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Name: ___________________________________________Date: ____________ Saunders/Mrs. McNerneyUS History/_________Do Now: Economically, which direction do you predict the North will move towards, after the Civil War? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Unit 11: Industrialization and the Gilded Age - Notes 1?After the Civil war the North took advantage of the?_____________________________________________.Moved from?___________________________________________________________.Allowed business to grow and there was little government regulation this is called?___________________________Most people believed that this would allow?______________________________.Private?____________________________?get to make decisionsTo do this people needed?_______________________.This gave rise?________________________________________________.Belief that the?_______________________________________________.If a business cannot create profit it must?____________________________.Business organizations during the?_______________________________?revolutionCorporationPeople buy?_____________________.Own?________________?of the companyShare in the?______________________What every ___________?they own is the ___________?of the profit they get.Allowed companies to take?____________________________?with inventions.If the product was successful greatIf the product failed people lost only a?___________________.Each share?_____________________________________________________________.So if you own 900 shares you have?____________________________________.These votes would elect a?______________________________________________________.This group decides what would be?_________________________________.Most board members were the most?__________________________ shareholdersMonopolyWhen?____________?company has complete control of an industrial areaThis allowed a company to charge?_____________?pricesThese were common in the?__________________?but are no longer allowedThe one exception are?________________________.ConglomerateOne corporation owns?__________________________________?corporationsThe owned corporations are often in?______________________________?business areasOne of the largest conglomerates today is?___________________________________________. PoolWhen companies?_____________?pricesPrices are?________________Companies would?____________________?areas to sell itemsTrustCompanies in the?__________________?field would?__________?their stocks and form?____________?board of directorSmaller company shareholders would get?________________________________.However the smaller companies would have no?say in __________________________________.ClassworkUnit 5 Themes Unit 11 Essential Questions Equality Is there one American Experience? Economic Systems To what extent does the American economy shape the American experience? Reform Movements How do people affect change in their society? Directions: You have been given an image. ?Review the historical context of the image and analyze the image using the questions provided. ?When you are done, be ready to share your thinking with a partner. Use the table below to track your thinking. After your conversation, use your analysis and partner share reflections to answer the written task. Partner Share Round 1: Same Image Reflection Question: Compare your answers with a partner who viewed the SAME image as you. Did your answer to the last analysis ?question change after discussing your image with a partner? Why or why not? Partner Share Round 2: Same Big Idea / ThemeReflection Question: Compare your answers with a partner who chose the same THEME but had a different image. Why did you both pick this theme for your image? Are your reasons similar or different? Why?Image 1: Haymarket Square Riot, Poster (1886) | Historical Context: In May 4, 1886, a labor protest rally near Chicago’s Haymarket Square turned into a riot after someone threw a bomb at police. The Haymarket Riot was viewed a setback for the organized labor movement in America, which was fighting for such rights as the eight-hour workday. ?Strikes by industrial workers were increasingly common in the United States in the 1880s, a time when working conditions often were dismal and dangerous, and wages were low; meanwhile industrialists like John D. Rockefeller were richer than any other men in American history. Analysis Questions: What do you see in this image? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The poster communicates using English on top, with a German translation on the bottom. ?What does this suggest to you about the workers in Chicago at this time? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Which theme of unit 11 (reform movements, economic systems or equality) do you think this image best aligns with? Why? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Image 2: Hand Sewing, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory (1910) | Historical Context: The 1900’s saw a rise of textile and garment factories in New York City. In this image, hand sewing is done by men and women facing a narrow bench, while men operate sewing machines at a long row of paired work stations. Some unethical subcontractors took advantage of newly-arrived immigrants forcing them to work long hours for the right to keep their job. A standard 56-hour week might stretch to 70 hours without overtime pay.Analysis Questions: What is the most important part of this picture? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What makes you say that? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________If you could talk to one of the people in this image, what would you say or ask? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Which theme of unit 5 (equality, economic systems, or reform movements) do you think this image represents? Why? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Image 3: NAACP Flag (1938) | Historical Context: Formed in 1909 as a biracial organization, the NAACP fought for equal rights for African Americans in a time of Jim Crow and racial violence. ?In conjunction with the anti-lynching campaign, in 1920, the NAACP began flying a flag from the windows of its headquarters at 69 Fifth Avenue when a lynching occurred. The words on the flag were “a man was lynched yesterday.”Analysis Questions: What do you see? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________How do you think people reacted to seeing this flag flying? Why do you think the NAACP chose to fly this flag? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Which theme of unit 5 (reform movements, economic systems, or equality) ?do you think this image represents? Why? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Image 4: The protectors of our industries (1883) | Historical Context: In the early 1900’s, the rise of industrialization meant that industrialists such as Cyrus Field, Jay Gould, John D. Rockefeller, and Cornelius Vanderbilt were the richest men America had ever seen. ?By contrast, the workers who made these men rich were poorer than ever. Analysis Questions: What do you see in this image? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What is the most important part of this image? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why do you think this is the most important part? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Which theme of unit 5 (reform movements, economic systems, or equality) do you think this image best aligns with? Why? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Image 5: Youngest Parader in the New York City Women's Rights Parade - 1912 ??Historical Context: ?When the US Constitution was written in the late 1700’s, women were not granted the right to vote. ?Throughout the late 1800’s and the early 1900’s, women organized groups to protest for the right to vote. ?These organizations held protests, marches, and other events around the nation until women were granted the right to vote in 1919. Analysis Questions: What do you see? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What would you expect to hear if you were where this picture was taken? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Which theme of unit 5 (reform movements, economic systems, or equality) do you think this image represents? Why? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Unit 5 - Essential Questions Introduction - Written Reflection Unit 5 Themes Unit 5 Essential Questions Equality Is there one American Experience? Economic Systems To what extent does the American economy shape the American experience? Reform Movements How do people affect change in their society? Reflection Question: In one paragraph, answer the essential question associated with the theme you think your image best represents. ?Use your image as evidence in support of any claims you make in response to the essential question. ?For example - if you think your image represents “equality,” answer the question: Is there one American Experience?” ?Use the space below for your response.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Name: ___________________________________________Date: ____________ Saunders/Mrs. McNerneyUS History/_________Do Now: Do you think there is one American Experience? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Industrialization and the Gilded Age: Notes 2?Robber BaronsWealth and power are consolidated by the?______________________________________________________.These were people who gained wealth at the?____________________________?of the poor.Others would call them?_______________________________________________.These were people who organized?____________________________________________?ventures.If these people lost their money,?they___________________ their _____________________________However if they struck it rich they made?________________________________Many robber barons took advantage of?________________________________________________________ and inventionsThe Big four?robber baronsCornelius?_______________________________Made his fortune in the area of?________________________________________Especially in the area of?_____________________________________After the Civil War there was a need to?__________________________________?the countryThis allowed the country to ship material and ideas?__________________________________He used many methods to?__________________________________________He used?_______________________________________________He would?_____________________________________________?to attract customersSometimes he allowed them to ride for free. He also used?________________________________________________?to get his wayJ.P.?_________________________________He made his fortune in the area of?____________________________________He would take advantage of?“_____________________”?companiesHe would buy?__________________________?at a low priceThen demand to become part of the?board of _____________________________________.Soon he would own many companies and create the first?______________________________________.Andrew?___________________________________He made his fortune in the area of?_________________________.He found that there was a faster and profitable way of making steel in the?_______________________________________________.He also used?_____________________________________________________.Which allowed him to own all?___________________________??of productionThis allowed him to produce?______________________________.Sell the steel for a smaller?______________________?but a larger?__________________________.John D.?______________________________________________Made his fortune in?______________He believed that competition was?_______________.He set up the first?________________________.His company?Standard Oil?would become a?____________________________________.He was?ruthless?in his business tactics because he believed in?___________________ Darwinism.He would?______________________________?a competitors oil well or equipment.He would control the?___________________________________________________________.Also controlled?refining?which was the most profitable portion of the oil businessCommon traits shared by these?robber baronsThey enjoyed?_______________________________________________.Believed in the?____________________________________________________________.Found that they loved the?__________________________________?policies of the government.Some of them became?____________________________________________.Gave away their money to the?___________________Carnegie and Rockefeller wanted to be remembered in a?_______________________________?way.Carnegie believed a person who died?______________?died?__________________________________.This is known as the?_____________________________________________________________.The rise of the robber barons and laissez faire policies also allowed for?inventionThe inventor that had the most impact was Thomas?______________________________.He invents the?___________________________________ and power plant.Of his other 1,309 inventions included__________________________________???????????????????????_________________________________________________Perhaps the most influential was Henry?________________________.He helped make the automobile?__________________________________________.He did this by creating the?__________________________________________________.The?car?would?___________________?not the people.Each person became an?___________________________?at their jobThe time went from?4 hours to 1 ? hours?for one car.When there are more cars produced the price will go _______________.Another revolutionary feature was that he?_____________________________?what people made.He believed that?________________________?employees produce?_______________________.He would have people who were?__________________________________________________.He would have?_________________________?(would buy Ford cars).Classwork: Political Cartoons of the Gilded Age Analysis Objective ?What can we learn about the Gilded Age from analyzing a variety of political cartoons? How do political cartoons help document contemporary, historical or political thought? How do I analyze a political cartoon? ?Political Cartoon Analysis Guide Directions: There are many different ways to analyze political cartoons. ?Below is one suggested format or protocol you can use to analyze political cartoons. ?This protocol breaks down cartoons into four areas of analysis - visuals, words, actions, and meaning. ?Use the sample political cartoon below to complete your analysis. Visuals List the objects or people you see in the cartoonList the symbols you see in the cartoon Did the cartoonist exaggerate any features or symbols? If so, why do you think he or she did so? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What do you think the people, objects, or symbols mean or stand for? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Words List the words or phrases (ignore the help text inserted around the cartoon) List the dates or numbers Does the cartoonist use a caption? What does it say? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Do any of the words, phrases, dates, numbers, or caption(s) clarify any of the visual symbols? If so, how? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Action Describe the action or actions taking place Describe the facial expressions you see on any characters Do the actions clarify or further explain any of the visuals or words? If so, how? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Do the facial expressions clarify or further explain any of the visuals or words? If so how? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Meaning What do you think the visuals, actions, and words in this cartoon convey? What is the main idea or message of this political cartoon? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Whose opinion or point of view is represented in this cartoon? Whose point of view is left out of this cartoon? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What does this political cartoon tell us about the Gilded Age and/or attitudes towards Gilded Age industrialists? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Cartoon 1: Westchester Daily Telegram, Cartoon Depicting Andrew Carnegie's efforts as a philanthropist (March 26, 1913) Cartoon #2: The Bosses of the Senate, Puck Magazine, January 23, 1889, Ottmann Lith. Co. after Joseph Keppler, political cartoon depicting corruption in the United States Senate Cartoon #3: Next!, Puck Magazine, September 7th 1904, by Udo Keppler, A Standard Oil storage tank is an octopus with tentacles wrapped around the steel, copper, and shipping industries, a state house, the U.S. Capitol, and has one tentacle reaching for the White House. ?Its caption reads, "Next!"Name: ___________________________________________Date: ____________ Saunders/Mrs. McNerneyUS History/_________Do Now: List one positive and one negative effect that came from the rise of Robber Barons? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Industrialization and the Gilded Age: Notes 3?Workers Unite and Create Labor UnionsWhen workers create Labor Unions they are looking for three major items:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The first Union formed was the?____________________________________________________?1869Formed by?Terrence _____________________________________Welcomed?___________________________________________________?laborAs a rule the union was?________________________________________________However when strikes were used they?_______________________________________________American Federation of Labor?(_______________________)?1881Formed by?Samuel _____________________________________Allowed only?________________________________________________________________To join the AFLYou had to join a______________________________ union firstThen your union would?____________________ the AFLThe AFL?believed in ___________________________________The ultimate goal of the AFL was to get a?_____________________________ bargaining agreementThis is a written?___________________________________?on wages, hours, and conditionsTo get this often strike leaders met with company ownersInternational Ladies Garment Workers Union (________________________________)?1900Founded by?Mother ________________________________Women made up most of the?______________________________________________With a?__________________________________ strike in 1910 the ILGWU became an important member of the?AFLLabor Conflict and?Anti-Union feelingThe?_____________________________________________________?(1886)There was a clash between?______________________________ and the ________________________________In the end?seven police and many ________________________________________The union was seen as the?____________________________?for violenceHomesteadStrike?(1892)This was strike at a?____________________________________?Steel plantThere was a clash between?_________________________________________ and the unionIn the end?___________________________________________?dieThe union was seen as the__________________________?for the violenceAfter the strike only?______________________________________?were allowed to get their job back_________________________________________________?(1894)Was a strike at a?_____________________________________?factoryThis tied up many?________________________________To stop the strike President Grover Cleveland sent in?_________________________________In the US Supreme Court Case?________________________________________?declared the action legalThe government can intervene to?___________________________________ national interestsAlso proved that the government?_____________________________________ businessThe overall effect is that?____________________________________________________________Government RegulationReasons for government regulationEconomy was on a?roller coasterBig business was taking?advantage of poorIncreasing pressure for change from?reformersUnions start to have some?public?supportInterstate Commerce Commission?(1887)Stated that the?Federal?government could regulate trade?between statesWhile it had no real?teeth?it did set a?precedentIt was to regulate?railroadsStop?poolsStop?Rebates?to “special” customers ShermanAnti-Trust Act?(1890)Stated that?Trusts?were to be illegalThe Supreme Court did not support the laws because many companies were formed prior to the law and were?exemptOther companies used?holding companiesCompanies would buy?controlling?amounts of stockInstead of buying the?whole companyWhile these acts were ineffective, they will be used when?reformers take officeTo this point big business?owned?most of governmentUsually through?bribes and financial supportThe Strikes - learn about the historical context and events of the Haymarket Strike of 1886 and the Pullman Strike of 1893. For each labor strike, read both the historical context and details of the event. Answer the analysis questions that follow. ?Haymarket Riot Historical Context: During the gilded age, the steel, railways, and lumber industries, employed many new immigrants from Europe working 60 - 100 hour work weeks over 6 days, with wages as low as $1.50 per day ($37.64 in today’s dollars). ?In Chicago, German and Bohemian immigrants organized unions to try and demand better working conditions. Many of these organizers were also members of anarchist and socialist parties that believed that capitalism was ruining America and squeezing the working class into poverty while the rich simply became richer. ?The Chicago industrial workers went on strike on May 1st 1886 to lobby for an 8 hour work day and higher pay. Events of the Haymarket Riot: On May 3, 1886, at a rally outside of a factory, union leader August Spies gave a speech in which he told striking workers to stay calm and stand by their union, or they would not succeed in their strike for better working conditions and an 8 hour work day. At the end of his speech, the bell for the end of the work day rang out, and striking unionists attacked men who had broken the strike and gone to work. ?In trying to calm the fights that followed this attack, police opened fire, killing four demonstrators. The next day, workers held a vigil and rally at Haymarket Square to protest the police killings. August Spies and fellow union leader Albert Parsons gave speeches. At the end of the speeches, the police marched towards the protesters and asked them to break up the rally and go home. As they advanced, gun shots were exchanged between the protesters and the police, when suddenly a bomb exploded killing six police officers. ?The strike quickly came to an end as a result of the Haymarket riot and an anti-union movement swept through Chicago. The entire labor and immigrant community in Chicago came under police scrutiny. The strikers did not win an 8 hour work day until many years later. Analysis Questions: Contextualization: Why did the Chicago industrial workers go on strike in 1886? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Contextualization: Did the strike succeed in getting laborers the changes they wanted in working conditions? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Pullman StrikeHistorical Context: During and after the Civil War, the railway industry dominated the American economy and was the nation’s single largest employer. ?In Chicago, George Pullman built a different kind of company for manufacturing railroad cars. To produce the cars, he built a manufacturing plant located in a company-owned town just outside of Chicago. ?The company town was touted as a model community filled with content, well paid workers. During the economic depression of 1893, George Pullman sought to preserve profits by lowering labor costs - so he cut his workforce by 1,200 workers and cut wages by 25 percent. ?Workers were required to live in the company town, which meant they rented and bought household provisions from the Pullman company. While wages had been slashed, the cost of living in the company town did not change; this change led to workers organizing to protest. Events of the Pullman Strike: ?The Pullman factory workers went on strike and were joined by the American Railway Union (ARU) and its leader, Eugene Debs. ?The ARU supported the strike by refusing to run trains containing Pullman cars. The plan was to force the railroads to bring Pullman to compromise. ?Once on strike, the laborers began to obstruct railroad tracks preventing the transportation of goods and attracting national attention. The strike affected nearly all aspects of American society from mail service to the tourism industry. ?Over time, the strike lead to many violent clashes between strikers and local and federal law enforcement. Eventually, the strike came to an end in 1894 when President Grover Cleveland used the US Marshals and US Army troops to force the workers to resume their duties. ?The laborers did not win an improvement in their working conditions or a pay increase, and the American economy suffered losses of over $80,000,000 because of the work stoppage. Analysis Questions: Contextualization: Why did the railway workers go on strike? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Contextualization: Did the workers “win” the strike or were they forced to go back to work? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________?Name: ___________________________________________Date: ____________ Saunders/Mrs. McNerneyUS History/_________Do Now: Why do you think people live their home country and move to a new one? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Industrialization and the Gilded Age: Notes 4ImmigrationProcess of one person?_________________________?from one country to?________________________ countryThere are two “_______________” of immigrationOld?ImmigrantsWere from?North and _______________________________ Europe.England, _____________________________ , and IrishThe Irish came because of the Irish?____________________________________________________.Came to seek?religious and political ______________________________.Most settled on the?___________________________?of the United StatesMost faced the problems of?_____________________________?a new society.Contributed our most of?__________________________________________________.Speak?___________________________Those from Germany and Sweden brought advanced?_________________________ techniques.New?Immigrants(13.5 million)?(1865-1900)Were from?South and ____________________________ EuropeRussia, Poland,_________________________, and ChinaCame for?_________________________________________________.Settled in?__________________.That’s where the?___________________________Worked for?___________________________________Robber Baron took?________________________________?of immigrantsMost faced many problemsHad to?______________________ EnglishLearn a?_____________________________________Most Children had to?______________________________Process of?_______________________?part of another cultureParents did not like to?______________________________This caused children and parents to come into?__________________________Faced?____________________________________?because they were so differentMost of New Immigrants lived in?___________________________Safety of the?______________________________Keep old world?______________Contributions__________________ and Chinese?build the transcontinental railroadItalian and __________________?created world famous garment industryAll groups allowed?business to ___________________Negative Reaction to immigrationNativismBelief that?America was for ____________________________________.Wanted to?__________________?immigrationTwo groups form to accomplish thisKnow-Nothing PartyWanted to keep?________________________________?out of officeLengthen the amount a time it took for someone to become a?________________________.If asked what they thought about immigration, they would reply they?know __________________________.American Protective AssociationWanted to?_____________________________?immigrationChinese Exclusion Act of 1882Nativists believed the Chinese were a?___________________________________.Going to invade and?______________________________?the USWas to keep Chinese?_______________?of USGentlemen’s Agreement (1907)An agreement with?______________________?to stop emigration to USEmergency?Quota?Act of 1921 and the National?___________________________ Act of 1924Both?___________________________?the number of immigrants in USAt first by reducing by?_____________________________?per yearImmigration Theories usedMelting PotThat all people would become?____________________________Would use?________________________________?to accomplish thisSalad BowlThat all cultures could?_________________ side by sideThat would allow for?Irish-Americans, etcImmigration and Urbanization Using Evidence ?Objective What was the relationship between industrialization, immigration, and urbanization during the Gilded Age? Directions: Review the four claims below. ?Find evidence for the four claims from the documents provided and fill out the charts as prompted. ?Claim #1: Most immigrants that arrived in America during the Gilded Age came from Western Europe. ?Find one piece of evidence to support this claim. ?Document your findings in the chart below. Evidence Source Connect evidence to the claim Claim #2: Industrialization in America was one of the pull factors for immigration to the United States among European immigrants. ?Find evidence from two different sources to support this claim. Document your findings in the chart below. ?Evidence Source Connect evidence to the claim Claim #3: Both immigration and industrialization led to urbanization in America during the Gilded Age.Find evidence from two different sources to support this claim. ?Document your findings in the chart below. ?Evidence Source Connect evidence to the claim Claim #4: During the Gilded Age, urbanization, caused by immigration and industrialization, led to cities struggling with basic infrastructure (ex: housing, water, sanitation). ?Find two pieces of evidence to support this claim. ?Document your findings in the chart below. Evidence Source Connect evidence to the claim Document 1a: Immigration in the Gilded Age: Change or Continuity? By Roger Daniels - Magazine of History Volume 13 No 4 (1999) Data Source: US Department of Commerce, Historical Statistics of the United States (1975)Document 1b: Immigration in the Gilded Age: Change or Continuity? By Roger Daniels - Magazine of History Volume 13 No 4 (1999) ... Numbers, can only tell a fragment of the immigrant story, one must consider as well the following questions: Where did immigrants come from? Gilded Age immigrants came overwhelmingly from Europe, with a shift over time toward Eastern and Southern Europe. ?Germans, British, Irish, Scandinavians, Italians, and subjects of the Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires predominated. ?Why did they leave? As with most migrants in American history, perceived economic/ social advantage, persecution at home for minority groups, and compulsory military service were the major push factors (conditions at home that encouraged immigration) for many. ?Pull factors (reasons for an attraction to the United States) were mostly related to promised economic opportunity, availability of farmland, and industrialization in the United States. How did they get here? The development of transportation networks greatly influenced Gilded Age immigration. As railroads with cheaper fares spread throughout Europe, places with transportation to seaports multiplied. ?Oceanic transport and the advent of steamships also made travel easier. Where did they settle?...Ever since the census began to count foreign born residents separately in 1850, they have been more likely to reside in cities… Ethnic groups had their own patterns: Irish and Canadians favored New England, Italians and Russians the middle Atlantic states, Germans the east north central states, and Scandinavians the west north central states…What did they do? Because the Gilded Age was an era of expanding industrialization, most immigrants worked at industrial jobs, usually at the unskilled level...most immigrants took the hardest, lowest paying, most hazardous industrial employment… It was not just immigrant men who worked. ?Immigrant women and children were much more likely to be in the labor force than those who were native-born. How did they live? Most Gilded Age immigrants, like their predecessors, lived in ethnic enclaves in both town and country whenever they could. ?There they could speak their own languages, worship with familiar rituals, and generally recreate a version of the world they had left. ?The Chinese were confined in parts of cities that became known as Chinatown….enclaves for Europeans developed names like Little Italy.Document 2: Western European Immigration - Details (Source: Advocates of Human Rights) Country Push FactorsPull Factors Germany Bestselling book in 1829 about Missouri by Gottfried Duden Social and economic discrimination against Jews and CatholicsYoung men left Germany to avoid mandatory military service The north-central states (Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan) promoted their states for settlement among Germans with funding and support from their state legislatures Austria-Hungary Hungarian 'Forty-niners' came to the United States to escape retribution by Austrian authorities after the defeat of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848OverpopulationLack of jobs America was the land of the free, provided amnesty to those seeking refuge after the Hungarian Revolution Developing economy in the United States provided many jobsFarmable lands were available for displaced Austrian farmers Italy Southern Italy was economically depressedOverpopulation Jobs in a growing American economy Ireland Economic depression Irish potato famine, in which almost 1.5 million Irish men and women died of starvation or diseaseProtestant immigrants were drawn to the overwhelming Protestant majority of the United StatesCatholic unskilled laborers found thriving American urban centers as a destination for their work - the textile and construction industries were specifically targeted for their high demand for unskilled workerNorway Avoid religious persecutionLack of jobs and economic depression While Norway had a shortage of jobs in the 1800s, America had a shortage of laborAs America's economy grew, more workers were needed - this opportunity for employment drew many Norwegian emigrants to America Document 3: American History - HMH Textbook - Module 13 (2012) Most of the immigrants who streamed into the United States in the late 19th century became city dwellers because cities were the cheapest and most convenient places to live. ?As a result, many of the large established cities - such as New York and Chicago - got larger. Because of industrialization, cities also offered unskilled laborers steady jobs in mills and factories. ?By 1910, immigrants made up more than half the total population in 18 American cities. Rapid improvements in farming technology during the second half of the 19th century was good news for some and bad news for others. ?Inventions such as the McCormick reaper and steel plow meant fewer laborers were needed to work the land. Many rural Americans moved from the country to the city looking for work. This included African Americans, many of whom were former farmers. ?African Americans were also drawn to the bigger cities looking for a life that was more peaceful and safer than the racially discriminating southern states where violence against African Americans was on the rise. As a result, job competition between African American and white immigrants began to rise, bringing with it a different set of racial tensions. ?The Americanization movement was designed to assimilate immigrants into American culture. ?Schools and voluntary associations provided programs to teach immigrants skills needed to participate in American democracy. ?Despite these efforts, many immigrants did not wish to abandon their traditions. Often, ethnic groups of one kind lived in different compact neighborhoods and tried to preserve their old world ways. For example, many Italians, having arrived in New York City, moved to Little Italy. ?A new American culture began to develop in diverse cities - one that mixed the old world ethnic traditions with the new American ways. Working conditions in cities were often no better than living conditions. ?Having come from rural areas, few new immigrants were skilled in modern manufacturing or industrial work. ?They often had no choice but to take up low-paying, unskilled jobs in factories, mills, and sweatshops. Often, entire families had to work just to make ends meet. ?Housing and infrastructure became a major issue. ?As urban populations increased, new types of housing were developed. ?Sometimes, two or three families occupied a single family home. These multi family urban dwellings, called tenements, were overcrowded and unsanitary. ?Cities tried to keep up with the growth and expansion of the population. Electric subways and streetcars were built in cities like New York, San Francisco, and Boston. ?Cities struggled to keep up with the demands for new transportation and repair old ones. Safe drinking water also became a major problem. ?Even in large cities like New York - indoor plumbing was rare. Residents had to collect water in pails from city faucets and heat it for bathing and cooking. ?Finally, as cities grew, so did the challenge of keeping them clean. Horse manure piled up on streets, sewage flowed through open gutters, and factories released foul smoke into the air. ?Name: ___________________________________________Date: ____________ Saunders/Mrs. McNerneyUS History/_________Do Now: What are push and pull factors for immigration? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Industrialization and the Gilded Age: Notes 5UrbanizationProcess of moving to the?_______________.Reasons for Urbanization:More?__________________.More?_______________________.Museums???????????_______________________________Theatres?????????????Choices of?_________________________________________________.Interaction with?more ________________________________.Influx of?________________________________.Innovations of UrbanizationThe first?_____________________________________?builtThe creation of?public _______________________________.Creation of gas?_________________________ lightsNegative effects of UrbanizationNo?____________________________________.No?_________________________.No real way to?________________________.______________________This is when the?_______________________?becomes powerful.Police forces were started but had no real impact.The Urban MixAt the center were the?_____________________.Area of the city that was the?____________________.People that lived in this area were the?poor and _____________________________.Lived in small crowded apartments called?_______________________________Middle ClassLived in?_______________________?the rich and the poorThose that lived here were?_________________________________.Doctors, _________________________________, etc.Homes and yards are?_____________________________.Wealthy lived on the outside of the cityLived on?____________________________.Wanted?_____________________________.Could afford to travel to the city or have the city brought to themPolitics and CorruptionPolitical?___________________________.Was set up like a?________________________On the top was the?___________________________boss.The next layer had?district ______________________________.On the bottom layer were the?________________________.Role of the Political?_______________Controlled all?____________________________ decisions.He decided who received?_______________________.What would be done in the cityMost important he controlled?_____________.How the system workedWhen immigrants and the poor needed jobs, becoming a citizen, or any other help they would see the?__________________________ captain,The captain would see the boss and helpMost captains were usually recent?________________________________.They could speak the immigrants language and understand the?____________________________.In return the person had to agree to?___________________?the way the boss wanted,The most famous political machine was the?_____________________________ Hall Ring.The political boss was?______________________________.He was not the mayor but controlled all politicsHe would control his office holders and receive political favors called?____________________.Once a company got a contract they were to charge?________________?than the actual cost.The difference would be given to the?__________________________.They could do this because many of the political machine were the?judges, ________________________, police chiefs, etc.Boss Tweed was found to have a courthouse in NYCcost taxpayers?____________________________Actual cost???????_______________________________Total difference???????????????????????????????????????The group was thrown out of office by a cartoonist named Thomas?____________________To stop political corruption the US Government also took actionPresidents since Andrew Jackson had used the?_______________________________.With the political corruption of the cities the federal government also became a targetTo stop political abuses President James Garfield wanted to?_________________?the spoils system.He was shot by a person who was to get a?_______________________________________.Garfield’s Vice President Chester?____________________________?takes over.Arthur then pushes for the?_________________________________________________________Candidates had to take a?______________________?to receive a job.Usually test was based on the?_________________________________________.Classwork:Primary Source Document Analysis ? Directions: Read the excerpt from How the Other Half Lives, a book that Jacob Riis published in 1890. The book had text as well as the images he had already displayed of New York City tenements. ?Using the excerpts, answer the analysis questions that follow each chapter. ?All terms that are underlined and bolded in the text (like this example) are defined at the end of chapter 4. Chapter 1: Genesis of the Tenement ...There had been tenant houses before, but they were not built for that purpose. Nothing would probably have shocked their original owners more than the idea of their harboring a promiscuous crowd; for they were the decorous homes of the old Knickerbockers, the proud aristocracy of Manhattan in the early days. It was the stir and bustle of trade, together with the tremendous immigration that followed upon the war of 1812 that dislodged them. In thirty-five years the city of less than a hundred thousand came to harbor half a million souls, for whom houses had to be found...Their comfortable dwellings in the once fashionable streets along the East River fell into the hands of real-estate agents and boarding-house keepers...in it’s beginnings, the tenant-house became a real blessing to that class of industrious poor whose small earnings limited their expenses, and whose employment in workshops, stores, or about the warehouses and thoroughfares, render a near residence of much importance…their large rooms were partitioned into several smaller ones without regard to light or ventilation, the rate of rent being lower in proportion to space or height from the street...Neatness, order, cleanliness, were never dreamed of in connection with the tenant-house system… Chapter 1 - Analysis QuestionsClose Reading: According to chapter one, who originally lived in the homes that would be later converted to tenements? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Close Reading: Why did Manhattan’s aristocracy move out of their grand homes? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________Close Reading: What happened to the population of New York City in the thirty five years following the War of 1812 which resulted in the need for more housing? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Analysis: Was a lot of thought given to how the formerly large rooms were divided? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What does this suggest to you about the speed or urgency of the creation of tenement housing? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________Name: ___________________________________________Date: ____________ Saunders/Mrs. McNerneyUS History/_________Do Now: What are some of the reasons for urbanization? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Industrialization and the Gilded Age: Notes 6Pressures for?reformCorporate?___________________________________.Workers are?_____________________________.The?___________________________________.Government was seen as?____________________________.Supreme Court Cases show that government was?______________________________.Lochner v. NY (1905)New York attempted to place a?____________________?on the number of hours a backer could work.Through the state courts the US Supreme Court stated that the?law was?______________________________________________-.The law interfered with the rights of individuals to negotiate freely as protected by the?________________________________________________.These conditions gave rise to the?Progressive MovementThe key was that this group wasLooking?________________________________.Looking out for the?___________________________________ person.Belief that there needed to be?_______________________.Characteristics of most Progressives______________________________________________Mostly from the?________________________________________.Belief in?____________________________________________.Did not believe in?social ____________________________________.Factors helping this groupBeing in cities they saw the?___________________________?of big businessHelped with new ideas in technologyThere was the?______________________________?and telegraph.There were cheap?____________________________________.The United States was in a period of?_____________________________________ growth during the early 1900’sVarious reform people/groups_________________________________________These are?____________________________Receive their name from Theodore Roosevelt because they always seem to rake up?___________________.Three famous MuckrakersUpton ________________________________________?Wrote the book called?__________________________________________.Wrote about the meat?_____________________________.His work gave rise to the?____________________________________________________________.Ida?________________________________?Wrote about?______________________________________________________Describe the practices of the Standard Oil CoLead to?__________________________________?laws.Jacob?______________Wrote and took pictures in the book called?How the Other Half LivesDescribes how the poor in NYC liveShows?______________________________?conditionsCreated?_________________________________________________Jane Adams and?HullHouseThis was an example of a?___________________________________________.Helped?___________________, especially_______________________________________.Provided education.__________________________________________.Classwork: Progressive Era Muckrakers ? Directions: Read the selection below and review the table. ?When you are done, answer the reflection questions that follow on the next page. ?As a result of industrialization and urbanization in the Gilded Age (1870 - 1910), America was changed forever; in some ways the change was positive, and in other ways the changes were negative. The Progressive Era is the name given to the time period between 1890 and 1920; this name reflects the desire of a large group of American citizens to help society “progress” or move forward as a result of economic changes during the Industrial Age. ?Progressive reform in this time period depended upon journalism as an important tool to raise public awareness of serious societal problems. Investigative journalists encouraged the progressive reform movement by not only informing and educating the public of serious issues, but also by describing the problems in such detail that the government was forced to intervene to correct the injustice. ?For example in the 1870’s meat and food production became industrial. This helped companies produce meat and food more quickly to meet the demands of the growing American population, but also meant that the food production industry changed radically. New workers were forced to work long hours in often unsanitary conditions. After Upton Sinclair published The Jungle detailing the unsanitary practices of a meat packaging plant in Chicago, the US government began to regulate food production; the largest regulation came when President Theodore Roosevelt signed the Meat Inspection Act (1906) of and Pure Foods and Drug Act of (1906). ?The investigative journalists who played a major role in the Progressive Era were known as muckrakers. ?A table of muckrakers and the reform issues they brought to light are below. ?Author Book or Work Issue they uncovered Lincoln Steffens Shame of a City Corruption in state and city politics Upton Sinclair The Jungle Unsanitary conditions in meat packing industry Lewis HinesNCLC (National Child Labor Committee) Child labor, unsafe and exploitative practices Ida TarbellThe History of the Standard Oil Company Monopolistic and at aggressive business practices of Robber Barons Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives NYC tenement housing and unsafe living conditions of immigrants and poorest class Reflection Questions: Close Reading: What was the name of the time period between 1880 and 1920 meant to move America forward during the Industrial Age? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Close Reading: Who were muckrakers? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Close Reading: How did muckrakers bring about change or help America to move forward? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Analysis: Why do you think their work motivated the government to get involved? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Analysis: What constitutional right are muckrakers exercising? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Analysis: What are some issues in your community today that you think a muckraker would have been interested in? Why? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Name: _____________________________________Date: ___________ Saunders/Mrs. McNerneyUS History/______Industrialization and the Gilded Age: Notes 7Do Now: Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.“The transition of the American farmers from self-sufficiency to the market economy brought hardships that eventually caused them to form political organizations. During the 19th century, farmers found themselves at the mercy of forces – commodity prices, grain storage charges, interest rates, and shipping costs – that were beyond their control.The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry was founded in 1867 to organize farmers into local chapters dedicated to education, culture, and socialization. However, in the 1870s its aims became less social and more political, with membership reaching 1.5 million by 1874. The Grange accused the railroads of discriminatory practices (long haul compared to short haul, rebates, monopolizing practices), the grain-elevator operators of monopoly practices, charging ‘all that the traffic would bear,’ and manufacturers of raising prices and the cost of credit so that farmers were unable to make a profit.By the middle of the 1870s the Grangers held the political balance in several of the Midwestern states. In four states Granger laws were passed to regulate railroad rates and the practices of the owners of grain elevators. The Supreme Court, in a series of landmark decisions, upheld the principle that government could regulate all those industries ‘affected with a public interest.’”Questions:What concerns did farmers have in the 19th century? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why was National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry founded in 1867? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What did the Grange accuse railroads and grain-elevator operators of? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What were the accomplishments of the Grangers? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ “The Patrons of Husbandry, or the Grange, was founded in 1867 to advance methods of agriculture, as well as to promote the social and economic needs of farmers in the United States. The financial crisis of 1873, along with falling crop prices, increases in railroad fees to ship crops, and Congress’s reduction of paper money in favor of gold and silver devastated farmers’ livelihoods and caused a surge in Grange membership in the mid-1870s. Both at the state and national level, Grangers gave their support to reform minded groups such as the Greenback Party, the Populist Party, and, eventually, the Progressives.”~ Questions:What was the Grange movement? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What factors devastated the livelihoods of farmers in the mid-1870s? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What political parties did the Grangers support? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Analyze the following chart:The Greenback PartyThe Populist PartyThe ProgressivesStarted in the 1870sMain support came from farmers who were suffering from declining farm prices, high railroad rates and the government’s deflationary currency policiesWanted to maintain or increase the amount of paper money in circulationDid not agree when the government announced that it would support all greenbacks with gold; this action would increase value of greenbacks With the currency’s value increasing and inflation decreasing, it became more difficult for people to pay their debtsWanted to keep the greenbacks in circulation and even urged that more be printed; thus making it easier to pay off debts with “cheap” money The People’s PartyIn the 1880s, as drought hit the wheat-growing areas of the Great Plains and prices for Southern cotton sunk to new lows, many tenant farmers fell into deep debtExacerbated long-held grievances against railroads, lenders, grain-elevator owners, and others with whom farmers did businessAdvocated more sweeping federal intervention to offset the economic depression, curtail corporate abuses, and prevent poverty among farming and working-class familiesAlso advocated a graduated income tax, government ownership of railroads and telegraph lines, and the direct election of SenatorsThe rapid industrialization and growth of a world economy in the Gilded Age gave birth to a reform movement in the last decade of the nineteenth-century Believed that people united behind a common cause could erase the social ills that plagued societyWanted to reform social ills such as mass immigration, overcrowding, child labor and sanitationIncluded liberals, agrarians, Republican progressives, socialists, and labor representativesThe 1924 Progressives pledged a “housecleaning” of executive departments, public control of natural resources, public ownership of railways, and tax reductionQuestions:Why were framers suffering in the 1870s? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What did farmers want? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What government action upset the farmers? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Why would backing greenbacks with gold hurt farmers? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What happened in the 1800s that hurt farmers? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What grievances did farmers have? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What did the Populist Party advocate? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Why would farmers support the Populist Party? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Why was the Progressive Party formed? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What did Progressives believe? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What groups supported the Progressive Party? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did the Progressive Party pledge to do? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Analyze the following image: Explain the meaning of the image: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What is the purpose of this image: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________How does this image change people’s perceptions of farmers and issues affecting farmers? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Greenback Party Slogan: “More Money, Cheaper Money.” “The devastating depression unleashed by the Panic of 1873 shook American society to the core. Out of this crisis arose the Greenback Labor Party with its catchy slogan ‘More Money, Cheaper Money.’ Nothing ailed the crippled economy, the Greenbacks insisted, that a massive influx of paper currency could not cure.” ~ Bartee Haile_______________ In the 1870s, the Granger movement was organized to promote the interests ofsuffragistsfarmersfactory workersrecent immigrantsBase your answer to question 2 on the song lyrics below and on your knowledge of social studies.Kansas FoolWe have the land to raise the wheatAnd everything that’s good to eatAnd when we had no bonds or debtsWe were a jolly, happy set.…With abundant crops raised everywhere,’Tis a mystery, I do declare.Why farmers all should fume and fretAnd why we are so deep in debt.…~ Traditional_______________What is the basic cause of the farm problem described by these song lyrics?limits on agricultural importsgovernment ownership of the railroadsoverproduction of farm cropsprolonged droughts in the Midwest_______________ During the 1890s, many American farmers tried to resolve their economic problems byjoining the Populist Partystaging violent protests against the governmentsupporting government aid to railroadsasking Congress to end agricultural subsidies 4. _______________ Which argument was used by Progressive Era reformers to support the use of a graduated income tax?Imports should be taxed to make foreign goods more expensive than domestic goods.Taxes on corporations should be reduced so jobs can be created.People who earn more money should pay taxes at higher rates.All citizens should be taxed at the same rate to treat all people equally.5. _______________The Progressive movement supported the idea that the federal government shouldregulate big businessreduce immigrationbuild an overseas empirereduce the number of farms6. _______________ During the late 1800s, many United Statesfarmers believed their economic problems would be solved if the federal government wouldraise interest ratesoutlaw strikes by labor unionsput more money into circulationregulate the amount of grain that was Produced7. _______________ In the late 1800s, which group most often supported the views of the Populist Party?factory owners c. farmersnativists d. labor unions8. _______________ Which statement about the development of the Great Plains in the late 1800s is most accurate?Great profits could be earned in the steel industry.Railroads decreased in importance throughout the region.Immigrants could no longer afford to become farmers.Mechanized farming became dominant in the region. “The Greenbacks met in Waco in August 1878 to select a full slate for the fall elections. W.H. Hamman of Robertson was nominated for governor and waged an energetic campaign. The Greenback creed of defending the common man against the banks, corporations and railroads struck a chord with many Texans as did the charge that both the Democratic and Republican parties ignored their plight.” ~ Bartee HaileQuestions:What is the main idea of this cartoon from the 1800s?Labor is gaining power over big business. Most Americans support the labor movement. Business has advantages over labor. Government should support the expansion of railroads.In the late 1800s, supporters of laissez-faire capitalism claimed that government regulation of business would beessential to protect the rights of consumers necessary to provide jobs for the unemployed useful in competing with foreign nations harmful to economic growth After the Civil War, one way business leaders tried to eliminate competition was byforming monopolies or trusts developing overseas markets increasing the prices of their products paying high wages to their workers Name: ___________________________________________Date: ____________ Saunders/Mrs. McNerneyUS History/_________Do Now: What was the Grange movement? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Industrialization and Gilded Age: Notes 8 Women’s RightThe Women’ MovementStarted in?_______________________?Seneca Falls, NYLeaders of the movement of the Seneca Falls ConventionSusan B.?______________________________Active?_________________________________Was seen as the?_____________________________?for the Seneca Fall ConventionElizabeth Cady?_____________________________She was at first an?_________________________________Realized that she was also oppressed because she was a?_______________________Wrote the?_________________________________________________________________________Based on the Declaration of?______________________________________________Listed many of the?complaints?against?_________________Wanted?______________________________The only area not pushed was?________________________________ -women receiving the right to vote.Both leaders would push for?______________________________?after Civil WarNew Leaders arise with the Progressive MovementCarrie Chapman?_____________________????????Wanted?_____________________________________________________The only way to do this was through a?______________________________________________________Alice?___________________Wanted to have woman?_________________________She was more?________________________________Used?________________________________________Called to have Woodrow Wilson to not re-electedWestern States lead way for?________________________________Around?__________________________?western states allow woman to voteThis put pressure on many states to pass suffrage lawFinally woman get suffrage with?________________________________________________Passed in?_____________________Takes effect in?_______________________Education for womanPrior to the Civil War most woman were to be in?________________________________________________Learn how to?_____________________________________________Be a good and faithful?__________________The exception was Elizabeth?_____________________________________________First female doctor in?________________Graduated?_____________________________________________During the Progressive era woman going to college increased to ____________________________Classwork: Review DBQ outline.Document-Based Essay OutlineDevelop ALL aspects of the taskInclude information from the amount of documents stated.Include relevant outside information.Support the theme with relevant facts, examples and details.Introduction: Introduce the essay by restating the Historical Context and referencing the documents you will be discussing in the essay. Be sure to include relevant information about the time period.EXAMPLE:Throughout United States history….. (reference the documents you will be discussing in the essay as well as the historical circumstances surrounding the documents)Paragraph 2: Answer both items in the task using the 1st document you ic sentence: discussion which documents you will be referencing.Describe the historical circumstances behind the 1st document (part 1 of the task)Discuss the impact of document 1 on the United States or American Society (part 2 of the task)USE OUTSIDE INFORMATION EXAMPLE: There were many different circumstances facing the United States…..(state the circumstance) Document 1….. shows……Paragraph 3: Answer both items in the task using the 2nd document you ic sentence: discussion which document you will be referencing.Describe the historical circumstances behind the 2nd document (part 1 of the task)Discuss the impact of document 2 on the United States or American Society (part 2 of the task)USE OUTSIDE INFORMATION*Repeat based on the amount of documents the directions instruct you to use.Conclusion: Restate the task with an explanation in your own words.EXAMPLE: In conclusion, throughout United States history……Name: _____________________________Date: _________ Saunders/Mrs. McNerneyUS History/_____Industrialization and the Gilded Age: Notes 9 Plessy, Washington, and DuBoisPlessy v. Ferguson, 1896Booker T. WashingtonW.E.B. DuBoisPlessy, a racially mixed man, sat in a railroad car where only whites were permitted.He was arrested for violating a state law that provided “separate but equal” facilities for non-whites.Plessy said this law violated his “equal protection” rights under the 14th Amendment.The Supreme Court held that so long as a state provided “equal” facilities, it could legally separate African Americans from whites. The decision allowed the continuation of “separate but equal” facilities – resulting in whites and African Americans attending different schools, using different water fountains, and bathing in different public beaches.Booker T. Washington was born into slavery in 1856.In 1881, he founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.In 19011, he wrote Up From Slavery, an autobiography.Washington believed that African Americans should first concentrate their efforts on trying to achieve economic independence before seeking full social equality.He believed economic prosperity could best be achieved by vocational training and practical, job-related education.He wanted young African Americans to develop skills and attitudes that would help them to survive in an environment of increasing violence and discrimination.W.E.B. DuBois was the first African American to obtain a Ph.D. from Harvard University and became a notable historian and writer.Unlike Booker T. Washington, DuBois urged the next generation of African Americans to move in a new direction.DuBois believed African Americans should agitate for full social and political equality immediately and not rest content with an inferior social and economic status.In his writings, DuBois encouraged African Americans not to define themselves as whites saw them, but to take pride in their dual heritages – as both Africans and Americans.In 1909, he helped form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.) – to win rights through the courts.Who was Plessy and why was he arrested? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What Amendment did Plessy state was being violated? Why? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What did the Supreme Court rule at the time? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did the Court’s decision allow? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Who was Booker T. Washington and what was significant about his early years? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What book did Booker T. Washington write? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did Booker T. Washington found? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What did Booker T. Washington believe African Americans should focus on first? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________How did Booker T. Washington believe economic prosperity could be achieved? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Who was W.E.B. DuBois and why was he significant? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did W.E.B. DuBois believe? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ How did the ideas of W.E.B. DuBois differ from the ideas of Booker T. Washington? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ How did W.E.B. DuBois encourage African Americans to see themselves? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What organization did W.E.B. DuBois help found? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Given the circumstances at the time, who would you have agreed with: Booker T. Washington or W.E.B. Dubois? Why? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What is most surprising about the information presented in the chart? Why? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Multiple-Choice Questions:_______________ The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) affected African Americans bygranting voting rightsexpanding civil rightsupholding racial segregationguaranteeing equal wages_______________ Which statement best describes how the status of African Americans in the South changed soon after the end of Reconstruction in 1877?The Supreme Court consistently supported civil rights for African Americans.Poll taxes and literacy tests were eliminated for African Americans.Increasing numbers of African Americans were elected to public office.African Americans faced increasing discrimination and segregation._______________ The Supreme Court decision in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) affected civil rights in the United States byruling that segregated public schools were unconstitutionalrejecting the legal basis of Jim Crow lawsapproving racial segregation in public facilitiesstrengthening the protections of the 14th amendment_______________ The formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) was primarily a response toracism and prejudicenationalism and patriotismabolition and temperanceindependence and autonomy5. _______________ One idea that both Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois supported is thatAfrican Americans should have increased civil rightsvocational training was the best approach to educationimmigration was responsible for racial segregationJim Crow laws were needed to help African Americans6. _______________ In the ten years following the Civil War, a large numbers of former slaves earned a living by becomingconductors on the Underground Railroadworkers in Northern factoriessharecroppers on Southern farmsgold miners in California7. _______________ The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v.Ferguson (1896) had a major impact on the lives of African Americans because it ruled thatsegregation was illegal in educational institutionsvoting was a right guaranteed by the Constitutionseparate but equal public facilities were legalmilitary occupation of the South was Unconstitutional8. _______________ Following Reconstruction, the passage of Jim Crow laws in the South limited the effectiveness ofthe 14th and 15th amendmentsthe Freedmen’s BureauBlack Codestenant farming and sharecroppingPrimary Source:Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) “In Plessy v. Ferguson the Supreme Court held that the state of Louisiana did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment by establishing and enforcing a policy of racial segregation in its railway system. Justice John Marshall Harlan wrote a memorable dissent to that decision.” Source: McKenna, George, ed. A Guide to the Constitution That Delicate Balance (New York, 1984), pp. 384-386. ~ chnm.gmu.eduJudge Harlan’s dissent …It was said in argument that the statute of Louisiana does not discriminate against either race but prescribes a rule applicable alike to white and colored citizens. But this argument does not meet the difficulty. Everyone knows that the statues in question had its origin in the purpose, not so much to exclude white persons from railroad cars occupied by blacks, as to exclude colored people from coaches occupied by or assigned to white persons. Railroad corporations of Louisiana did not make discrimination among whites in the matter of accommodation for travellers. The thing to accomplish was, under the guise of giving equal accommodations for whites and blacks, to compel the latter to keep to themselves while travelling in railroad passenger coaches. No one would be so wanting in candor as to assert the contrary. The fundamental objection, therefore, to the statues is that it interferes with the personal freedom of citizens....If a white man and a black man choose to occupy the same public conveyance on a public highway, it is their right to do so, and no government, proceeding alone on grounds of race, can prevent it without infringing the personal liberty of each.... The white race deems itself to be the dominant race in this country. And so it is, in prestige, in achievements, in education, in wealth, and in power. So, I doubt not, it will continue to be for all time, if it remains true to its great heritage and holds fast to the principles of constitutional liberty. But in the view of the Constitution, in the eye of the law, there is in this country no superior, dominant, ruling class of citizens. There is no caste here. Our Constitution in color-blind and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law. The humblest is the peer of the most powerful. The law regards man as man and takes no account of his surroundings or of his color when his civil rights as guaranteed by the supreme law of the land are involved… The arbitrary separation of citizens, on the basis of race, while they are on a public highway, is a badge of servitude wholly inconsistent with the civil freedom and the equality before the law established by the Constitution. It cannot be justified upon any legal grounds.” Questions:What does Judge Harlan believe is the basis for Louisiana’s segregation? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What is the fundamental objection to the Louisiana statue? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What does Judge Harlan mean when he writes that the Constitution is color-blind? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What is Judge Harlan’s conclusion about “the arbitrary separation of citizens”? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Explain your position on this issue. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Analyze the following image:Questions:What does this image reveal about Jim Crow segregation? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________How does this image support Judge Harlan’s dissent? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Can separate ever be equal? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Identify Americans who challenged segregation: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________A Professor’s Perspective on Teaching about Jim Crow Segregation: “Displaying photos of segregated water fountains utterly fails to convey how Jim Crow’s long reign shaped life for generations of African American and white Southerners. Whether in neighborhood stores or on public sidewalks, segregation established an intricate set of rules to govern every kind of interracial contact that were reinforced by its repeated daily humiliations. Laws and practices that assigned African American laborers the most menial and lowest-paying jobs and kept them out of labor unions ensured their economic subordination. White newspapers stirred fears of black criminality and white police often arrested black people for the most minor infractions. As the primary source from the Cleveland Advocate in 1918 suggests, all-white juries and white judges punished African Americans more severely than whites, even when whites had committed the greater crime...More broadly, Southern courts sentenced a disproportionate number of African Americans to chain gangs and prison. Segregation literally rendered African American life less valuable than white life. Black Southerners had higher mortality rates, for example, because they lived in areas where white officials did not invest in improving sanitation and because the lack of public spending on health services for black people typically meant fewer hospitals and treatment options. An untold number of black adults and black children died as a result.”~ Katherine Mellen Charron [Associate Professor of History at North Carolina State University]; Questions:Why does Professor Charron believe that “displaying photographs of segregated water fountains utterly fail to convey how Jim Crow’s long reign shaped life for generations of African Americans”? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What examples does Professor Charron provide that demonstrate the oppression of African Americans under Jim Crow segregation? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________How does this reading passage increase your understanding of Jim Crow segregation? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What then might be a more effective way to teach the effects of Jim Crow segregation on African Americans? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Name: ____________________________________Date: _____________ Saunders/Mrs. McNerneyUS History/____________DBQ: Women’s Suffrage Using Evidence Theme: Women’s Suffrage Historical Context: Soon after the US Civil War, the 15th amendment was passed, extending voting rights to African American males. ?Women around the nation rallied prior to the passage of this amendment to spark a woman’s rights movement that extended into the early decades of the 20th century. ?Citing the ideals of the Declaration of Independence & the US Constitution, women such as Susan B Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and other women suffragettes [a woman seeking the right to vote through organized protest] began the task of trying to convince legislatures, both state and federal, to grant women the right to vote in elections. ?DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTIONThis question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.Task: Using the information from the seven documents in part A and your knowledge of US history, write an essay in Part B in which you Compare and contrast the arguments for and against women’s suffrage in the late 19th & early 20th centuries. ?Provide and analyze ?at least two arguments for women’s suffrage. Provide and analyze at least two arguments against women’s suffrage. ?compare and contrast means “to express similarities and differences”analyze means “to determine the nature and relationship of the component elements”Part A: Short answer questions - Analyze the documents and answer the short answer questions that follow each document. Document 1 A Petition for Universal Suffrage To the Senate and House of Representatives: The undersigned, Women of the United States, respectfully ask an amendment of the Constitution that shall prohibit the several states from disenfranchising [prevent a group of people from voting] any of their citizens on the ground of gender. ?In making our demand for suffrage, we would call your attention to the fact that we represent fifteen million people - one half of the entire population of the country - intelligent, virtuous, native-born American citizens and yet not provided with political recognition. ?The Constitution classes us free people and counts as whole persons in the basis of recognition and representation; and yet we are governed without our consent, unlike men. We are compelled to pay taxes without appeal when laws do not suit us, and punished for violations of the law without choice of judge or representatives to make the laws... ????????????Source: Suffrage Petition (1866) Rochester, NYWhat are TWO reasons the petition states with regards to why women should have the right to vote? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________How is “...paying taxes without appeal when laws do not suit us” (last paragraph) similar to the American revolutionary war cry “no taxation without representation”? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Document 2 “But the women of this nation are educated equally with the men, and have their political opinions. ?…I do not believe you can find a score of women in the whole Nation - who have not opinions on the pending presidential elections. ?We all have opinions....we all have parties; some like one party and one candidate and some another. Women... they will think and act for themselves, and when they are enfranchised they will divide upon all political questions as do intelligent, educated men…” “We are starving for the ballot; give us the ballot in order that we may get bread, and an honest, upright living. ?We are born of the same parents as men; raised in the same family. We are possessed of the same loves and animosities as our brothers, and we inherit equally with them the substance of our fathers. ?So long as we are minors the government treats us as equals, but when we come of age, when we are capable of knowing and feeling the difference the boy becomes a free human being, responsible alone to God for his life, while the girl remains a slave…Is this just? is it not indeed, barbarous?” ??????????????????????????? ???????????????Source: Susan B Anthony - Address to Congress 1884 According to Susan B Anthony’s testimony - what are three ways in which women are equal to men? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Document ?3 Brooklyn Auxillary, NYS Association Opposed to the Extension of Suffrage to Women - 1894According to document 3 above, what are two reasons why this Brooklyn Auxiliary group are anti-women’s suffrage? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Would the authors of documents 1 & 2 agree or disagree with the content of document 3 (above)? Cite textual evidence from each document to support your claims. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Document 4a “In Colorado after women were granted suffrage... Several important results followed. ?Both political parties were induced to put up cleaner, better men, for the women would not stand a notoriously corrupt or unclean candidate. ?...It has not made women mannish; they still love their homes and their children just the same as ever, and are better able to protect themselves and their children because of the ballot. ?Second, they have not become swaggerers and insolent on the streets. ?They still teach good manners to men … Suffrage has increased the understanding of the community at large of the problems of good government. ?It has not absolutely regenerated society, but it has improved it! The great doctrine of the American Republic that “all governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed” justifies the plea of one half of the people - the women - to exercise suffrage. ?The doctrine of the American Revolutionary War that taxation without representation is unendurable justifies women in exercising the suffrage.“ ????????????????????????????????????????????Source: US Senator Robert Owens Speech in Favor of Women’s Suffrage 1910 According to Senator Owens, what are three positive impacts of women voting in Colorado? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Document 4b ...The question of woman suffrage should be summed up in this way: Has granting the ballot to women in the two suffrage states where they have had it for forty years brought about any great reforms or great results? No…Have the slums been done away with? Indeed no. Are the streets better cleaned in the states where women vote? No, they are quites as bad as in New York City… Have women purified politics? No…Have women voted voluntarily? Some do; thousands are carried to the polls otherwise, they would not vote! ….Are there laws on the statue books that would give women equal pay for equal work? No, and never will be. Are women treated with more respect in the four suffrage states than elsewhere? No...Source: National League for Civic Education of Women - ?Mrs. Gilbert Jones A Woman Assails Woman Suffrage (1910) Is the speaker of this source a man or a woman? What does this tell you about the Anti-Woman’s suffrage movement? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________According to Mrs. Jones, what impact has women’s suffrage had on communities where it was granted? How does she use this to argue against women's suffrage? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Document 5According to document three, some anti-suffragettes believed that women didn’t need the right to vote “...Because the energies of women are engrossed by their present duties and interests (at home - caring for families) from which men cannot relieve them, and it is better for the community that they devote their energies to the more efficient performance of their present work than to divert them to new fields of activity.” ?What are TWO arguments cited in this 1915 flier above that are in opposition to this anti-suffragette stance from document 3? ?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Document 6“Woman suffrage would result either in a needless political muddle or in a social and political turmoil which would tend to weaken the State, to stir up discord in society and in the home, and would put obstacles in the way of progress which the wisest statesmanship might fail to overcome…The grant of suffrage to women is repugnant to instincts that strike their roots deep in the order of nature. ?It runs counter to human reason, it flouts the teachings of experience and the admonitions of common sense. Although women have other capacities without numbers held in equal distinction and some in higher honor, they have never possessed or developed the political faculty. ?Without the counsel and guidance of men, no woman ever ruled a state wisely or well. The defect is innate [a characteristic they are born with] and one for which a cure is both impossible and not to be desired. That they lack the genius for politics is no more to their discredit than man’s handiness in housewifery and in the care of infants….Let there be no mistake as to the import of this argument. ?It is not in the remotest manner based upon the assumption or belief that woman is man’s inferior, either intellectually or in any other way. ?It rests upon the established fact that man’s work is different from women's work, and that in his work and in his striving in his own particular field that give man the qualifying knowledge essential to intelligent voting….” ???Source: New York Times Editorial February 7th 1915 Are the authors of this editorial in support of or against a woman’s right to vote? Cite textual evidence to support your claims. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What are the three consequences the author suggests would occur if women were granted the right to vote? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Document 7 ??????????????????Source: EW Gustin By Popular Demand: Votes for Women! (1919) According to this political cartoon - what could be ONE negative impact of women’s suffrage on American society? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Part B: Women’s Suffrage Soon after the US Civil War, the 15th amendment was passed, extending voting rights to African American males. ?Women around the nation rallied prior to the passage of this amendment to spark a woman’s rights movement that extended into the early decades of the 20th century. ?Citing the ideals of the Declaration of Independence & the US Constitution, women such as Susan B Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and other women suffragettes began the task of trying to convince legislatures, both state and federal, to grant women the right to vote in elections. ?Task: Using the information from the seven documents in part A and your knowledge of US history, write an essay in Part B in which you: ?Compare and contrast the arguments for and against women’s suffrage in the late 19th & early 20th centuries. ?Provide and analyze ?at least two arguments for women’s suffrage. Provide and analyze at least two arguments against women’s suffrage. ??compare and contrast means “to express similarities and differences”analyze means “to determine the nature and relationship of the component elements”Guidelines:In your essay, be sure to:Develop all aspects of the task Incorporate information from at least four documentsIncorporate relevant outside informationSupport the theme with relevant facts, examples, and detailsUse a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the 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