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Annotated BibliographyThe Apollo-Soyuz Mission: Launching a Unified Exchange Primary SourcesArtifacts Deke Slayton's "Personal" Crew Patch. 1975. Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctions, California. Comp. NASA. Web. 24 Apr. 2016. < of the crew on board the Apollo-Soyuz spacecraft wore their own personal, unique cre patch, recognizing their contribution the Apollo-Soyuz mission. This small memento helped us understand the Apollo-Soyuz mission distinctively against all other space missions. We found this artifact, as it was given to the Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctions, where it is for sale. Flown Brass Flashlight. 1975. Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctions, California. Comp. NASA. Web. 24 Apr. 2016. < shown of Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctions, NASA had given one flashlight to each Apollo-Soyuz crew member to help them throughout their mission, where it had proven itself useful to everyone of them. The brass flashlight remains a small reminder for all Apollo-Soyuz crew members leaving an everlasting memory on this successful mission. Flown Gold Robbins Medallion with Diamond. 1975. Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctions, California. Comp. NASA. Web. 24 Apr. 2016. < striking custom medallion has the launch date of the Apollo-Soyuz mission, July 15, 1975. With the entry date, July 24, 1975, engraved on the back. We discovered this artifact on the Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctions’ website, as it holds as one of the most notable memento from the Apollo-Soyuz mission. Gold Medallion. 1975. Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctions, California. Comp. NASA. Web. 24 Apr. 2016. < located this memento on the Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctions’ website, where it is one of the only Russian-issued medal depicts of the Apollo-Soyuz spacecrafts. It has a bilingual inscription: "Apollo Soyuz Test Project / 1975,” and is an important medallion we have not seen before. NASA Distinguished Service & Outstanding Leadership Medals. 1975. Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctions, California. Comp. NASA. Web. 24 Apr. 2016. < the Apollo-Soyuz mission, the crew members have all proved themselves with outstanding leadership and service for the space industry and future space achievements. This being the second highest NASA reward had been given to the members on the Apollo Soyuz mission, helping us understand the significance of this mission. Signed ASTP Souvenir Sheet. 1975. Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctions, California. Comp. NASA. Web. 24 Apr. 2016. < discovered this artifact on the Ira & Larry Goldberg Auctions’ website. This souvenir sheet, has been signed by all the astronauts and cosmonauts of the Apollo-Soyuz mission. It helps us understand the value of the Apollo-Soyuz mission. Russia, comp. Apollo-Soyuz Spacecraft Docking. 1975. Postage Stamp. Russia, Moscow.This postage stamp was made in 1975, shortly after the successful Apollo-Soyuz mission. The Soviet Union had produced an uncountable amount of memorabilia regarding the Apollo-Soyuz mission. Both the USA and USSR, were very proud about their progress in the space industry and their friendship. Russia, comp. Apollo-Soyuz Mission Crew. 1975. Postage Stamp. Russia, Moscow.The Apollo-Soyuz mission brought pride and confidence for the Soviet Union’s progress in various space fields. They had produced numerous amounts of artifacts regarding the first joint mission between the USA and USSR. This stamp is just another example of the friendship built by this mission. Russian Matchbox. 1959. On A Soviet Matchbox.This matchbox from the Soviet Union was a cartoon drawing of the progress from the CCCP during the Space Race. It had featured Sputnik, Laika and other famous, successful spacecraft from the USSR. This artifact proved to us the pride successful missions brought to the Soviet Union. Books Aldrin, Buzz, and Wendell Minor. Look to the Stars. New York: G.P. Putnam's, 2009. posed by Buzz Aldrin, the book Look to the Stars tells of the experience he had when on the mission, Apollo 11. It focuses on the development of the first rockets built, space stations, and the Space Race against the Soviet Union. We collected this book in the Singapore American School Middle School library.Ezell, Edward Clinton, and Linda Neuman Ezell. The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1978. Print.As soon as we finalized our topic, we found this book, The Partnership that is all about the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. Written by Edward Clinton and Linda Ezell, this book shows the inside look on the mission preparation and the mission itself. Including the partnership between the US astronauts with the Russian cosmonauts, the book went in depth about the back and forth traveling between Moscow and Houston. Leonov, Alexey, and David Scott. Two Sides of the Moon. New York: Thomas Dune, 2004. Print.In this dual autobiography written by Alexey Leonov and David Scott, they explain each mission they were ever on, retelling the problems they encountered, and planets they explored. This book, was very helpful for our understanding about Alexey Leonov as he was also on the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. We obtained this book in the Singapore American School Middle School library.Slayton, Donald K., and Michael Cassutt. Deke!: U.S. Manned Space: From Mercury to the Shuttle. New York: Forge, 1994. Print.This autobiography written by Donald Slayton, consisted of explicit details regarding the Mercury seven mission. We acquired this book in the Singapore American School Middle School library. Although the book focused mainly on the Mercury mission, Deke added information about the Apollo-Soyuz mission, talking about the excitement he had knowing that he’ll be able to go to space. Stafford, Thomas P., and Michael Cassutt. We Have Capture: Tom Stafford and the Space Race. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 2002. Print.From Thomas Stafford’s perspective, reading this book gave us insight on the Apollo-Soyuz mission. While searching for quotes to enhance our exhibit, we realized this book would have valuable information. Obtained from the Singapore American School Middle School library, Mr. Stafford had given us a look into his everyday life during his training.DocumentariesApollo-Soyuz Test Project Documentary. Dir. NASA. NASA, 2009. Film Seen in Stafford Museum. This documentary was filled with video clips of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Projects control room. We were given an inside look on how the spacecraft took off, the countdown, and the emotions of the astronauts during takeoff. It was a very different perspective compared to the more statistical one that we have been experiencing. NASA. "Moonwalk One - Apollo 11 : Neil Armstrong - The First Man on the Moon - 1969 NASA Documentary." N.p., 1969. Web. 11 May 2016.In this documentary from NASA, it features extensive coverage of the July 1969 launch of the Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin to the moon. The flim complies video clips of activities of both the astronauts and mission control during pre-launch and launch sequences, daily activities aboard the spacecraft and the moonwalk."Thomas Stafford and Alexey Leonov Meet at the OMEGA Pavilion at Sochi 2014." Omega Watches, 11 Feb. 2014. Web. 06 Feb. 2016. < Stafford and Alexey Leonov met yet again, this time at the Omega Pavilion at Sochi. They had discussed the importance of this mission and how the USA and USSR had to work together despite their past conflicts. The two countries had “worked together to a common goal that would help benefit all mankind.”Email CorrespondenceBrand, Vance. "High School Students Requesting Interview." Message to the author. 11 May. 2016. E-mail.After going back and forth with Duane Hyland, Mr. Hyland has finally gotten us a written response for our interview questions. Vance Brand, one of the crew members aboard the Apollo-Soyuz spacecraft, answered our questions truthfully and thoughtfully. He included all the intricate details of the technical difficulties he encountered and the technological ideas that was exchanged during the joint mission. InterviewsBrand, Vance. "Former Astronaut Vance Brand Oral History." Interview.American History TV. NASA, 17 June 2010. Web. 13 Feb. 2016.< years after the Apollo-Soyuz Mission, former astronaut Vance Brand was asked to come onto the American History TV to explain the training he went through. He explained the tension between the two Cold War rivals, and how he wasn’t sure if the mission would complete the goal of bringing the USA and the USSR closer. "Glynn Lunney." Telephone interview. 13 May 2016.From contacting the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautic, we received the email address for Duane Hyland. Through Mr. Hyland we managed to get in contact with Glynn Lunney, the flight director of the Apollo-Soyuz mission. During our 30 minute telephone interview, he explicitly explained the countless number of experiments the Apollo-Soyuz crew went through. Without this interview, we would’ve never known about the experiments. "I Could See Armstrong Bouncing on the Moon" Interview. Russia Today, 21 July 2009. Web.< Today conducted an interview with a famous cosmonaut, Aleksey Leonov, who was part of the mission we are researching. Discovered on the internet while researching, the interview gave us an primary view on how Leanov explored a new part of space research, and encountered a challenging and historical space mission. "Interview with Astronaut Vance Brand." Interview. California ScienCenter. California ScienCenter, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2016. < California Science Center conducted an interview with Vance Brand, an Apollo astronaut in the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. This interview gave us his insight on working with the Russians during the Cold War, along with pictures and lots more information. Moreover, from this interview, we can truly see what it would be like to be involved in such an influential space mission. Leonov, Alexey. "Interview with Alexey Leonov, the First Man to Walk in Outer Space." Interview. The World Air Sports Federation. General Vladimir Ivanov, 18 Mar. 2015. Web. 13 Feb. 2016.< the 40th Anniversary of the Apollo-Soyuz Mission, The World Air Sports Federation interviewed former cosmonaut Alexey Leonov. The questions varied from the more common, “What made you want to become a cosmonaut?” questions to “How and where do you see the future of aeronautics?”"NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project Oral History Transcript." Interview by Rebecca Wright. NASA. NASA, 25 July 2000. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.< Wright interviewed Vance Brand on July 25, 2000 questioning him about his space career and his outstanding achievements in the space field. In this interview found of NASA’s website, we have acquired many relevant quotes about the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. Helping us understand more about the training for the mission.Stafford, Thomas. "Johnson Space Center Oral History Project." Interview by William Vantine and Michelle Kelly. Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. NASA. Houston, Texas, 15 Oct. 1997. Television. Transcript.<, William Vantine and Michelle Kelly from NASA had interviewed Thomas Stafford about his career as an astronaut. They discussed how Thomas was recruited to join the Mercury project, to working with Russian cosmonauts in the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. Stafford, Thomas. "SpaceFlight Interview: Gen. Thomas P. Stafford Talks past and Future of NASA” Interview. SpaceFlight Insider. SpaceFlight Insider, 11 Nov. 2014. Web. 13 Feb. 2016.< this interview hosted by SpaceFlight Insider, the interviewer questions Thomas Stafford about his experience working in the Air Force, and then with NASA. They also discussed his perspective of the space agency. Stafford, Thomas. "Tom Stafford: The Man on the Moon." Interview.Oklahoma Horizon. Oklahoma Horizon. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 26 June 2011. Television.< Thomas Stafford visited the Stafford Air and Space Museum, he had an short interview discussing his career and what he enjoyed looking at in space. From being a former Air Force officer to a NASA astronaut, he had talked about the transition between working in Earth and in space. Sheinkin, Steve. "Steve Sheinkin." Personal interview. 22 Feb. 2016.We conducted this interview at Singapore American School as we got the chance to interview Mr. Sheinkin as he was a visiting author to our school. Throughout the interview, he gave us a Russian perspective about the Cold War and the place the Space Race was headed. Zolkina, Dana. "Apollo-Soyuz Cosmonaut Kubasov Saved Me From Death - Leonov, First Spacewalker." The Voice of Russia. The Voice of Russia, 20 Feb. 2014. Web. 30 Mar. 2016. < scouring the internet for quotes, this captivating website caught our eye. A radio interview, this transcript was about Alexey Leonov's experience in space during the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. We were given another perspective about the training, conference meetings and the mission itself. We found this source on NASA's website.JournalsApollo-Soyuz Test Project: Information for Press. 1975. Web. 12 May 2016. < released this journal as information for the press and public to educate them about the Apollo-Soyuz mission. The journal acknowledged every experiment and trial that the crew members participated in during their two years of training. It helped us understand and learn more explicit details about the mission training. Brezhnev, Leonid. Letter to Mr. President. 25 July 1975. The National History Archives. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 1-6. The National History Archives. National Archives. Web. 6 Feb. 2016. < General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Leonid Brezhnev, wrote the very first letter to the American president, thanking him and the Apollo crew for their hard work. This letter, found in the National History Archives, helped us understand how the Apollo-Soyuz Mission shaped the relationship of the USA and USSR. Ford, Gerald R. "The White House." Letter to Mr. General Secretary. 17 Sept. 1975. The White House. Moscow: Gerald R. Fold, 1975. 1. The National History Archives. National Archives. Web. 6 Feb. 2016. < in the National History Archives, this letter written by Gerald R. Ford to Mr. General Secretary, showed how close the two countries had gotten. With Gerald R. Fold, congratulating the members of the Apollo-Soyuz crew for travelling together above our planet for thousands of miles. NASA. "Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Design Characteristics." Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1975): 1-50. NASA History Program. NASA. Web. 25 Jan. 2016. < found this journal while searching the NASA History Program website. This journal is filled with information about the Apollo and Soyuz spacecrafts. From learning about the design characteristics to the general configuration, this source gave us an inside look into the spacecrafts.White, Terry, and Bill O'Donnell. "USSR - USA Press Kit." USSR - USA Press Kit 75.118 (1975): 1-123. NASA News. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.< journal gave us information about the preparation of the Apollo-Soyuz Mission, from what the crew ate for meals, to launch preparation, sequences and constraints. With a wide variety of information, we were able to learn about every small detail. This trusted source is from NASA News. PhotographsA Nuclear Weapon of the "Fat Man" Type, the Plutonium Implosion Type Detonated over Nagasaki. 60 Inches in Diameter and 128 Inches Long, the Weapon Weighed about 10,000 Pounds and Had a Yield Approximating 21,000 Tons of High Explosives (Copy from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-AEC). N.d. The National Security Archive. The National Security Archive. Web. 18 May 2016. < the National Security Archives’ website we found an image of a nuclear weapon. World War II was a crucial and critical time to start building nuclear weapons. Most countries was taking part in building their nation’s army against other countries. A P2V Neptune U.S. Patrol Plane Flies over a Soviet Freighter during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. 1962. National Public Radio, Washington D.C. National Public Radio. Web. 18 May 2016. < Cuban Missile Crisis was a 13-day confrontation between the US and the USSR. During these 13 days, tensions were high and patrol planes from both nations were flown over each countries. We obtained this image from the National Public Radio’s website. Alexey Leonov Displays One of His Drawings of Apollo Commander Tom Stafford during the ASTP Flight. 1975. NASA. Nasa History. Web. 18 May 2016. < Leonov was part of the Soyuz crew in the Apollo-Soyuz mission. Besides participating in training activities, he had enjoyed drawing potraits of his crew members; such as Tom Stafford, the Apollo commander. We obtained this image from NASA’s website. An ‘Apollo Eclipse!’. 1975. NASA. Universe Today. Web. 21 May 2016. < of the five joint experiments the Apollo-Soyuz mission accomplished was to take a pictures of a solar eclipse without directly looking at the sun itself. This image was captured by the Apollo crew during the mission, which helped them explore and exchange even more ideas. Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Training. 25 feb. 1975. NASA. NASA. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. < Brand and Valery Kubasov is seen testing out the door in the Soyuz orbital module mock-up in Building 35 during Apollo-Soyuz Test Project joint crew training at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Looking at this photo from NASA’s website, we understood how important and how much training the Apollo-Soyuz Mission crew had gone through. Certificate Signing of First American & Russian Docking. 1975. Great Images in NASA. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. < this photo from NASA’s website, there is a certificate signing of the first American and Russian docking. Cosmonaut Valerly N. Kubasov adds his signature on the certificate. This photo marks the historic moment of the first official joint mission between the USA and the USSR. Communism Americas Mortal Enemy. N.d. Steam Punk. Steam Punk. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. < communism propaganda was made by a citizen in the United States during the Cold War. The hand in the photo is stabbing the the United States with the caption “Communism, America’s Mortal Enemy.” This is one of the many propaganda posters made to protest communism in the Soviet Union. Cosmonaut Alexey A. Leonov and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford Display the Apollo Soyuz Test Project Commemorative Plaque during Training. February 1975. The Apollo Soyuz Test Project Image Gallery. Web. 15 Jan. 2016. < Alexey Leonov and Astronaut Thomas Stafford is seen displaying the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project commemorative plaque during training. This image helped us understand the importance of this mission as the USA and USSR had teamed up to expand their knowledge about space. Cosmonauts on Launch Day. july 15, 1975. NASA. NASA. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. < the cosmonauts got on their Soyuz spacecraft, Valerly N. Kubasov and Alexey Leonov waved to the public at the launch pad. This photo was taken by NASA, capturing the Russian cosmonauts excitement to go space after waiting patiently for the past seven hours, after the Apollo crew had taken off. Finally, the years of training was going to be pay off during this nine day mission. Five Men, Two Nations, One Crew. N.d. NASA. NASA. Web. 15 Jan. 2016. < the five astronauts/cosmonauts working in the Apollo-Soyuz Mission pose for a picture to remember to very successful mission. It was a remarkable image as during this mission, the USA and USSR were still in the Cold War. Flag Raising Iwo Jima. N.d. WW2 in Color. WW2 in Color. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. < marines waving the American flag during World War 2 is what this photo shows. After six years of a long battle, the war had finally come to an end. In this war, the Communist USSR and democratic USA were forced to ignore their differing political views and become allies."Gargin Greets Khrushchev." Life 21 Apr. 1961: n. pag. Web. 24 May 2016.Yuri Gagarin was the first human to journey through space. His success brought pride to the Soviet Union during the Space Race, awarding them an advantage against the United States. His hardwork and determination had given him the title of a national treasure. "Here Comes Skylab!" Time 14 Aug. 1969: n. pag. Print.Here Comes Skylab! is an article dedicated to the newly invented Skylab. It highlights the first moonwalk ever accomplished by Neil Armstrong. The Skylab would be the first space station ever, created by the United States. Orbiting space for six years, it included a workshop, a solar observatory and other systems. ISS Expedition 37 Crew Portrait inside Kibo. 2013. European Space Agency. ESA. Web. 23 May 2016. < International Space Station was the first joint station shared between various countries. In this particular image, astronauts and cosmonauts from Italy, France and the United States are all huddled together symbolizing closeness in their joint workspace. You can see both the people and the station itself, an enviornment that took years to achieve. Japan Times. 40th Anniversary of U.S. and Russian ‘Handshake in Space’. 2015. Moscow. Japan Times. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. < seen in this photo, Thomas Stafford and Alexey Leonov came together for the 40th anniversary of the Apollo-Soyuz Mission, celebrating the transition from Cold War rivals to best friends. We can see that due to the successful joint mission, Thomas and Alexey have been and will continue to be close, long- time friends. "Man on the Moon." Time 25 Jul. 1969: n. pag. Web. 24 May 2016.This article from Times magazine centers around Neil Armstrong, the first man on the moon. In the beginning the USSR had a head start in the Space Race with Sputnik and Laika. As soon as Neil Armstrong managed to walk of the moon, the United States had shot up against the Soviet Union. NASA. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Commemorative Plaque. 1975. Space, n.p.< a Russian and American astronaut are holding the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Commemorative Plaque, in this photo. After working together for many months, they have finally achieved their goal. Despite the ongoing war on earth, the USSR and uSA managed to work together. We found this photo on the NASA website. NASA. Handshake in Orbit. 1975. Space, n.p.< picture, from NASA’s website about the ASTP, helped us see how the Russians and Americans had created a strong bond. The photo showed cosmonaut Leonov and astronaut Stafford shaking hands during orbit, a moment that would soon become known as the famous “Handshake in Space.” Moreover, it proves the astronauts and cosmonauts were not going to let language impair their communication and connection. NASA Photo Collection. N.d. NASA. Great Images in NASA. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. < this photo, Deke Slayton, one of the five astronauts in the Apollo-Soyuz Mission, is getting suited up. From examining this photo, we can safely assume that there was a lot of preparation necessary for something as simple as clothes, Deke has several tubes inserted in his suit. NASA. President Ford Talks With the Apollo. 1975. Space, n.p.< acquired this source on NASA’s website. It shows us the constant communication required to carry out a mission of such complexity. In this photo, President Ford is on the phone at his desk in the White House, talking to the Apollo crew about their upcoming mission (ASTP). NASA. President Ford With the Crews. N.d. The White House, Washington D.C.< this picture from NASA’s website, we can see how the Russians and Americans astronauts communicated. In this case, they met with President Gerald R. Ford, discussing about the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. This photo helped us understand how contact was made between the space crew and the two countries leaders. NASA. Soyuz in Orbit. N.d. Space, n.p.< from NASA’s website, this photo has an excellent view of the Soyuz spacecraft in Earth’s orbit. We can clearly see the three major components of the Soyuz: the spherical-shaped orbital module, the bell-shaped descent vehicle, and the cylindrical-shaped instrument assembly module from which two solar panels protrude. This clear picture helps us to have a visual representation of the Soyuz shuttle. NASA. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: An Orbital Partnership Is Born. 1975. Space, n.p.< moment, captured in space, showed both Russian and American astronauts laughing together. After overcoming the many encounters they faced, everyone involved in the mission became friends. This photo showed us how they worked together, even after years of being enemies. We collected this photo from NASA’s website. Nixon given Apollo Command Module Briefing. 1975. Great Images in NASA. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. < the mission, Thomas Stafford, an astronaut on the ASTP, gave the 37th US president, Richard Nixon, a briefing on the Apollo Command Module, similar to the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. We obtained this photo from NASA’s website.Race for the Moon. 1968. TIME Magazine, New York. TIME Magazine. Web. 14 Feb. 2016. < used this photograph of the cover of a Times magazine, with the words written“Race to Space” on it, as it shows how the Space Race was one of the battles during the Cold War. Seeing this title helped us understand how the Space Race was taken into acknowledgement, and how many medias advertised it at the time. Red Iceberg. American Poster of the Cold War. 1960. REGNUM. Regnum. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. < Red Iceberg is one of the many pieces of propaganda the US made during the Cold War. The Soviet Union is seen as an iceberg knocking down countries, such as North Korea, East Germany, and so on, into their grave. At the time, little did the two countries know that just 15 years later they would conduct the first joint mission. Soviet Troops Fighting in Afghanistan in 1988. 1988. BBC, Afghanistan. BBC. Web. 23 May 2016. < Afghanistan war against the Soviet Union lasted for 10 years. This image from BBC captured a glimpse of the lessen known war. As seen in the photo, Soviet troops are fighting for their lives in Afghanistan. "Space Spectacular: Science, Politics & Show Biz." Times 21 Jul. 1975n.d.: n. pag. Web. 24 May 2016.This article from Times magazine captures the Space Race. This particular article’s front page consists of hands covered in the American and Soviet Union flag, shaking hands. It indicates the collaboration between the USA and USSR in the Apollo-Soyuz mission, the first joint mission between the two superpowers. Symbol of Cooperation. 1975. NASA. NASA. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. < the nine day mission was over, the Russian cosmonauts and American astronauts can be seen here, holding an assembled commemorative plaque in orbit as a symbol of the international cooperation behind the mission. Capturing this significant event, NASA noted that this plaque was made due to their hard work and training for this mission. The US and Russia Share History's Highest Stage. Web. 15 Jan. 2016. < photo is from the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Press kit from NASA’s website. It was one of the many ASTP diagrams. It was a clear visual that helped give us an idea of how the Apollo-Soyuz spacecraft was shaped. The diagram was very helpful as it had small captions explaining every section of the spacecraft. "The U.S.S.R Celebrates." Life 18 Nov. 1957: n. pag. Web. 24 May 2016.This Life magazine article focuses on the success of Sputnik, highlighting the fact that the Soviet Union now has a head start in the Space Race. According to the article, Sputnik brought satisfaction and happiness to the USSR government. They had built a musesum around the spacecraft. Thomas Stafford Astronaut Photo. 1975. Lyndon B Johnson Space Centre. Lyndon B Johnson Space Centre. Web. 24 May 2016. < Stafford was part of the Apollo crew in the Apollo-Soyuz mission. He was the Apollo commander, he worked side by side the Soyuz crew making this mission the first joint mission between the USA and USSR. This is a portrait of himself wearing a his Apollo-Soyuz spacesuit. Training in Houston. 1975. NASA. NASA. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. < this photo from NASA’s website, we see the Apollo-Soyuz crew sitting on top of the Apollo-Soyuz spacecraft mock-up at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. After having fun throughout the day of training with each other, they still smile and laugh while on top of the spacecraft. U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, U.S. President Jimmy Carter, and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev. 1979. U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State. Web. 18 May 2016. < the Cuban Missile Crisis, they was to conferences to solve the nuclear weapon war, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, Salt I and Salt II. The particular image was taken during Salt II. We obtained this image from the U.S Department of State’s website. Views on Crisis and Opportunity in the Middle East: Israeli and Palestinian Public Opinion. N.d. Brookings, Washington D.C. Brookings. Web. 21 May 2016. < image of the Israel-Palestine conflict captures our ideas of the theme in this year’s competition. The Apollo-Soyuz mission was one giant forced encounter between the two countries. When they worked together, they were successful and accomplished many different experiments in the science field, proving how a forced encounter will lead to a positive exchange. "We Stand Here in the Dusk, the Cold, the Silence, and Here, as at the First of Time, We Lift Our Heads." 1969. Mission Report. Mission Report. Web. 19 Feb. 2016. < in 1969 during the Apollo 11 landing on the moon, this photo helped us understand the historical achievement American made during the Space Race. We obtained this source from NASA’s website. With Her Brother on Her Back a War Weary Korean Girl Tiredly Trudges by a Stalled M-26 Tank. N.d. National Archives. National Archives. Web. 19 Feb. 2016. < get more a visual representation on what World War 2 was like to people, we obtained this photo of a Korean girl trudging through the desert carrying her little brother on her back. It helped us understand the difficult times people were in and the terrible events they had to go through. Won, Lee Jae. North Korean Soldiers (top R) Look across a Concrete Border as a U.S. Army Soldier. 2011. Reuters, North/South Korea Border. Reuters. Web. 23 May 2016. < North Korea and South Korea have had a rough relationship throughout the years, their relationship was similar to the USSR and USA during the Cold War. Our connection to the theme relates to a possible solution to their relationship. A forced encounter between the two nations will create a positive exchange. Websites Dunbar, Brian. "United States-Soviet Space Cooperation During the Cold War." NASA. NASA, 19. May 2008. Web. 28 Feb. 2016. < showing us the relationships between the USA and the USSR, this source helped us see more connections. We found it while doing research about the connections between the countries. Though mainly about the Apollo-Soyuz Mission, it did have information on other relationships between the countries as well."Former Astronaut Recalls Historic Apollo-Soyuz Mission."NASA. NASA, 21 July 2000. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. < article was written 25 years after Vance Brand and his fellow astronauts had worked with their enemy at the time, the Russians. Working with the Russians in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, both countries had to put aside their differences and build a sturdy relationship. Found on NASA’s website, the artcle helped us understand some of the pros and cons of the ASTP.Fries, Colin. "In Tune With Détente." NASA. NASA, n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2016. < the American and Russian astronauts were very keen on exchanging gifts and shaking hands in orbit. The Americans had gone all the way to ask a #1 country singer to translate his hit song to Russian, so the Russian astronauts would be able to understand and sing along. All these little websites from NASA help us to understand how important this mission meant to the Russians and American astronauts involved. Garber, Steve. "Apollo-Soyuz Test Project." NASA History Program. NASA, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2016. < the NASA History Program website, we were given an overview of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, filled with a pre-flight chronology, biographies, and plenty of historical documents. This source helped give us a generalization about the project, making it one of the best resources we had discovered. History.,. "History - The Flight Of Apollo-Soyuz". N. p., 2016. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.< a narrative of the mission, from this site, we also got to confirm the minor, but important, details of the mission such as the time of takeoff, landing, and the duration. Since it was written by NASA, we know that the facts will be accurate and therefore trustworthy. We found this full-of-material source while researching for our exhibit. NASA,. "Apollo-Soyuz: An Orbital Partnership". N. p., 2016. Web. 2 Jan. 2016.< on NASA’s online website, the ASTP page gives us an in-depth understanding of this mission, and it’s historical background. From this website, we learnt the USSR and USA relations, the mission preparation and duration details, saw pictures on and off board the spacecraft, and received links to other sources about this topic. NASA,. "The Apollo-Soyuz Mission". N. p., 2016. Web. 2 Jan. 2016.<’s article, discovered on the internet while researching, gives us the numbers and small details of the mission of our study, the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. It was written in a concise manner and in chronological format. We learnt information of what was happening not only to the astronauts and cosmonauts in outer space, but also knowledge of the events on earth, including the public's reaction and the events in the research center."Strategic Arms Limitations Talks/Treaty (SALT) I and II." Department of State - United States of America. Office of the Historian, n.d. Web. 15 May 2016. < United States’ website from the Office of the Historian, has summarized the Strategic Arms Limitation talks, Salt I and II from the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Office of the Historian had mentioned both sides of the arguments, explaining the US's intentions as well as the USSR’s. The two superpowers had slowly resolved their differences with the help of the conferences Salt I and II. Wilson, Jim. "An Orbiting Partnership Is Born." NASA. Brian Dunbar, 15 July 2005. Web. 19 Feb. 2016. < us additional information on the Apollo Soyuz mission, this website was found while doing research about the project. It helped us see what the outer space really was like through close up pictures and quotes from interviews. Secondary SourcesArtifacts1/72 Apollo 18 & Soyuz 19. 2011. Model of Apollo 18 & Soyuz 19. Singapore, Singapore.This model was found online through a reputable source. By looking at this model of the Apollo-Soyuz, we were able to locate different sections and have a clear visual of the spacecraft. We used this Apollo-Soyuz spacecraft model in our display. It is hanging over our spinning timeline globe, symbolizing the flight of the ASTP. Artist's Concept. 1974. NASA. NASA. Web. 15 Feb. 2016. < painting, made by Robert McCall, an artist in 1974, depicts the planned docking of the Apollo-Soyuz spacecraft. Although it is not technically accurate, the artistic impression and visualization of the ASTP was very influential and is still a popular portrayal of the ASTP today. BooksChaikin, Andrew, Victoria Kohl, and Alan Bean. Mission Control, This Is Apollo: The Story of the First Voyages to the Moon. New York: Viking, 2009. Print.Written by both an Apollo 12 astronaut and an author of several space books, this book shows the Apollo missions, from the first to the seventeenth. We learned a ton of interesting facts through pages stocked with details about each Apollo mission. By getting this book from the Singapore American School Middle School library, we were able to better understand all the developments from day one, till the day of victory. Cole, Michael D. Apollo 11: First Moon Landing. Springfield, NJ: Enslow, 1995. Print. The Apollo 11 was the first spaceship that landed men on the moon. This book showed the full process with a descriptive explanation on how they got back on earth. In addition, the Apollo 11 was the final mission that was the key for the United States of America to beat the Soviet Union in the Space Race. We received this book from the Singapore American School Middle School library. Furniss, Tim. Spacecraft. Chicago: Raintree, 2005. Print.Spacecraft, found in the Singapore American School Middle School library, showed us information about the spacecraft Apollo 11. Showing a step by step process of how Neil Armstrong and his teammates made it to space, this book helped us unravel the crucial needs when running a spaceship. Gerdes, Louise I. The Cold War. San Diego: Greenhaven, 2003. Print. Written by Louise I. Gerdes, this book gave us a foundation about the Cold War by having an informative timeline. It also gave us an idea of how the Soviet Union and the United States of America treated each other in their competitive relationship. We obtained this book in the Singapore American School Middle School library.Kuhn, Betsy. The Race for Space: The United States and the Soviet Union Compete for the New Frontier. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century, 2007. Print.Not only did this book give us a clearer insight on the space race, but it also taught us about the problems that were converging due to the Cold War. It was incredibly helpful to our project at that time, since we were looking for a mission to focus on, and this book gave us a countless number of missions to research. It was collected in the Singapore American School Middle School library. Pascoe, Elaine. International Space Station. San Diego, CA: Blackbirch, 2003. Print.Found in the Singapore American School Middle School library, this book showed the overall conclusion of the Space Race, helping us understand Apollo 11 and providing a whole new understanding of space. It zoomed into the specifics and the true brains from every mission, including detailed information about the control systems. Reed, Thomas C., and George Bush. At the Abyss: An Insider's History of the Cold War. New York: Presidio/Ballantine, 2004. Print.Showing the exchange of ideas between the Soviet Union and the United States of America, this book focused upon the fall of the Berlin Wall and the Vietnam War. We fetched this book from the Singapore American School Middle School library. Sheinkin, Steve, and Jay Colvin. Bomb: The Race to Build--and Steal--the World's Most Dangerous Weapon. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.The book, Bomb, written by Steve Sheinkin, included great detail and a lot of explanation of how the atomic bomb was constructed. It was given to us by one of the administrator’s at our school, Singapore American School, and really helped us to understand how the Space Race wasn’t the only fight in the Cold War. We learned how the threats of a nuclear war were present, which let us see the depth of the animosity between the Soviet Union and America. Sirimarco, Elizabeth. American Voices From The Cold War. N.p.: Cavendish Square, 2004. Print.The Cold War, written by Elizabeth Sirimarco, was written from the Americans’ point of view during the Cold War. It enhanced our background content knowledge of the war and contributed to our understanding of how the two countries’ perspectives were very different. We obtained this book from the Singapore American School Middle School library. Spangenburg, Ray, and Diane Moser. Project Gemini. New York: Franklin Watts, 2001. Print.With explicit detail of the Gemini and Apollo 11 mission, this book discussed those mission’s successes and fails. It documents many tasks the astronauts performed when navigating through space, and also showed us the effort given for winning the Space Race. We acquired this book from the Singapore American School Middle School library. Spangenburg, Ray, and Diane Moser. Project Mercury. New York: Franklin Watts, 2001. Print. Acquiring this book from the Singapore American School Middle School library, Project Mercury gave us an inside vision on going into space. Filled with biographical sidebars, tables, and charts of astronomers, it was specifically focused on Mercury 7. This mission was surrounded by many political issues too. Spangenburg, Ray, and Diane Moser. Project Apollo. New York: Franklin Watts, 2001. Print.Project Apollo was the mission that ended the long lasting space race, in which the United States of America won against the Soviet Union. It showed us the long journey and steps that USA took to achieve the amazing goal of getting a man onto the moon, before the USSR did. This included showing us the mechanics, emotions, and other factors which affected how they finally got to the moon. We collected this book from the Singapore American School Middle School library. Spangenburg, Ray, and Diane Moser. The History of NASA. New York: Franklin Watts, 2000. Print.Because NASA was the organization that brought victory to the USA against the USSR during the Space Race, this book showed the upbringings of this glorious organization. We learned of the many successes and failures of NASA, teaching us learn which missions impacted them the most. We obtained this book from the Singapore American School Middle School library. Stott, Carole, and Steve Gorton. Space Exploration. New York, NY: DK Pub., 2004. Print.Giving us background knowledge for the topic of space exploration, this book had an equal amount of photos and text, therefore it gave a clear visual representation of everything that was happening. This helped us to picture what the book was talking about. We received this book from the Singapore American School Middle School library. Taylor, David. The Cold War. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2001. Print.Focusing on the various proxy wars in Korea, Berlin, Vietnam, and Cuba, this book showed how the Cold War affected multiple parts of the world. It gave us a foundation on how the war started, how it was fought, and it was resolved. We found this book in the Singapore American School Middle School library. Thimmesh, Catherine. Team Moon: How 400,000 People Landed Apollo 11 on the Moon. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. Print.This book, found in the Singapore American School Middle School library, gave us an unusual perspective on a story we only had general and vague knowledge about; the Apollo 11 mission. Written by a seamstress who put together each space suit, the book gives the readers a very unique and different point of view.Documentaries "Gagarin: Untold Story of First Man in Space." Russia Today. Russia Today. Moscow, Russia, 9 Mar. 2014. Television Russia Today summaries the story of Gagarin, the first man in space. Yuri Gagarin was a cosmonaut from the Soviet Union that earned his title ‘the first man in space’ by the Vostok spacecraft in 1961. This newscast helped us understand the importance and pride Yuri brought to the Soviet Union during the Space Race. Herlihy, Ed, prod. "Red's "Lunik" Hits the Moon." Universal-International News. Universal-International News. 1959. Television.Luna 2 was the second of the Soviet Union's Luna programme spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. It was the first spacecraft to reach the surface of the Moon. With this spacecraft, the Soviet Union had managed to beat the United States once again in the Space Race. "Laika A One Way Ticket." BBC Four. BBC. London, England, 1957. Television.People from all over the world gathered together to watch the progress of Laika, the first living creature in space. This documentary captured the attention Laika got as yet again, the Soviet Union has managed to have leap start in the Space Race. "Luna 2 - Orbiter Space Flight Simulator." E-1A Series. 2010. Dan's Orbiter Page. Web. 11 May 2016. This E-1A Series compiled information about the launch of Luna 2 to create an orbiter space flight simulator. The video taught us about how it was the first spacecraft to reach the surface of the Moon, and the first man-made object to land on another celestial body. "Skylab 1 Launch." NBC News. NBC Cooperation. 14 May 1973. Television.Two years before the Apollo-Soyuz mission, the United States launched and operated Skylab in space. Skylab orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, and included a workshop, a solar observatory, and other systems. This project helped the US expand their knowledge about the outer space. Skylab: The First 40 Days. Dir. NASA. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2016.This documentary from NASA, explicitly explained all the major problems associated around the Skylab and how they overcame them. Focusing on the fabrication of the equipment used in the repair operation, the video noted down all the processes. The 22 minute video helped us understand the Skylab with great detail and comphresion. "Sputnik." CBS News. CBS Corporation. Washington D.C., Maryland, 4 Oct. 1957. Television. CBS News captured the moment the Soviet Union sent Sputnik to space. As seen in the documentary, U.S citizens were terrified of this round flying ball. With the help of this video, we know more about the spacecraft that started the Space Race.The International Space Station: Together Is the Future. Dir. NASA. NASA, 2010. NASA. NASA, 27 Oct. 2010. Web. 26 Apr. 2016.After years of collaboration, NASA has worked with other countries to create the International Space Station. This clip provided by NASA gave a short summary on all the significant missions that shaped the space industry throughout the Space Race. It helped us understand the time and length people have went through to have a successful exchange of ideas and knowledge. Email Correspondence Burbank, Daniel. "Student Enquiry: National History Day Project." Message to the author. 16 Feb. 2016. E-mail.Mr. Burbank helped us understand the importance and impact the Apollo-Soyuz Mission made for both the USA and USSR. He believes that this mission “paved the way for the Shuttle-Mir program and the ISS program.” Besides proving this to us, he gave examples of problems throughout NASA and how they were solved. Fries, Colin A. "Helping Kids in Singapore." Message to the authors. 19 Jan. 2016. E-mail.We received an email back from the NASA History Organization. In that email, they gave us a lot of sources about the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project with detailed biographies of every astronaut and cosmonaut involved in the mission. Given these sources, we gained plenty of knowledge about the people involved in mission and the spacecraft. Holtz, Tim. "Student Enquiry: National History Day Project." Message to the authors. 15 Apr. 2016. E-mail.Tim Holtz provided us with prompt responses and reliable links for contacting the astronauts and cosmonauts of the Apollo-Soyuz mission, providing us with links of Gerald R. Ford’s Presidential foundation, library and museum. In addition, he gave us information regarding how to contact crew members of the Apollo-Soyuz mission.Horn, Roberta. "Student Enquiry: National History Day Project." Message to the authors. 24 Apr. 2016. E-mail.A classmate’s father had given us the email address of his mother. Roberta Horn was the wife of Bernard Horn, a close friend of Deke Slayton. We had asked for any information of the astronauts hoping to see another perspective on the astronaut. She had informed us of the difficulties Mr. Slayton had faced due to his heart value problem, the new information helped us understand the length Deke had went to become an astronaut. Hyland, Duane. "Student Enquiry: National History Day Project." Message to the authors. 19 Apr. 2016. E-mail.While looking through Facebook pages, we encountered The American Institute of Aeronautics’ page. From there, we contacted Mr. Hyland, inquiring any contact information he has on the Apollo-Soyuz crew. Our goal was to contact Glynn S. Lunney, the technical director of the mission. Instead, we received contact on both Glynn Lunney and Vance Brand, a crew member of the Apollo-Soyuz mission. McMullin, Joseph. "Student Enquiry: National History Day Project." Message to the author. 10 Feb. 2016. E-mail.The email we received from Mr. Joseph McMullin consisted a lot of information about astrophysics. While Mr. McMullin isn’t an astronaut, he gave us a different perspective on the problems he encountered working in NASA as an astrophysicist. He also included his wife’s email address, as she would be able to give us more information about the impact the Apollo-Soyuz Mission created on the two countries. Stafford, Dionne. "Contacting Thomas Stafford." Message to the authors. 7 Apr. 2016. Facebook Messenger.After finding Thomas Stafford’s Facebook page, we found his daughter, Dionne Stafford.We then managed to contact her via Facebook Messenger, asking her questions regarding her father. Mrs. Stafford responded, giving us a quick summary of all of her father’s greatest achievements, helping us understand his background. Thomas, Sean "SAS National History Day Project." Message to the authors. 5 Feb. 2016. E-mail.In the beginning of our school year, Mr. Thomas had come to our school to talk about his career as a newscaster for Russia Today. As he was working in Russia, we requested some help with contacting the Apollo-Soyuz crew. He then sent us Alexey Leonov’s landline and address, so we could contact him. With this information, we quickly sent Alexey Leonov a letter.Thomas, Sean "SAS National History Day Project." Message to the authors. 31 Mar. 2016. E-mail.Once again, Mr. Thomas had come to Singapore American School. Acknowledging his arrival, we contacted him regarding a possible interview on more information about contacts of the crew members on the Apollo-Soyuz mission. Sadly, Mr. Thomas’ schedule was packed and we were unable to meet him. Tilman, Justin. "Student Enquiry: National History Day Project." Message to the authors. 6 Feb. 2016. E-mail.One of our friends had recently gone to Moscow and stayed with Justin Tilman, a man working in NASA. She sent us his email address, and we quickly got in touch with him. He responded in detail to our questions about his NASA career and his involvement in the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. Despite the fact that he was very young during ASTP, he had helped with the 40th Anniversary celebration last year. Wagner, Paula. "Student Enquiry: National History Day Project." Message to the authors. 23 Feb. 2016. E-mail.Recently, we emailed the California Science Center as they had previously gotten the chance to interview Vance Brand. We had written a list of questions that we wanted to ask Mr. Brand if we ever got the chance to interview him. Sadly, they weren’t able to put us in touch with Mr. Brand, but inserted the link of their interview with him. JournalsParker, Phill. "The Apollo Flight Journal." Apollo Flight Journal. NASA History, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2016.< this journal, we received information about the Apollo spacecraft and found details about the hardware inserted in the spacecraft. The journal also displayed pictures and codes the astronauts used when in space. Newspaper Articles"7-Ton Sputnik Put Into Orbit." The Nevada Daily Mail. N.p., 5 Feb. 1961. Web. 4 Feb. 2016. < was the very first artificial satellite. The Soviet Union had launched the satellite on October 4, 1957. It was an unmanned space vehicle, that accomplished its goal of merely flying up to Earth’s orbit. This spacecraft involuntary started the Space Race, as the USA also wanted to prove their knowledge about space too. "A Nation Challenged: Hearts And Minds." The New York Times. Sarah Slobin 11 Nov. 2001. Web. 19 Feb. 2016. < searching for information, we found this article on the New York Times website. Not only did the article give us an overview of many different wars, but also a basic insight on the Cold War and Space Race and multiple valuable quotes."Apollo Halfway To The Man." The Telegraph. N.p., 17 July 1969. Web. 6 Feb. 2016. < July 17, 1969, three American astronauts from Apollo 11 had reached their halfway journey to the moon. The Soviet Union had previously crash-landed on the moon with their spacecraft, Luna 2. The Telegraph, a newspaper, captures the astronauts emotions pre-mission, the worries they had, and even a clear description of the Apollo 11’s launch. "Apollo Soyuz Mission." The Prescott Courier. N.p., 18 July 1975. Web. 6 Feb. 2016. < Prescott Courier told the story of the positive attitudes the Russian and American astronauts were feeling. The article had captured how the Russian and American astronauts had bonded during their two years old training. By reading this article, our group better understand how close the two countries’ astronauts had become. Bodner, Matthew. "Russian and U.S. Space Legends Meet 40 Years After 'Handshake in Space' | Business." The Moscow Times. The Moscow Times, 16 July 2016. Web. 21 Jan. 2016. < years after the successful Apollo-Soyuz Mission, Thomas Stafford and Alexey Leonov meet again. The day they were interviewed marked the 40th year since they had first met and become friends. From being rivals in the beginning, they slowly became closer and closer due to the joint mission. This article shows us how the Apollo-Soyuz Mission had a major impact on the two countries and these two astronauts/cosmonauts. Burns, John F. "Brezhnev Offers Deep Arms Cuts In Europe By '90." The New York Times. The New York Times, 4 Feb. 1982. Web. 19 Feb. 2016. < article helped us find information about the point of view of the USSR. While searching for quotes, this New York Times article was found on the website. This article was about the USSR's debate for better weapons."Carbon Dioxide Threatens Astronauts." The Topeka Daily Capital Apr. 1970: n. pag. Universe Today. Web. 9 May 2016.The Topeka Daily Capital had captured the horrific malfunction in the Apollo 13 mission. The article explicitly explained the series of unfortunate events, from the lack of oxygen to the excessive amount of carbon dioxide. "Luna 2 Sparks Soviet Union's Race to Moon." Bulletin Journal. N.p., 11 Sept. 1979. Web. 6 Feb. 2016. < the Luna 2 had crash-landed on the moon, the Russians got the title of having the first man-made vehicle that journeyed from Earth to its nearest neighbor, the moon. They had just previously achieved a successful completion of a 175 space stay. The Bulletin Journal helped us acknowledge the many accomplishments the Russians attained. "Man in Space.. Man in Space." Daily Mirror. N.p., 13 Apr. 1961. Web. 6 Feb. 2016. < Russian astronaut, Yuri Gagarin had just earned the title of being the first human to journey through space. The Daily Mirror had understood the importance of this mission, naming it “the greatest story of our lifetime” and “the greatest story of our century,” as Yuri was the first ever human to complete an orbit of the earth as of April 13, 1961. Petty, John Ira. "Human Space Flight (HSF) - Space History." Human Space Flight(HSF) - Space History. Kim Dismukes, 7 Apr. 2002. Web. 19 Feb. 2016. < gathering information about the former director of NASA, we discovered this website. Written after he passed away, the information told us a lot about his work and how he impacted the world, giving us insight into his life. Additionally, we also benefitted from gathering quotes about his life.Portree, David S F. "1977 Apollo-Soyuz Docking Mission Repeat (1974).". Conde Nast Digital, 8 Dec. 2012. Web. 21 Jan. 2016. < article, from , shows the plan for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Giving a full mission sequence, from the Soyuz lifting off to the Apollo docking. This visual helped us understand what the mission was like and what it looked like from afar. "Russia Put First Segment of International Space Station into Orbit." Ocala Star-Bannerr. N.p., 21 Nov. 1998f. Web. 6 Feb. 2016. < their first joint mission, the Apollo-Soyuz Mission, the USA and USSR had continued working together. With a direct ability to exchange ideas, they managed to put the first segment of the International Space Station into orbit. In this article, written by the Ocala Star-Banner, we understood how important it was for the USA and USSR to work together. "Skylab in Space Spotlight As Lunar Launches End." The Victoria Advocate. N.p., 13 Dec. 1972. Web. 6 Feb. 2016. < Skylab had taken the spotlight from the Lunar launch as it was ending. The Skylab was a space station run by the USA, orbiting Earth from 1973 to 1979. Inside, it included a workshop, observatory, and other systems. We found this article from the Victoria Advocate is a newspaper company from Texas."Space Dog Laika Dead, Says Soviet Press Note." Schenectady Gazette. N.p., 9 Nov. 1957. Web. 4 Feb. 2016. < article was written by the Schenectady Gazette, a New York newspaper company. They spoke about the world’s first satellite traveller, Laika the dog, who passed away. Laika was deliberately poisoned with her food to ensure that she dies peacefully, with no suffering or agony. Laika was the first animal in space and first animal to orbit Earth, where she stayed there for five hours. Wilford, John Noble. "U.S. And Soviet Astronauts Unite Ships And Then Join In Historic Handshakes." Editorial. The New York Times n.d.: n. pag. The New York Times. The New York Times. Web. 21 Jan. 2016. < the mission, the Russian and American astronauts met up. Knowing that at first each countries hated each other, it was a magnificent sight to see them shaking hands. They once were enemies in a Cold War, but at that time, they were friends. This article showed us the impact created by a single joint mission.PhotographsAlexey Leonov Becomes the World’s First Person to Walk in Space. 1965. Guardian. The Guardian. Web. 23 May 2016. < Leonov was a part of the Soyuz crew in the Apollo-Soyuz mission. This particular mission was the first joint mission between the USA and USSR. This image was captured by the Guardian where he is the world’s first person to walk in space. Here he is shown wearing his CCCP astronaut outfit taking steps into space. American and Soviet Troops Meet on the River Elbe in the Final Days of World War Two. 1945. Military History Now. Military History Now. Web. 14 Feb. 2016. < the last days of World War 2, the American and Soviet Union troops met along the river Elbe. After being forced to work side-by-side due to the unfortunate circumstances, the two superpowers never confronting each other began the Cold War. This photograph helped us understand the USSR and USA’s relationship. Australia Commits Troops to the US War Effort. 1965. HSTRY. HSTRY. Web. 19 Feb. 2016. < image helped us understand some of the countries working together in World War 2. Here, Australian troops are flying in helicopters to help the USA during tragic times. We got this source from Hstry’s website. Brezhnev v Nixon. 1972. The Guardian. The Guardian. Web. 18 May 2016. < Cuban Missile Crisis created two Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, Salt I and Salt II. The purpose of these talks was to calm down the use of nuclear weapons, all countries had them and was threatening to use them against each other. This image shows Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev shaking hands after Salt I. Bruton, Richard. "Propaganda - Laika." Forbidden Planet Blog. Forbidden Planet Blog, 18 Aug. 2008. Web. 24 May 2016. < Abadzis created a poster of Laika, the first living object in space. Though Laika died before reaching Earth, he won the title of the first living object in space. This image helped us thoroughly understand the degree of importance Laika had. ESA Extends ISS Operations Through 2020. 2011. Red Orbit. Red Orbit. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. < the joint mission between the USSR and the USA, the International Space Station would have been made much later, or possibly even never made. Due to the Apollo-Soyuz Mission, both countries that participated in the Cold War became allies in the science field. The countries exchanged and have been exchanging ideas since, leading them to encounter and explore different areas of space. From L to R: Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. 1945. Telegraph, UK. Telegraph UK. Web. 21 May 2016. < the defeat of Hitler during World War II, Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin all came together to celebrate the defeat of the brutal dictator. The image helped us visualize the satisfaction the countries’ leaders had when the six year war was finally over. Sputnik – Engineering a World First. 1957. Science Museum, UK. Science Museum UK. Web. 21 May 2016. < shown in this image, Sputnik was a circular spacecraft. This helped us visualize Sputnik as we all knew it was the first artificial satellite in space by the Soviet Union, that costed around 15 million dollars. We got this image on the United Kingdom’s Science Museum website. ,. "Shaking Hands In Orbit: The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project". N. p., 2016. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.< this website re-enforced the previously learnt information about the mission, it also showed us one of the greatest problems that occurred in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. We see the US navy divers helping the crew when they land on water in the final picture. In addition, there are many cartoons and diagrams which help us understand the mechanics of the mission. California Science Center,. "Apollo-Soyuz Command Module". N. p., 2016. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.< indicated article, was written by the California Science center, was found while researching information to write our captions. From this website, we were able to learn one of the issues that the crew encountered during the mission; the difference in oxygen between the two modules. Famous images of the spaceship and the crew together can also be seen here. ,. "Apollo-Soyuz Test Project". N. p., 2016. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.< our project, we are trying to incorporate this year’s theme of exploration, exchange, and encounter. The indicated website truly helps in the “encountering” aspect of the theme, since it highlights the main problems the Apollo-Soyuz Mission crew faced before and during landing of the mission. It also explains technical aspects of the spacecraft, and even includes a 5 minute video on the Apollo- Soyuz mission uploaded by the International Astronautical Federation. Dick, Steven J. "Flight of Apollo-Soyuz." History. Charles Redmond, 22 Oct. 2004. Web. 7 Dec. 2015. < website helped us understand who participated in the Apollo-Soyuz Mission (the names of the astronauts and cosmonauts), when the mission took place, when it ended, and the mission duration. From the details of the spaceships to the voiceovers made, it also helped us understand the process this mission took. This source helped build our foundation about our topic, the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. Dunbar, Brian. "Apollo-Soyuz Mission." NASA. NASA, 1 Oct. 1958. Web. 7 Dec. 2015. < used this website to double check for facts we had gotten from another similar website, written by yet another NASA historian. It also gave out several visuals representations about the launching of the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. Overall, this website helped as secure our information. Dunbar, Brian. "Apollo-Soyuz: An Orbital Partnership Begins." NASA. NASA, 10 July 2015. Web. 18 Feb. 2016. < particular page found on NASA’s website, provides the whole story of the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. From describing the beginning of the Space Race to talking about one of the many gifts exchanged between the Russian cosmonauts with the American astronauts. This page explained to us how beneficial the Apollo-Soyuz Mission was to USA and USSR’s faulty relationship. Encyclopedia Britannica,. "Valery Kubasov | Russian Cosmonaut". N. p., 2015. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.< Britannica Encyclopedia gave our team details about cosmonaut Valery Kubasov, including information about his roles in the many missions he was a part of. Not only is data on his experience found on this website, but also facts about his personal life. We located this website while researching him for our captions. Goldstein, Richard. "Valery Kubasov, 79, Russian Who Helped Bring Cold War Thaw To Space, Is Dead". . N. p., 2014. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.<; Valery Kubasov, a cosmonaut who was part of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, passed away recently, therefore the New York Times dedicated an entire article to him and his life. They discussed anecdotes about his space adventures, and short stories about his regular life. Moreover, there is information about his role in the mission of our study. Staff. "Cuban Missile Crisis." . A&E Television Networks, 01 Jan. 2010. Web. 15 May 2016. < complied a series of various sources explainning the Cuban Missile Crisis. The artist Jeffrey Lewis summarized the crisis with graphics, helping us visualize and understand. The article had several sections about how the decisions were made, explaining the leaders’ every thought. McKie, Robin. "Alexey Leonov, The First Man To Walk In Space". the Guardian. N. p., 2015. Web. 2 Jan. 2016.< article on the distinguished cosmonaut, Alexey Leonov, and his famed spacewalk, the first mankind ever experience, further impacted our attempt to gain knowledge on each of the crew members and their history. Pictures and quotes from interviews conducted with Leonov helped us visualize and understand exactly what happened on the human race’s first spacewalk. "International Space Hall of Fame: New Mexico Museum of Space History: Inductee Profile." International Space Hall of Fame. New Mexico Museum of Space History, n.d. Web. 14 May 2016. < source helped us by telling us about Thomas Stafford’s life; his experiences in space, as well as his life in a more broad perspective. We found it while searching for museums to contact."Salt I and II." Cold War Museum. The Cold War Museum, n.d. Web. 15 May 2016. < website, the Cold War Museum, had collected and compiled a variety of sources to narrow down the summary and explain the Cuban Missile Crisis’ Salt I and II. The three different paragraphs broke down the Strategic Arms Limitation talks between the USA and USSR. This information helped us connect the Cuban Missile Crisis with the Apollo-Soyuz mission. ,. "Apollo-Soyuz: How The First Joint Space Mission Worked (Infographic)". N. p., 2016. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.< relationship of USA and USSR is explained throughout this article, along with lots of information about the mission. Not only did we gain knowledge about the individual astronauts from this website, but of the important moments while aboard the craft are also recorded through text and pictures. The images also gave us a visual description of what the text is trying to say.,. "The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project". N. p., 2016. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.<; The mission summary was very detailed on this website, giving us a clear view of what the crew encountered, explored, and exchanged while in space. It is written in a list format, and the mission summary in chronological order, with details, actual facts, and emotions of the crew and audience. ,. "The End Of The Cold War ". N. p., 2016. Web. 2 Jan. 2016.< Space Race was an event that sprouted from the Cold War, therefore we also researched the Cold War, and located the indicated website. It gave us an understanding of how this long lasting and brutal war finally came to an end. By knowing this, we were able to see how the end of the Space Race and the joint Apollo-Soyuz Mission contributed to fixing relations between the USA and the USSR. Veve, Thomas D. "space race." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2016. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.< D. Veve, the author of this article, did a great job giving a short summary of the Space Race. Giving brief information about all missions that ever existed, he never hesitated in providing detail about who the astronauts were, what happened on the mission, when was the mission, and more. 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