Process Improvement Calculations and Tools - Minnesota

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´╗┐Process Improvement Calculations & Tools Quick Reference

Process Improvement Calculations & Tools

Steps to Lean Improvement

1. Identify the customers and determine how the process provides value to them 2. Reduce obvious waste with layout, better information-sharing, smaller batches, 5S, visual management, &

scheduling 3. Separate repetitive processes from unique processes and find ways to make unique processes repetitive 4. Map the process flow to determine value-added and non-value-added activities 5. Identify bottlenecks and causes of variability 6. Focus Kaizen projects on processes that cause bottlenecks and variability 7. Identify opportunities for cross-training to improve process performance

Hierarchy of Process Discovery

This is the evolution of detail of analysis:

1. SIPOC--to provide high-level scoping of the process 2. Swimlane Diagram--to document process steps, and illustrate wastes of hand-offs 3. Value Stream Map--to identify product, process, and information flows with value-add percentage 4. Process Map--to illustrate key inputs needed for detailed problem-solving

Name

Process Discovery SIPOC

Description

When to Use

A diagram that provides high-level scoping of the process.

Suppliers--provide inputs to the process Input--required resources Process--transforms inputs to outputs Outputs--delivered products or services. Customers--stakeholders; identify what the process provides and delivers to the customer.

Example:

Start with this diagram to determine the process scope and stakeholders. Reference and update throughout the process maturity states.

Last updated: 12/14/2010

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Swimlane Diagram

Create a flow chart of activities that includes roles. Example:

Process Improvement Calculations & Tools Quick Reference

Use during process discovery to understand how things currently operate. It provides the foundation for the future state.

Value Stream Mapping

A technique of diagramming the flow of information and materials representing a process to provide a product or service to identify product, process, and information flows with value-add percentage. [run on sentence; break up sentence] Use to visually illustrate waste and apply costs to the process. Example:

Start with this diagram to determine flow. Reference and update throughout the process maturity states.

Process Mapping

The activity of representing processes so that the current process may be analyzed and improved. Example:

Develop a process map to capture the current state. Reference throughout the process maturity states.

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Process Improvement Calculations & Tools Quick Reference

Selecting Process Metrics

Select the metrics that best help visualize a process and address the specific issues of interest.

? While documenting the current state, quantify cost, service, and quality. ? Highlight areas of value, waste, and bottlenecks. ? Consider metrics that are relevant to the specific business process. ? Consider establishing simple, quick ways to collect performance data on an ongoing basis.

Operational Measures

? Flow time ? Throughput ? Inventory ? Process cost ? Quality ? Utilization

Customer Priorities

? Price ? Quality ? Time ? Variety

Financial Measures

? Profits (absolute) ? ROI, ROA (relative) ? Cash flow (survival)

Name

Description

When to Use

Selected Process Improvement Tools--There are many tools and measurements you may use to analyze process performance and identify issues. This is a selected list of tools and calculations we

are likely to use.

5S

Method for organizing the workplace

This is one of

1. Sort--get rid of anything unnecessary

the first steps of continuous

2. Set-in-Order--make important items visible and self-explanatory improvement.

3. Shine--clean the work space and equipment

It is useful from initial process

4. Standardize--establish guidelines for sorting, ordering, and

improvement

shining.

throughout the

5. Sustain--adhere to these rules. Develop an audit system or rating system if needed.

life of a process.

5 Whys

Ask "Why?" until you get to the root cause. Five iterations of questioning usually achieve identification of the root cause. This could be conducted by one person who is knowledgeable about the process or among a team.

Use during the early stages of process maturity.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

A statistical test to determine if the means of several groups are equal.

Use to analyze variability.

Available Time

The amount of time an organization is open for business and able to process the work. Remove time dedicated to other processes and break time.

Collect during process discovery. This is a common value stream metric.

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Process Improvement Calculations & Tools Quick Reference

Name

Description

When to Use

Batch Size

Cash Flow

Capacity

Cellular Layout (a.k.a. Production Cell Layout) Changeover Time

Coefficient of Variation

Continuous Flow Processing

This refers to employees completing tasks for several components before providing them to the next step in the process. For example, scheduling specific work to be done only on certain days, or completing ten documents before sending them to an editor. If completed work is passed along to the next process immediately or in small batches, the process flow becomes more efficient.

Movement of cash into or out of an organization during a specific time period. In ITS, this would likely focus on operational cash flows; cash received or expended as a result of business activities.

The ability to produce an output. It is derived from the output produced and the potential output which could be produced if the capacity were fully recognized.

Put different functional performers in the same physical location. This reduces hand-off and transportation delays.

The time it takes to change from one activity to the next. This is analogous to setup time. It may refer to changing from one task to another, setting aside the first task. This requires some re-acclimation time.

This is a good measure of variability. It is the ratio of standard deviation to average. We measure it both for customer arrivals and services. If you don't have variability data, assuming a coefficients of variation of 1 results in a practical worst-case estimate. Cs = Std Dev / Average Designing a work environment so people who provide hand-offs to others are located close to each other to avoid delay. Process work in small batches or avoid batching all together.

You may wish to calculate or estimate batch size for the value stream map to identify waste. Reduce batch size as a strategy for process improvement.

This is a financial measure you may wish to use to identify process concerns.

Collect during process discovery. This is a common value stream metric.

Use as a strategy for process improvement.

Collect during process discovery. This is a common value stream metric.

Use to determine variability.

Use as a process improvement technique when appropriate. Review throughout the maturity states.

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Last updated: 12/14/2010

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Process Improvement Calculations & Tools Quick Reference

Name

Description

When to Use

Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) Demand Rate

First Pass Yield (FPY)

Flow Time

Gantt Charts

Identify specific opportunities for defects in order to eliminate defects. In an office environment, this can apply to deliverables that require correction or rework. DPMO=Total Number of Defects/Total Number of Opportunities for a Defect, then multiply by 1 million. The number of transactions or outputs per a specified time period. For example, 500 items per year. You may also provide this as an average on a value stream map. Demand Rate = 1 / Takt Time

Multiply the individual quality measures for each process. This represents the likelihood that a deliverable will go through all process steps without a quality-related problem.

It is the sum of all process time. Collect the actual time it takes a performer or process to complete an activity, and total the activity times for the critical path.

A bar chart that illustrates a project schedule.

Use this to measure process performance.

Collect during process discovery. Reevaluate throughout the process lifecycle.

Collect during process discovery. This is a common value stream metric.

Use to determine the effects of variation and operational performance.

Use to illustrate time performance.

Information Technology Used

Inventory

This describes the software tools needed to process information at each process box in a value stream map. Record this in a lower corner of the process box.

In an office environment, this can refer to queues of information, paperwork, electronic files, or project work in-development. On a financial report, you can use Accounts Receivable to indicate inventory. In inventory was sold, you have to look at actual revenue rather than Cost Of Goods Sold. Inventory = Throughput x Flow Time Inventory Turns = Throughput / Inventory

Collect during process discovery. This is a common value stream metric.

Collect during process discovery. This is a common value stream metric.

Last updated: 12/14/2010

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