov. Interview by John Dailey. Apollo-Soyuz Crew Speaks at Air and Space Museum. 2005. . Accessed 8 Jan. 2018.This video displays an interview between the five astronauts part of the Apollo-Soyuz Test project at the Air and Space Museum. It truly showed the friendships developed between the astronauts during their time together and in their joint work and was a prime example of how compromise through scientific advancement can be so successful. As this fairly recent video displays the importance of this historic mission, this interview helped me realize that it important today that we embody the ideals of compromise and collaboration and was a major influence on the formulation of my thesis. Newspapers:"Apollo, Soyuz Depart After Historic Meet."?The Desert Sun, 19 July 1975, p. A1. Accessed 4 Jan 2018.This newspaper report, from The Desert Sun, was very important in my understanding of the public’s viewpoints and outlook on the mission at the time. The newspaper discusses the impact of the two countries working together, including a quote from Thomas Stafford saying, “I think we have taken a great step, that indeed we have opened a new era in the history of man.” By reading this newspaper, I was able to develop a better understanding of how the public’s changing viewpoints about foreign relations and compromise rather than conflict in the Cold War led to great advancement in the relationships between the countries. Wilford, John N. "U.S. and Soviet Astronauts Unite and then Join in Historic Handshake."?New York Times, 18 July 1975, p. 1. Accessed 8 Jan 2018. This source is a newspaper article about the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project published the day after the mission was launched in the New York Times. The newspaper recaps the entire mission, and pays special attention to the first handshake in space performed on the flight and the phone call made my president Ford to the astronauts. This source was important for my research because it helped me understand specific details of the mission and the reaction of the American public towards the mission as détente policies began to occur in the mid 1970s. Pictures:1972: Nixon in China. 1972. National Geographic Society - National Archives. National Geographic, . Accessed 10 Feb. 2018.This photograph is part of a series that shows president Richard Nixon visiting China in 1972. Nixon decided to start visiting communist nations under détente policy, which sought to ease political tensions between the United States and these nations, like China. This was an important step towards ending the Cold War, and was a reflection of the policy that made missions like the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project eventually possible. I used this picture when discussing détente policy and the reasons why the conflict of the space race was replaced with collaborative missions like Apollo-Soyuz. Any Bonds Today: Selling Support for World War II. 1944. Wall Street, United States of America. National Archives. . Accessed 3 Feb 2018. This photograph, taken on Wall Street during the heat of World War II, depicts an effort by the United States government to sell war bonds to help support the war effort. I used this picture in my documentary when I talked about American capitalism and democracy and its differences from Soviet communism. I chose this picture because I believe that it embodies American democracy and the spirit of capitalism. Apollo-Soyuz. 1972-1975. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. . Accessed 22 Jan 2018. This NASA website provides a photograph gallery with many official pictures of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. I used many of these pictures in my documentary, primarily when discussing the Apollo-Soyuz mission itself and the relationships between the astronauts. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: An Orbital Partnership Is Born. 1975. Johnson Space Center, United States of America. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, . Accessed 19 Feb 2018. This source is a photograph of American astronaut Deke Slayton and Russian Cosmonaut Aleksey Leonov smiling and embracing each other in a weightless environment during formal mission training. During the three-year span of training, the crew members spent a great deal of time together and developed friendships that would last a lifetime. I chose to use this photograph in my documentary when discussing the crew members and their mission because it is a great reflection of this friendship as well as the desire of the United States as the U.S.S.R to promote peaceful interaction and cooperation during a period of détente in the mid 1970s. Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Image Gallery. 1975. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ics/history/features/astp_gallery.html. Accessed 13 Jan 2018. This source consists of NASA’s official image gallery for the entire Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. It included many pictures of the crew members before the mission and interacting with one another, pictures of the space crafts used to launch the crew into orbit, and pictures of operations during the mission. I used ten of these pictures throughout my documentary because they are extremely clear, reliable, and accurately reflect the nature of the mission. A crowd of people surround the demolished head of a statue of Joseph Stalin, including Daniel Sego, the man who cut off the head, during the Hungarian Revolt. 1956. Budapest, Hungary. Hulton Archive. . Accessed 19 Feb 2018. This photograph primarily displays a man named Daniel Sego, a Hungarian nationalist that cut off the head of a statue of Joseph Stalin and spit on it during the Hungarian Revolution against Soviet rule. The website I obtained this photograph from provided some valuable information about Joseph Stalin and the nature of Communist rule and expansion, which was important in helping me understand the broader scope of my project. I decided to include this picture in my documentary because I feel that it accurately displays the tensions created by Soviet rule and expansion during the Cold War and reactions to this. The Four Power Agreement Fused the Objectives of Ostpolitik and Dentente, Setting Germany on the Path to Reunification. 1971. Richard Nixon Foundation. . Accessed 11 Oct 2017. This photograph of Richard Nixon depicts the Four Power Agreement, which was a major step towards easing political tensions during the Cold War. This was characteristic of American foreign policy during the time period, and I used this photograph in my documentary to display these ideas when I discussed the transition between the conflict of the Space Race to the compromise brought by the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Expanding Détente into International Economics. 1971. Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum. . Accessed 12 Dec 2017. This photograph displays Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev meeting to expand détente policy into international economics. It displays the two leaders in discussion, which is a reflection of the atmosphere of increasingly less hostile relations between the two superpowers during the time period. I used this photograph in my documentary when I talked about detent policy fostered by the Nixon administration and how these policies led to projects like the Apollo-Soyuz test project. Hubble Telescope Images. February 2018. and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. images/gallery. Accessed 18 Nov 2017. This source contains the image gallery for the pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. I used two of these photographs in my documentary when I discussed experiments conducted collaboratively by the Apollo and Soyuz programs to determine the amount of particles in the atmosphere.Imparato, Roberto. The Music of the End of the War. 1945. Berlin, Germany. Quinte Parallele, . Accessed 8 Oct 2017. This photograph is part of a large collection pertaining to the destruction of Berlin as a result of bombings towards the end of World War II. The picture displays the destruction of a Berlin street, as buildings are shattered and broken cobblestone is piled across the entirety of the street. This picture was very important in helping contextualize the cause of the Cold War and I used it in my documentary when I discussed the destruction cause by World War II and rebuilding efforts funded primarily by the United States. International Space Station Gallery. 1998. United States of America. Boeing. . Accessed 19 Jan 2018.This source is a photograph gallery of the International Space Station. It provides a wide variety of photographs involving the ISS, including one of an astronaut performing work on the Space Station during a space walk. I used this picture in my documentary when I discussed what the International Space Station is and how the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project led to the creation of this project later on. President Kennedy Delivering Speech. 1962. Rice University, United States of America. Penn State College of the Liberal Arts, . Accessed 2 Sept 2018.This photograph depicts President John F. Kennedy during his famous “Moon Speech” at Rice University. In this speech, Kennedy urges the United States to emphasize funding for space exploration and to achieve a common goal of landing a man on the moon by the end of the decade (1970). I decided to use this picture in my documentary when I talked about NASA’s increased focus on space exploration as a result of Kennedy’s perseverance to achieve this goal and beat the Soviet Union in the Space Race. S75-22856. 1975. Johnson Space Center, United States of America. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. centers/johnson/about/history/jsc50/S75-22856.html. Accessed 13 Dec 2017. This NASA website provided me with information and pictures about the formal mission training astronauts underwent during their preparation time before the mission. During this time, astronauts practiced experiments, learned a new language, and got to know one another very well. I used a picture of this training in my documentary to reflect the friendships made between the astronauts and cosmonauts as they got to know one another over time.S75-24030. 1975. Johnson Space Center, United States of America. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. . Accessed 13 Dec 2017. This source is a photograph of the Apollo-Soyuz Crew members next to their respective national flags and in front of a portrait that represents their historic mission and collaboration in space. I decided to use this photograph in my documentary during my conclusion, as I feel it accurately represents the friendly partnership between the two nations and the crew members involved with the mission. Space Station Images. 1998-Present. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. . Accessed 22 Feb 2018.This source is the official NASA image gallery for the International Space Station, in which dozens of high quality pictures are provided of the space station in orbit, the astronauts who are working on the space station, and the international relations involved with this collaborative project. I pictures from this gallery when I discussed the importance of the ISS in my documentary. Sputnik I. 1957. Russia. IDIS. . Accessed 12 Feb 2018. This source is photograph of a Russian scientist working on the world’s first satellite, Sputnik. This was a very important advancement in the history of space exploration and its launch struck fear into many American hearts. I used this photograph in my documentary when I discussed the launch and implications of Sputnik. Symbolism of the Berlin Wall during the Cold War. 1961. Berlin, Germany. Warfare History Network. . Accessed 2 Feb 2018. This photograph is of a soldier that is on patrol of the Berlin Wall, a major symbol of the heated conflict produced by the Cold War. I used this photograph when discussing the context of the Cold War and the tensions that it caused. U.S.-China relations in historical perspective. 1972. China. LinkedIn, Accessed 23 Nov. 2017.This website shows a picture of president Richard Nixon and Mao Zedong meeting during Nixon’s historic visit to China. This photograph was a part of Nixon’s detente policies, calling for collaboration and compromise rather than conflict in the Cold War. I used this photograph in my documentary when I discussed this shift from conflict to compromise during the early 1970s. U.S. ground forces receive close air support in an attempt to flush enemy troops from their hillside entrenchments. Korea. United States Naval Institute, . Accessed 12 Nov 2018. This photograph depicts a battle occurring during the Korean War, which was an attempt by the United states to stop the spread of communism in Korea. I used this photograph in my documentary when I commented on the increasing conflict of the Cold War. The Vladivostok Summit Meeting on Arms Control. November 23-24, 1974. Vladivostok, Russia. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum, library/exhibits/vladivostok/vladivostok.asp. Accessed 28 Jan 2018. This source is a website that provides information about the The Vladivostok Summit Meeting on Arms Control within the scope of détente during the 1970s between the United States and Russia. This meeting would be a precursor to the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and was a reflection of the cooling of tensions between the Unites States and Soviet Union. West Berlin, Germany. Marshall Plan Aid to Germany Totaled $1,390,600 and Enabled That Country to Rise from the Ashes of Defeat, as Symbolized by This Worker in West Berlin. 1950. Germany. National Archives and Records Administration, historical-docs/todays-doc/?dod-date=605. Accessed 27 Nov 2017. This website contains a photograph that I used in my documentary. The photograph captures a German worker laboring under a sign that promotes the Marshall, an American plan for rebuilding much of western Europe after the destruction created by World War II. This plan was controversial however, as many saw it as a way for the United States to exercise economic control and profit over the destruction cause by war. I decided to use this picture in my project when I talked about the rebuilding efforts in Europe because I felt that it properly displayed the nature of the Marshall Plan. White House Photographs. 1975. Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. Accessed 4 May 2018.This archive of photographs depicts images from the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project as well as President Ford himself making a telephone call to the astronauts during their mission in space. These photographs were a major reflection of Ford’s support and involvement with the project, and I used a few of these pictures in my documentary when I discussed the operations of the mission. William, Cecil. ST-A13-60-62. President John F. Kennedy and Astronaut John Glenn Look Inside Friendship 7 Space Capsule. 1962. Cape Canaveral, United States of America. John F Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. . Accessed 28 Jan 2018. This photograph, from the John F Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, depicts the president looking into the “Friendship 7” capsule, which held astronaut John Glenn as he orbited the Earth three times. This photograph is characteristic of Kennedy’s New Frontier policies that promoted space exploration. I decided to use this photograph in my documentary when I discussed America’s success in the Space Race. With her brother on her back a war weary Korean girl tiredly trudges by a stalled M-26 tank, at Haengju, Korea. 1951. Haengju, Korea. National Archives: Korean War Records. . Accessed 5 May 2018. This photograph shows a young Korean girl carrying her younger brother near a tank during the Korean War. This picture was interesting to me because it displays the effects that the war had on civilians in Korea as a result of American foreign policy and the spread of communism, which led to intense warfare throughout the Korean peninsula. I used this photograph when I discussed the Korean War and the spread of communism during the Cold War. The Yalta Conference, 1945. 1945. Lividia Palace, Crimea. Office of the Historian: Department of State. . Accessed 24 May 2018. This photograph is of the Yalta Conference, a post World War II conference in which relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were at their height. The picture displays Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Josef Stalin, the three major leaders of the Allied Nations during World War II. I used this picture at the very beginning of my documentary to display the temporary alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union during World War II. Yuri Gagarin – Went into Space and Found God. 1961. Russia. Real Life Stories. . Accessed May 27, 2018. This photograph is a depiction of the famous Soviet cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin. Gagarin was the first man ever to be launched into space. I used this picture in my documentary when I discussed Gagarin’s trip to space and the early success of the Soviet space program. Secondary SourcesBooks:Ezell, Edward Clinton., and Linda Neuman Ezell. The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Dover, 2011.This book gives a chronological summary and analysis of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and its importance in overall relations between the United States and Russia during the Cold War. It also provided vast information on the experimentation and formalities observed during the mission, which was instrumental in my research by helping me understand my topic under the scope of cooling tensions between the United States and Soviet Union. Pictures:Howell, Elizabeth. Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: Russians and Americans Meet in Space. 1975. . 20833-apollo-soyuz.html. Accessed 06 Apr 2018. This source is a graphic depiction of the Apollo and Soyuz modules in rendezvous while orbiting the Earth. The website containing this picture also provided valuable information about the Apollo-Soyuz Test project, such as general knowledge about the objectives of the mission and contextualization about the nature of the mission and its goal to promote peaceful cooperation between the two nations as the Space Race and Cold War were coming to an end. I used this picture in my documentary in when I talked about the rendezvous between the two space crafts because it is an accurate and ascetically appealing representation of this phenomena. Interviews:Clune, Lori. Personal interview. 16 Jan 2018. Dr. Clune is currently a modern American history professor at Fresno State University and she specializes in Cold War history. I was very lucky to interview her over the telephone about my topic and the Cold War in general. This interview was instrumental in my research because Dr. Clune provided me with great contextual and detailed information that helped me understand the Apollo-Soyuz Test project on a much deeper level. For example, she provided a great deal of information about the space race and detente policies that occurred after this especially under presidents Nixon and Ford. I used some of the information that Dr. Clune shared with me in my documentary, especially when talking about the Space Race. Music:London Philharmonic Orchestra. “Halo: Never Forget/Peril.” The Greatest Video Game Music 2, X5 Music Group, 2012. Spotify, piece is part of a playlist of videogame music performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra. I used this piece when I discussed the importance of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and during my conclusion towards the end of the documentary. Muse.?“The 2nd Law: Isolated System.” The 2nd System, Warner Music UK Limited, 2012. Spotify, . I used this song at the beginning of my documentary when introducing my project and providing the viewer information about the context of the Cold War conflict between the United States and the U.S.S.R created during the time period. I decided to use this piece because it helps build up tension as my video moved through time and reflects the conflict created by the Cold War and the Nuclear Arms Race. Phillip Glass. “Mishima/Closing.” Mishima, Elektra/Asylum/ Nonesuch Records, 1985. Spotify, piece, by Phillip Glass, is from the soundtrack of the film “Mishima.” I used this song when I talked about the success of the NASA during the space race, introducing the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, and the relationships between the Soviet and American space programs during their joint work. Phillip Glass. “Morning Passages.” The Hours (Music from the Motion Picture Soundtrack), Nonesuch Records, 2002. Spotify, . This piece, by Phillip Glass, is originally from the movie “The Hours.” I used this song when I discussed German rocketry, early Soviet accomplishments during the space race, and American reactions towards these endeavors. Schaffer, Rik. “Northpoint Nocturne.” The Elder Scrolls Online Original Game Soundtrack, Betheseda Softworks, 2014. Spotify, piece is from the soundtrack of a videogame that I enjoy playing called “Skyrim.” I decided to use this song in my project when I discussed the operations and importance of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and the introduction of the International Space Station as a result of progress made through Apollo-Soyuz. Websites:“Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: 1st U.S.-Russian Spaceflight Pictures.” , 13 July 2012, 16578-apollo-soyuz-test-project-pictures.html. Accessed 13 Oct 2017. This website provided a series of 19 pictures in chronological order and corresponding descriptions of these pictures that had to do with the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. I used this source early on in my research to obtain a general understanding of the timeline of events that occurred before, during, and after the mission and to understand on a greater level the importance of the events that occurred during this time period. Draper, James W.?“Collections at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum” Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library, . Accessed 4 Oct. 2017. This website, from the Gerald R Ford Presidential Library, displays a model of the space crafts utilized during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project gifted from Alexey Leonov and Valeri Kubasov President Ford. This gift is a major reflection of the comradery and appreciation developed by the mission crew members for one another. This is a major example of how compromise and collaboration between nations is extremely important in developing meaningful and lasting relationships by moving away from conflict. Krasnyak, Olga. “The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: Ideal Science Diplomacy.” USC Center on Public Diplomacy, 14 Aug. 2017, . This website primarily focuses on the scientific diplomacy undertaken during the the 1970s, with major emphasis on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. This website provided me with great and detailed information on the compromise undertaken by both space programs in order to make this mission possible. It also discusses the formal mission training and interactions between the crew members of the mission, which reflects détente and collaborative efforts to further scientific advancement.Loff, Sarah. “Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.” National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 16 Apr. 2015, mission_pages/apollo-soyuz/index.html. Accessed 5 Nov 2017.This source is the official NASA website for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The website gives a brief overview of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, gives contextual information about the Cold War with respect to the mission, provides information about the crew members that underwent the mission, and provides a series of pictures of the mission that I used in my documentary. This website helped my research by giving me a basic understanding of my topic and its use of quotes from the crew members made this much more personalized for me. Loughran, Jack. “Tiny experiments assessing impact of space on immune system, cancer, and neurons sent to ISS.” Engineering and Technology. 19 Dec 2017. . Accessed 25 Nov 2017. This website discusses advances made on the International Space Station in great detail. For example, it explains how experiments performed under the microgravity of the ISS on cancer cells and neurons are leading to major biological breakthroughs for the international community. This reaffirms the idea that international cooperation through science and space exploration is mutually beneficial for all parties. I also used a photograph of the ISS from this website in my documentary when explaining what the ISS is. Morgan, Kellie. “Celebrating Historic Handshake in Space, 40 Years Later.” CNN, Cable News Network, 15 July 2015, 2015/07/15/world/space-handshake-anniversary/index.html. Accessed 20 Sept 2017. This modern CNN article gives a brief overview of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, such as the research performed and implications of the joint mission, but by the time I had stumbled upon this site I had already learned all of the information given. However, I did use a few of the pictures presented on the site in my documentary when discussing the the importance of the mission in cooling tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union and the mission itself. ................
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