Invitation to Public Speaking-Student workbook

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Contents

Preface iv

Chapter 1 Why Speak in Public? 1

Chapter 2 Your First Speech 14

Chapter 3 Effective Listening 30

Chapter 4 Developing Your Speech Topic and Purpose 41

Chapter 5 Your Audience and Speaking Environment 52

Chapter 6 Gathering Supporting Materials 67

Chapter 7 Developing and Supporting Your Ideas 82

Chapter 8 Reasoning 92

Chapter 9 Organizing and Outlining Your Speech 103

Chapter 10 Introductions and Conclusions 122

Chapter 11 Language 131

Chapter 12 Delivering Your Speech 144

Chapter 13 Visual Aids 154

Chapter 14 Informative Speaking 168

Chapter 15 Invitational Speaking 180

Chapter 16 Persuasive Speaking 190

Chapter 17 Persuasion and Reasoning 203

Chapter 18 Speaking on Special Occasions 216

Appendix A Speaking in Small Groups 225

Answer Key 238

Preface

Congratulations! You have made a great choice to purchase and use the Student Workbook for Cindy Griffin’s Invitation to Public Speaking, 3rd Edition. Your ability to speak clearly, confidently, and persuasively will have a lasting impact on your life and the lives of those around you. Through the materials provided in this workbook and the Invitation to Public Speaking textbook, you will be taken on a journey that can forever change you. I invite you to begin that journey, a journey that may take you to places you never imagined; a journey that will at times be difficult and scary but will ultimately be rewarding. I invite you to challenge yourself to become better public speaker than you are today: to open yourself to new ideas, new ways of thinking, new ways of learning, and new ways of speaking.

This workbook will provide additional support and useful activities to assist you in learning the key concepts and life skills of public speaking. Whether your instructor assigns these activities or completed out of your own self-interest, you will find they directly address issues important to communicating your message effectively. As you approach the activities in this workbook you should plan to keep the Invitation to Public Speaking, 3rd Edition text close by as it will be essential to your successful completion and comprehensive understanding. Each chapter in the workbook is organized to help you quickly and easily review key concepts while reaching a deeper understanding of those concepts. Each chapter in this workbook includes the following elements.

Goals

A brief preview of each chapter including the learning goals you can anticipate.

Key Concepts for Review

A review of the key terms found in that chapter of Invitation to Public Speaking.

Activities

Activities vary from responding to critical thinking questions to a review and analysis of multimedia resources available through Invitation to Public Speaking’s Premium Companion Website, and CengageNOW including Speech Builder Express ™, InfoTrac College Edition©.and vMentor. To login to CengageNOW, go to . For technical assistance, email tl.support@

Chat or online forum discussion starters

Numerous activities in this workbook include opportunities to share insights or respond to prompts utilizing chat or online discussion features available through your course management software or institution. Discuss with your instructor and classmates available opportunities to augment your learning with this type of discussion tool.

Self-Tests

Use these self-test questions to review your understanding of key concepts after reading Invitation to Public Speaking and completing the activities. Questions include multiple-choice, True/False, and essay options. Answers and page locations for the multiple-choice and True/False questions are provided in the Answer Key provided at the back of this text.

Assessment tools

Some chapters include self-assessment materials. These tools help you to critique your work and the work of others following guides designed to include the essential elements of effective public speaking. Use these tools to assess your own or others’ work.

If you have any questions or comments, I would like to hear from you. Enjoy the journey.

David L. Bodary, Ph.D.

Kettering, OH

Bodary@

Chapter One: Why Speak in Public?

Goals

In this chapter you will learn:

• about the power of ethical public speaking

• about the importance of acting ethically as a public speaker

• about the influence of culture on speaking styles

• what makes public speaking different from other kinds of communication

• why people speak publicly

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding and ability to apply public speaking skills:

Audience (13) The complex and varied group of people the speaker addresses.

Audience centered (11) Considerate of the positions, beliefs, values, and needs of an audience.

Channel (13) The means by which the message is conveyed.

Civility (5) Care and concern for others, the thoughtful use of words and language, and the flexibility to see the many sides of an issue.

Context (14) The environment or situation in which a speech occurs.

Decoding (13) Translating words, sounds, and gestures into ideas and feelings in an attempt to understand the message.

Encoding (13) Translating ideas and feelings into words, sounds, and gestures.

Ethical public speaker (6) Speaker who consideres the moral imnpact of his or her ideas and arguments on others when involved in the public dialogue.

Feedback (11) The verbal and nonverbal signals an audience gives a speaker.

Group communication (9) Communication among members of a team about topics such as goals, strategies and conflicts.

Interpersonal communication (9) Communication with other people that ranges from the highly personal to the highly impersonal.

Intrapersonal communication (9) Communication within ourselves via the dialogue that goes on in our heads.

Mass communication (9) Communication generated by media organizations that is designed to reach large audiences.

Message (13) Information conveyed by the speaker to the audience.

Noise (13) Anything that interferes with understanding the message being communicated.

Public communication (9) Communication in which one person give a speech to other people, most often in a public setting.

Public dialogue (5) The civil exchange of ideas and opinions among communities about topics that affect the public.

Speaker (13) A person who stimulates public dialogue by delivering an oral message.

Name __________________________________

Activity 1.1 – Comparing Public Speaking, Dialogue and Civility

Purpose: To understand the similarities between the act of speaking in public, the process of dialogue and the expression of civility.

Instructions: Review the web page . The Public Dialogue Consortium offers seven principles of public dialogue (detailed below).

Seven Principles for Developing Public Dialogue in Communities

1. We view the community as a system comprised of a complex tapestry of interconnected conversations. Thinking systemically will help us to identify the various “stakeholder” groups in the community and involve them in our project. Additionally, it enables us to see each step of the project as a series of “conversational turns” in which what occurs in one series of meetings is incorporated into the next round of discussions; each discussion growing out of one context and affecting the next context.

2. We view the community as a “multiverse” containing many social worlds. In addition to interconnected conversations, the community is comprised of stakeholder groups with different, and sometimes conflicting, ideas of what their community should be. We see these differences as enriching rather than problematic.

3. We involve the public in the project from the beginning. We think if community building is to take place, residents need to be involved throughout the project.

4. We believe there should be support from the top for initiatives from the bottom. Most residents are not interested in “just talk,” instead they want to see the connection between their ideas and community initiatives and action steps. We think it’s crucial for city government to recognize and support resident involvement and for residents to feel heard. This often requires creating new places for quality communication to occur between residents and community leaders.

5. We treat language as “fateful” and recognize that the way issues are framed and discussed affect the “outcomes as well as the level of trust and respect among the various stakeholders. Therefore, we always work collaboratively with the community.

6. We see the entire community process as a series of dialogic conversations. We think of dialogue as the ability to state your perspectives, values, and desires while remaining open to the perspectives, values, and desires of others. We think that engaging in this form of communication creates the conditions for trust and respect and opens up possibilities for enriched actions.

7. We recognize our own role in the “system.” Although we are not members of the community, we realize that whenever we facilitate a discussion or attend meetings of community stakeholders, our presence makes a difference. We need to continually remind ourselves that as facilitators we must remain neutral with regard to the outcome of community decisions, but we are passionate about the process in which those decisions are made. The process is one in which our role is to be on everybody’s side and in which all parties feel heard.

The first principle describes community as a complex tapestry.

1. In what way is a tapestry an appropriate metaphor to describe this process?

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2. What metaphor would you use to describe communication in your community?

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3. What metaphor would you use to describe communication in your family?

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4. The last principle discusses the idea of “feeling” heard. What do you think it means to “feel” heard?

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5. Why would a speaker be concerned with whether the audience “felt” heard or not?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 1.2 – Public Dialogue and the Argument Culture

Purpose: To review the difference between dialogic and combative public exchanges.

Instructions: Review the text discussion of public dialogue and the idea of an argument culture on pages 5-6. Enhance your understanding by reading Deborah Tannen’s work at: . Respond to the following questions:

1. Imagine you are given a chance to address the problem of accessible, convenient parking at your institution. How would a speaker using a combative style approach the speech?

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2. How might a speaker approach the speech from a dialogic style?

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3. When and why might you use a dialogic or combative approach?

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Consider sharing your preferences and observations from this activity with your classmates through discussion in class or via an online discussion forum if available.

Name __________________________________

Activity 1.3 – Culture and Speaking Style

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between culture and speaking style in our lives.

Instructions: The text discusses cultural speaking style differences on page 7. List the names of great speakers you have heard living or deceased. Next to each name, indicate what qualities you like about the speaker. Share your list with classmates or create a class list. Review the list for cultural differences. What do you notice?

How might your cultural origin, gender or age influence what you prefer regarding a person’s public speaking style?

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Consider sharing your preferences and observations from this activity with your classmates through discussion in class or via an online discussion forum if available.

Activity 1.4 – Topic Brainstorm

Purpose: To develop a list of possible topics you might use in this course.

Instructions: Create a list of topics or issues that affect you or that you feel strongly about. Take the list with you to class. Be prepared to share elements of the list with your classmates and instructor. If you have difficulty creating the list think about privileges, things, and people you would really miss if they were lost or taken from you.





















Name __________________________________

Activity 1.5 – Convening Public Dialogue

Purpose: To think about how you can help start a public dialogue in your community.

Instructions: Review the discussion of how public speaking creates a community on page 10 of your text or go to , the Community Building through Convening web page, to explore the link between public speaking and community. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the community benefits of public dialogue?

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2. What issue in your area would benefit by being addressed through public dialogue?

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3. How might you organize a meeting to address this issue?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 1.6 – Deciding to Speak on Matters of Importance

Purpose: To consider what motivates people to speak in public.

Instructions: Think about what people are speaking out about in your community. You may wish to pay particular attention to the television news or review the “local” sections of your hometown newspaper from the past week.

1. What is motivating these people to speak?

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2. The text suggests (page 14-15) that some people, like Lois Gibbs, speak in public on matters of importance. What issue or topic would compel you to speak publicly? Your child’s health? The loss of a friend? An injustice in your community? Would you speak on behalf of an organization that helped you or your family? Why or why not?

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Consider sharing your preferences and observations from this activity with your classmates through discussion in class or via an online discussion forum if available.

Name __________________________________

Activity 1.7 – Conversation and Public Speaking

Purpose: To understand the similarities and the differences between conversation and public speaking so that you can build on conversational skills and experiences to develop as a public speaker.

Instructions: In groups of two or three, have a three- to five-minute conversation on one of the following topics:

a. What is the best movie you have seen recently?

b. What is the best show currently on television?

c. What is the one change you would like to see made at your institution?

At the end of your conversation, take a few minutes to record the results of your conversation:

1. The main idea(s) discussed were:

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2. The reasons given for these ideas were:

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3. Speakers attempted to persuade or relate to the audience by saying things like:

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Now, as a group, consider how this conversation would have to be adapted and altered if it were to be shaped into an informal public speech to be presented to the class.

4. Changes that would be necessary to convert the conversation to a speech are:

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5. What elements of the conversation could be effectively incorporated into a speech?

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6. What can you say about the similarities between conversation and public speaking?

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7. What can you say about the differences between conversation and public speaking?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 1.8 – Culture and Language

Purpose: To help you explore the impact of semantic noise and cultural diversity on public speaking situations.

Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read the following article: “The Year in Buzzwords” located in Time, Dec 25, 2006 v168 i26 p33

(Hint: Use the keyword “slang” as your search term.)

1. What examples of slang identified in the article have you heard before?

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2. What examples of slang used in the article do you find amusing, worth remembering, or worth using yourself?

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3. Provide at least three examples of slang or jargon that you use. Give the expression, an example, and where you heard it.

Example 1:

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Example 2:

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Example 3:

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4. Thinking about these examples, as you see it, why do speakers use slang?

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5. Thinking about these examples, as you see it, what is the impact of slang on listeners?

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Name __________________________________

Chapter 1 – Why Speak in Public?

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. A person that is unwilling to take responsibility for the effect of his or her words, language, and behavior on others lacks

a. civility.

b. competence.

c. dialogue.

d. intelligence.

2. Communication that is specifically designed to reach large audiences is known as

a. intrapersonal communication.

b. interpersonal communication.

c. group communication.

d. mass communication.

3. Public speaking differs from casual conversation with friends because

a. it is typically more structured than every day conversations.

b. it is less personal than casual communication.

c. it takes less time to prepare a public speech than a personal conversation.

d. our language must be much more exact than when we speak with friends.

4. To say that public speaking is audience centered means that the speaker must

a. select a topic of interest to his or her audience.

b. be considerate of the positions, beliefs, values and needs of the audience.

c. speak no longer than the audience can center their attention on the speaker.

d. walk around the audience such that they remain in the middle of the room throughout the speech.

5. The public speaking model described on page 13 of the text includes the following elements:

a. speaker, audience, message, meaning, noise, channel, content

b. speaker, receiver, meaning noise, channel, content, culture

c. speaker, message, audience, channel, noise, feedback, context

d. speaker, audience, context, message, noise, listeners, feedback

6. Joe finds himself before a crowd of 3,000 people during the intermission of a minor league hockey game in his hometown. He implores them to assist him in the search for his daughter throughout the country. Which reason for speaking publicly best explains Joe’s motivation for addressing this audience?

a. We decide to speak on matters of importance.

b. We are asked to speak about our experiences and expertise.

c. We are required to speak in class or at work.

d. We have no way of knowing why Joe would subject himself to this torture.

7. Interpersonal communication is best characterized by which of the following?

a. communication that goes on in our heads

b. communication that occurs between two people

c. communication that occurs among small groups

d. communication that occurs between people in a public setting

8. Group communication is best characterized by which of the following?

a. communication that goes on in our heads

b. communication that occurs between two people

c. communication that occurs among small groups

d. communication that occurs between people in a public setting

9. Public communication is best characterized by which of the following?

a. communication that goes on in our heads

b. communication that occurs between two people

c. communication that occurs among small groups

d. communication that occurs between people in a public setting

10. Jeremy is on a date with a new friend he met through his volunteer work. This type of communication is best characterized as?

a. intrapersonal communication

b. interpersonal communication

c. group communication

d. mass communication

e. public communication

11. Jessica has decided to speak out against the development of a new mall in her community at the next city hearing. This type of communication is best characterized as?

a. intrapersonal communication

b. interpersonal communication

c. group communication

d. mass communication

e. public communication

True/False

T F 12. Listening is an important aspect of civility.

T F 13. What we say and how we say it rarely has much lasting impact on others.

T F 14. Having to give a speech in a speech class is nothing like giving a speech in real life, because never again will a person “have” to give a speech.

T F 15. Culture and gender have little to no effect on the style of speech a person uses or prefers.

T F 16. To be audience centered, one must keep the audience in one’s mind with every step of the public speaking process, including research, organization, and presentation.

T F 17. Because public speaking typically involves one person doing most of the talking it does little to encourage public dialogue.

T F 18. Noise, in terms of the public speaking model, can be either internal or external.

T F 19. A message conveyed by the speaker includes only the verbal utterances used to convey information.

T F 20. Public speaking creates community, is audience centered, and encourages dialogue.

Essay

19. Explain what it means to be an ethical public speaker.

20. What examples of an argument culture, as described by Deborah Tannen, have you experienced? How would you recommend those forces be changed?

21. According to the text, explain what influences your speaking style.

22. Explain what distinguishes public speaking from other types of communication.

23. Explain fully the need for a speaker to be audience centered.

24. Describe the meaning of public dialogue and how a public speaker can add encourage this dialogue.

25. Describe a failed communication effort you have been involved in and using the model of communication from your text explain why your communication was unsuccessful.

26. Describe a time you spoke in a public setting, and then explain why you spoke based on the three reasons people generally speak in public offered in the text.

Chapter Two: Entering the Public Dialogue with Confidence: Your First Speech

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• identify the types of speeches most commonly given in the public dialogue,

• explain the five basic steps of preparing a speech: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery,

• understand the most common reasons speakers are nervous about giving speeches,

• apply six techniques for reducing speech-related nervousness,

• give your first speech.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Acceptance speech (26) A speech that acknowledges gratitude, appreciation, and pleasure at receiving an honor or a gift.

Affirmations (42) Positive, motivating statements that replace negative, self-talk.

Canon (28) An authoritative list, an accepted principle or rule, or an accepted standard of judgement.

Canon of arrangement (32) Guidelines for ordering the ideas in a speech.

Canon of delivery (36) Guidelines for managing your voice, gestures, posture, facial expressions, and visual aids as you present your speech.

Canon of invention (28) Guidelines for generating effective content for a speech.

Canon of memory (35) Guidelines for the time taken to rehearse a speech and the ways you prompt yourself to remember the speech as you give it.

Canon of style (34) Guidelines for using language effectively and appropriately.

Cognitive restructuring (42) A process that helps reduce anxiety by replacing negative thoughts with postive ones, called affirmations.

Commemorative speech (26) A speech that praise, honors, recognizes, or pays tribute to a person, an event, an idea, or an institution.

Communication apprehension (37) The level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons.

Informative speech (24) A speech that communicates knowledge and understanding about a process, an event, a person or place, an object, or a concept.

Introductory speech (25) A speech that gives the audience a sense of the unique perspective of the person introduced or welcomes and familiarizes the audience with an event.

Invitational speech (24) A speech that allows the speaker to enter into a dialogue with an audience in order to clarify positions, explore issues and ideas, or share beliefs and values.

Persuasive speech (25) A speech whose message attempts to change or reinforce an audience’s thoughts, feelings, or actions.

Public speaking anxiety (PSA) (37) The anxiety we feel when we learn we have to give a speech or take a public speaking course.

Small group speaking (26) Speaking to give a presentation to a small collection of individuals or speaking as part of a small group of people.

State, or situational, anxiety (37) Apprehension about communicating with others in a particular situation.

Systematic desensitization (40) A technique for reducing anxiety that involves teaching your body to feel calm and relaxed rather than fearful during your speeches.

Trait anxiety (37) Apprehension about communicating with others in a particular situation.

Visualization (40) The process in which you construct an image of yourself in your mind’s eye giving a successful speech.

Name __________________________________

Activity 2.1 – Overcoming Your Nervousness

Purpose: To devise a plan to combat your nervousness.

Instructions: In preparing for your informative and persuasive speeches, develop a plan for combating communication apprehension. Based on information in Chapter 2, list the possible reasons for your nervousness and ways to cure each particular problem. If you scored low on the PRCA you took at the beginning of the semester, and do not anticipate having any nervousness, list reasons and a plan for someone who does experience anxiety and nervousness prior to giving a speech.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 2.2 – Interviewing a Classmate / Speech of Introduction

Purpose: To guide you in interviewing a classmate so that you can prepare a brief speech of introduction. This worksheet can also be used to assist you in choosing a topic for your first speech.

Instructions: Use the following questions and prompts to help you interview a classmate and record their responses. You do not need to use all the questions; if your interview gains its own focus and momentum, you should feel free to develop your own questions. You are preparing a speech of introduction, so collect the information from your classmate, check to be certain it is accurate, and then organize the most interesting information into a brief speech.

1. The most interesting stories or facts that I heard or read in the news in the last month were:

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2. When I have free time, some of the things that I most enjoy are:

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3. The most interesting thing that I’ve learned in school over the last year is:

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4. The best movie I’ve seen in the past year is _______________________________ because:

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5. The most intriguing entertainer or entertainment in America today is _______________________ and the reason I enjoy it so much is:

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6. The music (or television show) that has most influenced my life is:

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7. When my family gets together, we always end up talking about:

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8. When strangers meet my family, one of the first things they notice is:

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9. I would bet I’m the only person in this class who has:

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10. The strangest place I’ve ever visited is:

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11. A unique person who has influenced me is:

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12. People in this class would be surprised to learn that I:

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Name __________________________________

Activity 2.3 – Identifying Speeches by Type

Purpose: To recognize key elements that distinguish various types of speeches.

Instructions: Locate a speech utilizing online search tools or traditional library catalogs as described in Chapter 6 (pp. 129-134). Alternatively you could select a speech from the speech bank at American Rhetoric located at . Carefully read the speech and answer the following questions:

1. Which of the four types of speeches discussed in chapter two of Invitation to Public Speaking is this?

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2. What quality or characteristics did you use to distinguish it?

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Activity 2.4 – Defeating the Fear

Purpose: To review basics on overcoming the fear of public speaking.

Instructions: Using InfoTrac or another fulltext database in your school library, locate and read the article by Aaryn Slafky entitled “Taking the Fear Out of Public Speaking” found in the Rural Telecommunications, July-August 2003 v22 i4 p46(2). Respond to the following questions:

1. Why does Elaine Dumler not try to help her clients get over their fear of speaking?

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2. How do Elaine Dumler’s tips for feeling comfortable in front of a group compare to the tips offered in Invitation to Public Speaking on pages 37-44?

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3. Which of the “Tips for Successful Speaking” mentioned in the article do you find most difficult?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 2.5 – Visualization Activity

Purpose: To give you practice using visualization techniques to reduce the impact of speech apprehension.

Instructions: Imagine you are giving your first speech. Fill in the following:

1. How large is the room?

2. How are the desks arranged?

3. Where will you speak from?

4. What other furniture or objects are there to consider?

5. How many people are in the room?

6. Where does your instructor sit when grading speeches?

7. Are there windows in this classroom? If so, what do you see?

8. What are you wearing?

9. What are the environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.)?

10. What other considerations should you be aware of?

By now you should have a mental image of your classroom and speaking environment. Now sit down, relax and, in your mind’s eye, see yourself delivering your first speech.

After your first speech, return to this activity and compare your “vision” with what you actually encountered. What adjustments to your mental image are needed?

In order for visualization to work best, it must be repeatedly practiced. When you commit to practice visualization you are taking a positive step to improving your presentation skills.

Name __________________________________

Activity 2.6 – Understanding Your Source of Apprehension

Purpose: To understand the unique sources of your apprehension and develop a plan for minimizing their impact.

Instructions: Review the rankings of what people fear when speaking.

Rank order the list below from lowest (1) to highest (6) what you fear most when giving a speech.

____ Sounding foolish

____ Not making sense

____ Being unable to continue talking

____ Doing or saying something embarrassing

____ Mind going blank

____ Trembling or shaking

Compare your responses to the research reported on page 38 of your textbook.

What can you do to reduce the impact of your nervousness the next time you speak?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 2.7 – PRCA-24 Survey

Purpose: To develop a baseline level of your communication anxiety.

Instructions: At the beginning of the semester, one of the biggest concerns you may have, if you are like most students taking this course, has to do with the idea of giving speeches and the “stage fright” that may accompany those assignments. In order to have a baseline of communication apprehension for comparison purposes, take the PRCA-24 (Personal Report of Communication Apprehension) on the book website. The instructions for scoring your PRCA are included on the site. At the end of the semester when you take the Post-PRCA-24, chances are that your score will drop, indicating that after a semester of skills training and various communication experiences, you have less apprehension than at the beginning of the semester.

After you take the PRCA-24, respond to the following questions:

1. Why do you think your scores are ___________ (high, low, or average)?

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2. How is your apprehension score affected by past communication experiences? By your background? By your family? By your friends?

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3. What are your hopes for this class?

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4. What are your fears related to this class?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 2.8 – Tips for Controlling the Sources of Speech Anxiety

Purpose: To learn strategies for managing speech anxiety

Instructions: Go to Steve Eggleston’s website, “Fear of Public Speaking: Stories, Myths and Magic (Trial by Fire)” at .

1. After reading this essay, list below three ways of controlling public speaking anxiety.

a.

b.

c.

2. As you reflect on this article, if you have a public speaking story to share (positive or negative), record it below and be ready to share it with the class.

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Consider extending your ideas to a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________

Activity 2.9 – Types of Public Speaking

Purpose: To recognize the elements that distinguishes one type of speech from another.

Instructions: Using InfoTrac or another library retrieval tool locate and read the speech by Susie Lan Cassel delivered to students at Cal State San Marcos entitled “Speech to New College Freshmen Student Convocation.” The speech is available through InfoTrac and is published in Education, Fall 2002 v123 i1 p37 (4).

1. What aspects of the speech make it informative?

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2. Which aspects could be considered invitational?

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3. Do you think the speaker is attempting to be persuasive? In what way?

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4. Which aspects of the speech fit the special occasion type of speech?

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5. In your opinion, which types of public speaking best categorizes this speech? Explain your choice.

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Consider extending your ideas to a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________

Personal Report of Communication Apprehension

Instructions: This instrument is composed of twenty-four statements concerning your feelings about communication with other people. Please indicate in the space provided the degree to which each statement applies to you by marking whether you

(1) Strongly Agree (2) Agree (3) Are Undecided (4) Disagree (5) Strongly Disagree

with each statement. There are no right or wrong answers. Many of the statements are similar to other statements; do not be concerned about this. Work quickly; just record your first impressions.

______ 1. I dislike participating in group discussions.

______ 2. Generally, I am comfortable while participating in group discussions.

______ 3. I am tense and nervous while participating in group discussions.

______ 4. I like to get involved in group discussions.

______ 5. Engaging in a group discussion with new people makes me tense and nervous.

______ 6. I am calm and relaxed while participating in group discussions.

______ 7. Generally, I am nervous when I have to participate in a meeting.

______ 8. Usually I am calm and relaxed while participating in meetings.

______ 9. I am very calm and relaxed when I am called upon to express an opinion at a meeting.

______ 10. I am afraid to express myself at meetings.

______ 11. Communicating at meetings usually makes me uncomfortable.

______ 12. I am very relaxed when answering questions at meetings.

______ 13. While participating in a conversation with a new acquaintance, I feel very nervous.

______ 14. I have no fear of speaking up in conversations.

______ 15. Ordinarily I am very tense and nervous in conversations.

______ 16. Ordinarily I am very calm and relaxed in conversations.

______ 17. While conversing with a new acquaintance, I feel very relaxed.

______ 18. I am afraid to speak up in conversations.

______ 19. I have no fear of giving a speech.

______ 20. Certain parts of my body feel tense and rigid while giving a speech.

______ 21. I feel relaxed while giving a speech.

______ 22. My thoughts become confused and jumbled when I am giving a speech.

______ 23. I face the prospect of giving a speech with confidence.

______ 24. While giving a speech, I get so nervous I forget facts I really know.

How to Score the PRCA-24

The PRCA-24 permits computation of one total score and four subscores. Subscores relate to communication apprehension in each of four common contexts—group discussions, meetings, interpersonal conversations, and public speaking. To compute your scores, merely add or subtract your scores for each item as indicated below.

|Subscore Desired |Scoring Formula |

|Group |18 + scores for items 2, 4, and 6 |

|Discussions |– scores for items 1, 3, and 5 |

|Meetings |18 + scores for items 8, 9, and 12 |

| |– scores for items 7, 10, and 11 |

|Interpersonal |18 + for items 14, 16, and 17 |

|Conversations |– scores for items 13, 15, 18 |

|Public Speaking |18 + scores for items 19, 21, and 23 |

| |– scores for items 20, 22, and 24 |

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From James C. Mc Croskey, An Introduction to Rhetorical Communication, 8/e. Published by Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Copyright © 2001 by Pearson Education. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

Name __________________________________

Chapter 2 – Entering the Public Dialogue with Confidence:

Your First Speech

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. Aiden decides to give a speech about his Irish heritage by sharing his knowledge and understanding of his family's Irish roots with his classmates. Which type of public speech would this be?

a. informative

b. invitational

c. persuasive

d. introductory

e. small group speaking

2. Bailey decides to give her speech in recognition of her grandfather, a man of few words but great deeds. Which type of public speech would this be?

a. informative

b. invitational

c. persuasive

d. introductory

e. small group speaking

3. Tameika would like to give a speech addressing her exploring issues regarding state supported gambling. Which type of public speech would this be?

a. informative

b. invitational

c. persuasive

d. introductory

e. small group speaking

4. Shane wishes to encourage his audience to use cell phones respectfully while driving and in public spaces. Which type of public speech would this be?

a. informative

b. invitational

c. persuasive

d. introductory

e. small group speaking

5. When concerning yourself with issues such as posture, facial expression, gestures, and voice you are focusing on issues related to the canon of

a. invention.

b. arrangement.

c. style.

d. memory.

e. delivery.

6. As you focus on organizing your speech with respect to the introduction, body and conclusion, which canon of rhetoric are you most concerned?

a. invention

b. arrangement

c. style

d. memory

e. delivery

7. Derek is worried about using language effectively and appropriately. Which canon of rhetoric is Derek most concerned?

a. invention

b. arrangement

c. style

d. memory

e. delivery

8. Statements such as, “I’ll remember what I want to say, and I’ll have notes to help me” is an example of

a. cognitive restructuring.

b. negative replacement.

c. an affirmation.

d. visualization.

e. desensitization.

9. Before speaking, Lemuel tries to relax and get mentally ready for the speech. He imagines himself giving his prepared speech confidently and successfully to his classmates. This type of mental preparation is known as

a. cognitive restructuring.

b. negative replacement.

c. an affirmation.

d. visualization.

e. desensitization.

True/False

T F 10. No matter which style of speech you are giving there is one best way to introduce your speech.

T F 11. Most people experience high levels of trait anxiety.

T F 12. Practice is a good way to overcome public speaking apprehension in most cases.

T F 13. Only highly trait apprehensive individuals experience public speaking apprehension.

T F 14. Visualization is a good way to improve your athletic performance, but does little to reduce nervousness for public speakers.

T F 15. There is no way to ever ease the fear of public speaking.

Essay

16. List and explain the first five steps to entering dialogue successfully.

17. List and explain the last five steps to entering dialogue successfully.

18. Explain the difference between state and trait anxiety and then discuss to what extent you exhibit qualities that could be considered state- or trait-like.

19. What aspect of public speaking makes you most anxious and which of the recommended techniques do you feel will be most beneficial?

20. List and describe how you would apply the five canons of rhetoric in a speech about your family roots.

21. Explain which of the canons of rhetoric is most important in today's society and provide support for your decision.

Chapter Three: Effective Listening

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• explain why listening to others is important,

• identify the reasons why we sometimes fail to listen to others,

• implement strategies for becoming a more effective listener,

• implement strategies for becoming a more critical listener,

• implement strategies for becoming a more ethical listener,

• describe how your roles as a speaker and as a listener are related.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Careful listener (61) Listener who overcomes listener interference to better understand a speaker’s message.

Colloquialism (55) A local or regional informal dialect or expression.

Confirm (50) To recognize, acknowledge, and express value for another person.

Considerate speech (52) Speech that eases the audience’s burden of processing information.

Critical listener (63) A listener who listens for the accuracy of a speech’s content and the implications of a speaker’s message.

Culturally inclusive language (57) Language that respectfully recognizes the differences among many cultures in our society.

Ethical listener (64) A listener who considers the moral impact of a speaker’s message on one’s self and one’s community.

Euphemism (55) A word or phrase that substitutes an agreeable word or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant.

Gender-inclusive language (56) Language recognizing that both women and men are active participants in the world.

Hearing (50) The vibration of sound waves on our eardrums and the impulses then sent to the brain.

Interference (51) Anything that stops or hinders a listener from receiving a message.

Jargon (55) Technical language used by a special group or for a special activity.

Listenable speech (52) Speech that is considerate and delivered in an oral style.

Listening (50) The process of giving thoughtful attention to another person’s words and understanding what you hear.

Slang (55) Informal nonstandard vocabulary, usually made up of arbitrarily changed words.

Spotlighting (57) The practice of highlighting a person’s race or ethnicity (or sex, sexual orientation, physical disability, and the like) during a speech.

Verbal clutter (58) Extra words that pad sentences and claims but don’t add meaning.

Name __________________________________

Activity 3.1 – “Caveat Audiens”

Purpose: To allow you to reflect upon the importance of critical listening and to learn practical suggestions for critically evaluating messages that might be designed to mislead or manipulate you.

Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read the article “Caveat Audiens (Let the Listener Beware)” by Steven Doloff. (Hint: Use the author’s last name as your search term.) Don’t be put off by this author’s use of Latin phrases; this is a satirical article that criticizes both politicians for double-speak and their audiences for the failing to critically evaluate messages.

1. According to Doloff, what is one of the logical errors or misleading speech tactics used by politicians and journalists today?

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2. Give an example from your own experience (it need not be a political example) of this kind of misleading speech.

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3. In your opinion, how should a listener respond to the above situation? That is, when this kind of misleading speech occurs, what would you do as a responsible listener?

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4. Doloff suggests that the listening public is “either too stupid to see through these lazy or evasive tactics or, even worse, too apathetic to care.” If you were in a conversation with Doloff, how would you respond to this claim?

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5. From your experience, are politicians and journalists more guilty of this kind of misleading communication than others? That is, as a listener, do you need to worry about this kind of misleading communication from other professionals, ordinary business people, or others you communicate with?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 3.2 – The Importance of Good Listening Skills

Purpose: To help you practice active listening behaviors.

Instructions: Form groups of five. Assign each member of the group a role: Speaker, Silent Paraphraser, Outliner, Questioner, and Timer/Respondent. (Ideally, the exercise should be repeated five times so that each group member has a chance to try out his or her abilities at each role.)

The Speaker must talk for three minutes on any topic of his or her choosing. (If a Speaker needs help in choosing a topic, here are some suggestions:

My favorite movie of all time is:

The thing that really annoys me is:

If I won the lottery, I would:

Ten years from now, I plan to be:

I do/don’t believe in extraterrestrials because:

The Silent Paraphraser is not allowed to take notes, but must silently paraphrase the speaker’s message. This person should focus on key points of the talk. By the end of the message, the Silent Paraphraser should be prepared to share a summary of the entire message.

The Outliner must take notes on the message. These notes should list the speaker’s key points, as well as adding significant details. You are NOT being asked to write down everything that the speaker says, but to record the key ideas. At the end of the message, the Outliner should be prepared to share these notes with the group.

The Questioner may take notes if he or she desires, but note taking is not required. The job of the Questioner is to evaluate and respond to the content of the message. Additionally, the Questioner should try to identify how this message might be relevant to listeners. At the end of the speaker’s talk, this person should be prepared to share at least three questions that the message inspired.

The Timer/Respondent is responsible for making sure that each person is assigned to one of these roles and for timing the Speaker. As well, after the other respondents have shared and discussed their listening experiences, the Timer/Respondent should attempt to offer an insight or comment on listening, based upon what he or she heard from the other participants.

At the end of this exercise, the group should briefly discuss the questions on the following page.

1. Which listening task was the hardest to perform? Explain why.

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2. Which listening task seemed to be most effective in improving your listening skills? Explain why.

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3. After trying out these various active listening behaviors, which ones would you be likely to use in future listening situations? Explain why.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 3.3 – Improving Note Taking Skills

Purpose: To assist you in developing improved note taking skills.

Instructions: This is a three-part exercise. For the Part I., do not take any notes. When completing Part II, take notes as appropriate. Part III is a brief analysis of the exercise. This exercise requires two 10-minute viewing sessions during a one-hour period of time (you will have any “off” time free).

Watch the first 10 minutes of CNN Headline News and complete Part I. Then watch the first 10 minutes of the next half-hour of CNN Headline News and complete Part II. (Any news show you prefer can be substituted in this exercise if the first 10-minute viewing period is videotaped for re-use in Part II.)

Part I. After the first viewing session, complete the following questions:

1. As far as you are able, list as many of the main stories reported:

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2. Choose three of the stories you listed above and provide at least two details about that story:

a.

b.

c.

3. Finally, choose one of the stories you detailed above and write out, as best you can recall, at least two specific, meaningful bits of dialogue from the story:

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Now complete the second viewing session and complete Part II. Be sure and use the techniques for effective note taking listed on p. 46 of the text.

Part II. After the second viewing session, complete the following questions:

1. As far as you are able, list as many of the main stories reported:

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2. Choose three of the stories you listed above and provide at least two details about that story:

a.

b.

c.

3. Finally, choose one of the stories you detailed above and write out, as best you can recall, at least two specific, meaningful bits of dialogue from the story:

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Part III. Compare your responses to each question in Part I and Part II.

1. Do you notice any differences?

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2. Which techniques seem to work best for you?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 3.4 – Improving Your Listening Skills

Purpose: To identify practical ways of improving listening skills.

Instructions: Locate and read the article "Hear, Hear! (development of listening skills while dealing with customers)" by Rob Bates published in Jewelers Circular Keystone, July 1, 2007 v178 i7 p146

. (Hint: Use “listening skills” as your keyword search term using InfoTrac.)

1. The article lists various ways to improve your listening. Which of these areas do you need to work hardest at improving?

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2. For the next 24 hours, work on this skill in classes, in personal interactions, and in professional relationships. What did you learn from this one-day exercise?

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3. For one day, pay attention to the ways in which people listen to you. Which of the listening behaviors presented in the article was most often practiced by others?

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4. Which of these listening behaviors did others least often practice?

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5. As a speaker, which of the listening behaviors did you find most helpful or which did you most appreciate from those who listened to you?

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6. After reading the article and closely attending to the listening behaviors that you encounter in a typical day, what do you think is the most important piece of advice you can give to those wishing to improve their listening skills?

_________________________________________________________________________________

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Consider extending your ideas to a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________

Activity 3.5 – Dialogic Listening

Purpose: To learn how to use dialogue listening.

Instructions: Go to and read the article “Dialogic Listening: Sculpting Mutual Meanings” in Bridges Not Walls by John Stewart and Milt Thomas. The authors suggest four techniques you can use to become a more active listener. Use these techniques in your interactions with others over the following day.

4. List and define the techniques suggested in the article.

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5. Did you find that these techniques help you learn more from other people?

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6. Did you notice any difference in how others responded to you when you used dialogic listening techniques?

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7. How could these four listening strategies by useful in the speech situation?

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Name __________________________________

Chapter 3 – Effective Listening

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. Brad was studying to be an engineer. His speech on fluid mechanics seemed interesting but was difficult to listen to for the audience, due to his constant use of technical terms and jargon. Which of the reasons offered in the text might best explain the audience’s inability to listen effectively?

a. listener interference

b. differing listening styles

c. speaker interference caused by information

d. speaker interference caused by language

e. speaker interference caused by differences

2. Jake could not decide what to give his speech on until very late. Finally, in desperation he chose to give a speech on how to make a peanut and butter sandwich to his class of college-age students. What mistake did Jake make that might best explain the audience’s inability to listen effectively to his speech?

a. listener interference

b. differing listening styles

c. speaker interference caused by information

d. speaker interference caused by language

e. speaker interference caused by differences

3. Candy thought it would be great to give a speech on how her favorite music artist. But when she revealed that she would discuss the legendary song writing talents of Barry Manilow she noticed that her audience seemed to tune her out. Which of the reasons offered in the text might best explain her audience’s inability to listen effectively?

a. listener interference

b. differing listening styles

c. speaker interference caused by information

d. speaker interference caused by language

e. speaker interference caused by differences

4. Ali decides to give a speech about his ethnic heritage as a Shiite Muslim. Which of the following ethical listening issues will likely give Ali the most difficulty with his American audience?

a. suspending judgment

b. responding to speaker’s ideas

c. audiences who are distracted or disruptive

d. audiences who are uninterested

e. audiences who are confused

5. Muriel noticed several of her classmates were reading the student newspaper and one was fiddling with his cell phone. She found this behavior quite rude. Which of the ethical listening issues discussed in Chapter 3 challenges Muriel?

a. suspending judgment

b. responding to speaker’s ideas

c. audiences who are distracted or disruptive

d. audiences who are uninterested

e. audiences who are confused

6. Moses found his audience seemed to feel they were already informed about his speech topic. Which of the ethical listening issues discussed in Chapter 3 challenges Moses?

a. suspending judgment

b. responding to speaker’s ideas

c. audiences who are distracted or disruptive

d. audiences who are uninterested

e. audiences who are confused

7. Wade seems to have difficulty listening to speeches. He is encouraged to ask himself to determine the speaker’s goal, to consider what he is being invited to consider. Which of the listening tips is Wade being encouraged to follow?

a. listen for the speaker’s purpose

b. listen for the main ideas

c. listen for the link between ideas

d. write down new words and ideas

e. offer nonverbal feedback

8. Wyona tries to listen carefully but tends to slouch lower and lower in her chair as the speech goes on. She doesn’t like it when people look at her, so she tries not to look at the speaker. Which listening tip could Wyona use to improve her listening behavior?

a. listen for the speaker’s purpose

b. listen for the main ideas

c. listen for the link between ideas

d. write down new words and ideas

e. offer nonverbal feedback

9. Words and phrases such as "like," "you know," "stuff like that," and "um" are all examples of?

a. spotlighting

b. slang

c. inclusive language

d. verbal clutter

e. euphemisms

10. Words such as "phat," "dogg," "cat," and "beastly" are all examples of?

a. spotlighting

b. slang

c. inclusive language

d. verbal clutter

e. euphemisms

True/False

T F 11. If your audience appears confused by information presented in your speech, it is best to slow down, consider reducing your main points, alter your language and explain with more detail.

T F 12. If an audience member allows himself or herself to be distracted by your appearance, accent or style of dress, there is nothing you can do.

T F 13. Critical listening involves asking oneself questions before making decisions about a speaker’s claims.

T F 14. Differences in speech style, speaker background, appearance and values are all possible causes for listening problems between speaker and listener.

T F 15. Pretending to listen when you really aren't is a type of listener interference.

T F 16. When we listen, we confirm another person's humanity, presence, and worth.

T F 17. Problems listening are always the result of poor listening habits.

Essay

18. Contrast effective listening behaviors with ineffective listening behaviors.

19. Discuss the three types of listening styles described in the text and then identify which type(s) best describe your style. Include why you believe this to be true.

20. We often hear people criticizing the use of politically “correct” language. Explain, with examples, what gender-inclusive and culturally inclusive language is, and why it is important to be sensitive to spotlighting when speaking.

21. Imagine your audience appears confused as you speak, what could you do in response to this feedback and how does your response demonstrate effective listening skills?

22. What is wrong with allowing your cell phone to ring during a speech? How would you feel as a speaker if your speech was interrupted by a cell phone? What if the cell phone ring was "I Get Money" by 50 Cent?

23. What possible listening problems are created when a person uses their phone to text message during a student's speech?

24. Describe how you would manage a person who disrupted your speech by allowing his or her cell phone to ring on and on as you spoke.

25. Make a list of your bad listening habits and then offer yourself recommendations based on the text for improving these problem areas.

Chapter Four: Developing Your Speech Topic and Purpose

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• identify how context influences your speaking goals,

• choose a speech topic whether you decide to speak, are asked to speak, or are required to speak,

• develop clear statements of purpose for your speech,

• develop the thesis statement of your speech.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Behavioral objectives (85) The actions a speaker wants the audience to take at the end of the speech.

Brainstorming (80) The process of generating ideas randomly and uncritically, without attention to logic, connections, or relevance.

General purpose (84) A speech’s broad goal: to inform, invite, persuade, introduce, commemorate, or accept.

Specific purpose (84) A focused statement that identifies exactly what a speaker wants to accomplish with a speech.

Speech topic (76) The subject of your speech

Thesis statement (89) A statement that summarizes in a single declarative sentence the main proposition, assumption, or argument you want to express in your speech.

Name __________________________________

Activity 4.1 – Topic Brainstorm

Purpose: To assist you with a simple format for brainstorming speech topics.

Instructions: Below, you will find three general topic areas. Working in one area at a time, list 10 possible topics for a speech in this course. Once you have finished brainstorming, select three topics in each area that you feel would be an appropriate topic for this class.

1. Areas of expertise such as college major or professional skills: [list 10 topics]

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

2. Areas of expertise such as hobby or entertainment interests: [list 10 topics]

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

3. Concern or issue: [list 10 topics]

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 4.2 – Many Approaches to Brainstorming

Purpose: To assist you with a simple format for brainstorming speech topics.

Instructions: Below, you will find three approaches to brain storming a speech topic: free association, clustering and categories. Working in one area at a time, list five to ten possible topics for your assignment in this course. Once you have finished, identify your favorite topics in each area for a speech in this course.

1. Free Association Brainstorm: Record all the ideas that come to your mind for two full minutes in the space below.

2. Clustering Brainstorm: Write one idea down in the circle below and then narrow the idea by connecting related ideas with the lines. See the example in figure 4.1 of your text.

3. Category Brainstorm: Use the categories below to stimulate your idea generation.

Object Concepts Problems Processes Places People

————— ————— ————— ————— ————— —————

Name __________________________________

Activity 4.3 – Considering Assignment Requirements

Purpose: To help you in preparing a speech topic and purpose that will meet the specific assignment expectations and situation required for your speech situation.

Instructions: Respond to each question below to ensure complete clarity regarding the assignment objectives and expectations.

1. What is the general purpose of the speech as assigned by your instructor?

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. What time limits (maximums and minimums) have been established for this speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. What are the other structural requirements for the speech? (How many sources, are any visuals aids required, is an organizational pattern required, will there be question and answer time?)

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Instructor considerations:

a. Has he or she mentioned any speech topics to avoid?

_________________________________________________________________________________

b. Has he or she recommended any speech topics to consider?

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Class member considerations:

a. Events and other topics of interest?

_________________________________________________________________________________

b. Overused topics?

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Based on the information identified above the general purpose for your next speech and three possible topics to consider.

General Purpose: _______________________________________

Topic 1: _______________________________________

Topic 2: _______________________________________

Topic 3: _______________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 4.4 – Writing Speech Goals

Purpose: The goal of this activity is to help you develop a clear, specific speech purpose.

Instructions: Complete each of the following:

1. Write a first draft of your speech goal using a complete sentence that specifies the behavioral response you want from the audience:

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2. Review what you have written. Underline the infinitive phrase. Does the infinitive phrase express precisely the specific audience reaction desired? If not revise the infinitive phrase:

_________________________________________________________________________________

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3. Review what you have written. If the statement contains more than one idea, revise the sentence so that the goal contains only one idea:

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4. Review what you have written. Does the statement clearly express the complete response you want from your audience? If not, revise the infinitive phrase until it has this clarity:

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5. Write at least one different version of this goal statement. Now, select the version you plan to use for your speech, and write it here—Specific Goal:

_________________________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 4.5 – Identifying Central Idea Thesis Statements

Purpose: To identify and evaluate central ideas thesis statement

Instructions: Go to the opinion pages of your local newspaper. Read several editorials or letters to the editor.

1. For at least three articles that you read, write what you believe to be the specific statement of purpose and central idea / thesis statement.

a. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

c. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

2. Do the writers offer clear statements of purpose?

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3. Is a clear thesis identifiable in each opinion?

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4. How might the writing have been improved?

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5. In what way could problems with these articles be similar to problems in a speech? Different?

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_________________________________________________________________________________

Consider extending your ideas to a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________

Activity 4.6 – Practice Creating Specific Speaking Purpose

Purpose: To assist you in creating and evaluating your specific purpose statement.

Instructions: Following the guidelines offered in the text on pages 85–88, develop a clear specific speaking purpose for a speech assignment to inform in your class. Use the topic prompts below if you can not think of your own topics.

Topic prompts: ice cream, peace, Bill Gates, substance abuse, drought, World Cup, taxation, poverty

Sample topic: Chocolate

Specific Purpose: To inform my audience of how chocolate is derived from cocoa beans.

Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Reminders:

General purposes typically include:

• To inform: describe, clarify, explain, define

• To invite: explore, interact, exchange

• To persuade: change, shape, influence, motivate

• To introduce: acquaint, present, familiarize

• To commemorate: praise, honor, pay tribute

• To accept: receive an award, express gratitude

Specific purposes should:

• State your specific speaking purpose clearly

• Keep the audience in the forefront of your mind

• Use definitive, complete sentences (no questions)

Name __________________________________

Activity 4.7 – Developing a Specific Purpose and Thesis Statement

Purpose: To assist you in creating and evaluating your specific purpose statement.

Instructions: Follow the guidelines offered in the text on pages 85-88 to develop a clear specific speaking purpose for a speech assignment to inform in your class.

General Purpose: _____________________________________________________________________

Specific Purpose: _____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Thesis Statement: _____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Reminders:

General purposes typically include:

• To inform: describe, clarify, explain, define

• To invite: explore, interact, exchange

• To persuade: change, shape, influence, motivate

• To introduce: acquaint, present, familiarize

• To commemorate: praise, honor, pay tribute

• To accept: receive an award, express gratitude

Specific purposes should:

• State your specific speaking purpose clearly

• Keep the audience in the forefront of your mind

• Use definitive, complete sentences (no questions)

Thesis statements should:

• States the exact content of your speech in a single declarative sentence

Name __________________________________

Chapter 4 – Developing Your Speech Topic and Purpose

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following is NOT a reason people speak in public according to your text?

a. We decide to speak on issues of importance.

b. We are asked to speak.

c. We are required to speak as part of our job or life.

d. We are born to speak.

2. When a speech’s purpose includes language such as explore, interact, exchange a person can assume the general purpose of the speech is to

a. inform.

b. invite.

c. persuade.

d. introduce.

e. accept.

3. When a speech’s purpose includes language such as acquaint, present, or familiarize a person can assume the general purpose of the speech is to

a. inform.

b. invite.

c. persuade.

d. introduce.

e. accept.

4. When a speech’s purpose includes language such as change, shape, influence or motivate a person can assume the general purpose of the speech is to

a. inform.

b. invite.

c. persuade.

d. introduce.

e. accept.

5. Nellie decides to explore issues related to the vegan lifestyle. What type of speech is this general speaking purpose appropriate for?

a. a speech to inform

b. a speech to invite

c. a speech to persuade

d. a speech to introduce

e. a speech to accept

6. Joshua decides to influence his audience’s attitude toward responsible parenting. What type of speech is this general speaking purpose appropriate for?

a. a speech to inform

b. a speech to invite

c. a speech to persuade

d. a speech to introduce

e. a speech to accept

7. Joshua states his specific purpose for his speech on responsible parenting as, “I am going to talk to my audience about responsible parenting.” Which tip for writing a specific purpose, if any, has he violated most directly?

a. State your specific purpose clearly.

b. Keep your audience in the forefront of you mind.

c. Use definitive, complete sentences.

d. The specific purpose statement is fine as written.

8. Claire decides to explain to her audience the concept of academic integrity. What type of speech is this general speaking purpose appropriate for?

a. a speech to inform

b. a speech to invite

c. a speech to persuade

d. a speech to introduce

e. a speech to accept

9. Claire considers her specific purpose statement and writes, “I will inform my audience of the importance of academic integrity to their future careers.” Which tip for writing a specific purpose, if any, has she violated most directly?

a. State your specific purpose clearly.

b. Keep your audience in the forefront of you mind.

c. Use definitive, complete sentences.

d. The specific purpose statement is fine as written.

10. Your boss informs you that she has chosen you to lead a new project at work. This involves reporting on the project at future staff meetings. Which of the following reason's to speak would best explain why you speak in the staff meeting according to your text?

a. We decide to speak on issues of importance.

b. We are asked to speak.

c. We are required to speak as part of our job or life.

d. We are born to speak.

11. As a vegetarian you think it is important to share your views and concerns about the dangers of traditional American diets. Which of the following reason's to speak would best explain why you speak in when ever possible, according to your text?

a. We decide to speak on issues of importance.

b. We are asked to speak.

c. We are required to speak as part of our job or life.

d. We are born to speak.

True/False

T F 12. Topic selection, identifying the general purpose, selecting a specific purpose and creating a thesis are all audience-centered elements of speech making.

T F 13. It is important to select a speech topic that is both interesting to the speaker and the audience.

T F 14. There are different ways to brainstorm, including free association, clustering, by categories, and through technology.

T F 15. A thesis statement should be a single declarative statement.

T F 16. The thesis statement should help identify the main points of your speech.

T F 17. The following thesis statement is effective: “Airline travel can be simplified through proper planning, packing, and personal patience.”

T F 18. The following thesis statement is effective: “Hybrid vehicles are the future.”

T F 19. The context regarding why you speak does not influence what you will speak about.

Essay

20. Explain how the context regarding whether you decide to speak, are asked to speak, or are required to speak influences what you speak about.

21. You have been asked to give a speech to Juniors and Seniors at your local high school. What topic would you address, how would you choose it and defend why your choice is a good one.

22. Identify and explain how technology can make topic selection easier.

23. Create clear, specific purpose statements and thesis statements for an informative speech on the topic of popular music.

24. Create clear, specific purpose statements and thesis statements for an invitational speech on the topic of popular music.

25. Create clear, specific purpose statements and thesis statements for a special occasion speech on the topic of popular music.

26. Create clear, specific purpose statements and thesis statements for a persuasive speech on the topic of popular music.

Chapter Five: Your Audience and Speaking Environment

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• define what an audience is,

• conduct a demographic audience analysis,

• adapt to an audience that is both a diverse group of people and a unique community,

• identify the influence of a speaking environment on an audience,

• identify strategies for adapting to audience expectations for a speech.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Attitude (101) The general positive or negative feeling a person has about something.

Audience (98) Complex and varied group of people the speaker addresses.

Audience centered (97) Acknowledging your audience by considering and listening to the unique, diverse, and common perspectives of its members before, during, and after your speech.

Belief (101) A person’s idea of what is real or true or not.

Close-ended question (102) A question that requires the respondent to choose an answer from two or more alternatives.

Demographic audience analysis (101) Analysis that identifies the particular population traits of an audience.

Dialogue (97) An interaction, connection, and exchange of ideas and opinions with others.

Empathy (104) Trying to see and understand the world as another person does.

Ethnocentrism (101) The belief that our own cultural perspectives, norms, and ways of organizing society are superior to others.

Master statuses (99) Significant positions occupied by a person within society that affect that person’s identity in almost all social situations.

Open-ended question (102) A question that allows the respondent to answer in an unrestricted way.

Speaking environment (105) Time and place in which a speaker will speak.

Standpoint (101) The perspective from which a person views and evaluates society.

Stereotype (102) A broad generalization about an entire group based on limited knowledge or exposure to only certain members of that group.

Value (101) A person’s idea of what is good, worthy, or important.

Name __________________________________

Activity 5.1 – Analyzing the Setting

Purpose: To help you in designing a survey and analyzing the audience for your first speech.

Instructions: Ideally, before working on this activity, you should have an idea of the subject or topic for your first speech. Complete the following worksheet and come to class prepared to survey your classmates. As you prepare your questions, remember to avoid questions which might offend or embarrass survey respondents. If any of your questions might be interpreted as overly personal, you should take into account that respondents might choose not to answer your survey.

1. What type of speech is expected? _________________________________________________________________________________

2. When will the speech be given?

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Where will the speech be given?

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. How large will the audience be?

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Where in the program does the speech occur?

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. What is the time limit for the speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

7. What is the arrangement of the room?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

8. What equipment is available for use during the speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

9. What other factors might be relevant?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 5.2 – Demographic Audience Analysis

Purpose: To assist you in analyzing the audience for your first speech.

Instructions: Complete the following questionnaire. You need not respond to all questions; consider what information you are willing to share with the class. In order for class members to gain a sense of the commonalties and diversities of the class, members will need to share their results with the class. This can be done as a group activity, or questionnaires can be completed and given to the teacher who can compile results.

1. I am:

___ Male

___ Female

2. I am currently living:

___ on campus

___ with my parents

___ with a spouse or a significant other

___ with roommates

___ alone

3. I am:

___ under 18

___ 18 to 25

___ 25 to 30

___ 30 to 40

___ 40 to 50

___ over 50

4. I read the front section of the newspaper or a newsmagazine at least once a week:

___ Yes

___ No

5. I watch television:

___ less than 4 hours a week

___ 4 to 10 hours a week

___ 11 to 20 hours a week

___ more than 20 hours a week

6. I am currently working:

___ less than 4 hours a week

___ 4 to 10 hours a week

___ 11 to 20 hours a week

___ more than 20 hours a week

7. I have attended a religious service or meeting at least twice in the last month:

___ Yes

___ No

8. My expectations of a reasonable starting salary after college graduation is:

___ under $20,000

___ $20,000 to $30, 000

___ $30,000 to $40, 000

___ $40,000 to $50, 000

___ over $50,000

9. I believe that in order for a family of four to live comfortably in America, they must earn at least:

___ $15,000 to $30,000 per year

___ $30,000 to $45,000 per year

___ $45,000 to $60,000 per year

___ $60,000 to $75,000 per year

___ over $75,000 per year

10. If I had to identify with an American political party, I would identify myself as a:

___ Democrat

___ Republican

___ Independent

___ Reform Party member

___ Libertarian

___ Other

11. I think of home as:

___ America’s Northeast

___ America’s Southeast

___ America’s Midwest

___ America’s Southwest

___ America’s West

___ Outside America

Once you’ve completed this questionnaire, consider how you think that this information shapes your attitudes and beliefs as an audience member. What other questions would you like to know about your class to help you to adapt your speech topic to the audience?

Name __________________________________

Activity 5.3 – Audience Analysis Checklist

1. The audience education level is: _____ high school _____ college _____ post-college

2. The age range is from _____ to _____. The average age is about _____.

3. The audience is approximately _____ percent male and _____ percent female.

4. Most people in my audience work: _____ part-time _____ full-time

_____ don’t work while attending school

5. The average student earns about $_______ per month.

6. On average, my classmates are enrolled in about _____ credits per term.

7. The audience is basically: _____ the same race _____ a mixture of races

8. The audience is basically: _____ the same religion _____ a mixture of religions

9. The audience is basically: _____ the same nationality _____ a mixture of nationalities

10. The audience is basically from: _____ the same state _____ the same county _____ the same city

_____ from many different areas

11. The audience is mostly uses: _____ English as a first language _____ English as a second language

Description of the audience:

Name __________________________________

Activity 5.4 – Applying Audience Analysis

Purpose: To provide practical suggestions on adapting communications to fit audience needs and interests.

Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read the article “Gaining Knowledge about Audiences is Vital” by Frank Grazian. (Hint: Use the author’s last name as your search term.) Although Grazian’s advice about audience is primarily directed towards writers, he comments in his article that “Of course, the formula [for considering the audience] applies to all types of communication—not just to writing.”

1. Grazian gives advice about the use of jargon. What is that advice?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. What jargon or “expert language” is used in discussing your topic?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Consider your audience’s familiarity with your topic, and apply Grazian’s advice to the jargon used by those discussing your topic. What jargon will you need to avoid?

_________________________________________________________________________________

What expert language might you wish to use?

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Grazian asks communicators to consider the question: “How will my audience benefit from my message?” or “What’s in it for them?” Consider your audience and your topic and respond to these questions.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Grazian offers an equation to keep in mind when considering audience: “Expectation of reward/effort required.” In your own words, what do you think that he means by this?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

How might you apply the idea of this equation to your own speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 5.5 – Building Common Ground with Your Audience

Purpose: To give you the opportunity to apply the concept of sharing personal experiences in your next speech.

Instructions: One way of effectively developing common ground between you and your audience is to make reference in your speech to experiences and knowledge that you share with your listeners. Complete the following worksheet to help you develop a list of common experiences that can be integrated into your speech.

1. My speech topic is: _________________________________

2. My audience is likely to bring what experience and knowledge to this topic?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. My audience is likely to bring what kinds of attitudes and opinions to this topic?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. List at least three movies that you believe the majority of the class has seen and is familiar with.

a. _________________________ b. _________________________ c. _________________________

5. Choose one of the above listed movies and describe the way in which a scene or character or quotation from the movie could be related to your speech topic.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. List at least three television shows that you believe the majority of the class has seen and is familiar with.

a. _________________________ b. _________________________ c. _________________________

7. Choose one of the above listed shows and describe the way in which a scene or character or quotation from the show could be related to your speech topic.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

8. List at least three musical acts or songs that you believe the majority of the class has heard and is familiar with:

a. _________________________ b. _________________________ c. _________________________

9. Choose one of the above listed songs or musical acts and describe the way in which a song or performer could be related to your speech topic.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

10. List at least three public figures (actors, sports stars, politicians, etc.) that you believe the majority of the class is familiar with.

a. _________________________ b. _________________________ c. _________________________

11. Choose one of the above listed public figures and describe the way in which the person or their actions and achievements could be related to your speech topic.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

12. On your own, brainstorm lists of shared experiences for the topics listed below. Then pick the most promising items and relate them to your speech topic.

everyday frustrations:

_________________________________________________________________________________

things that most parents say:

_________________________________________________________________________________

college experiences:

_________________________________________________________________________________

economic choices and challenges:

_________________________________________________________________________________

leisure time experiences:

_________________________________________________________________________________

television and radio advertisements:

_________________________________________________________________________________

local community experiences:

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 5.6 – Adapting to a Specific Audience

Purpose: To offer you practice at adapting a speech topic for a specific audience.

Instructions: Imagine that you are asked to give a speech to your class on the use of Internet search engines. Complete the following worksheet to help you adapt your speech topic to audience needs and interests. (This worksheet can be used and reused to help you adapt your speech topic for any audience.)

1. My audience is likely to bring what experience and knowledge to this topic?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. My audience is likely to bring what kinds of attitudes and opinions to this topic?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Imagine the audience all asking themselves, “So what? What does this have to do with me?” Provide as detailed a response as possible, answering these questions.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. List a key term that you will need to define in order to communicate successfully with your audience.

____________________________________

5. Use either comparison/contrast or personalization to explain this term.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Provide an example of at least one sentence to be included in this speech in which you use personal pronouns to relate to the audience.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

7. Provide an example of at least one sentence to be included in this speech in which you ask a rhetorical question to involve the audience.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

8. Provide an example of at least one common experience related to this speech topic which you could use to relate to the audience.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

9. Provide an example of a way in which you could demonstrate to the audience that this is timely information.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

10. Provide an example of a way in which you could demonstrate to the audience the proximity of this information.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

11. Provide an example of a way in which you could demonstrate to the audience the seriousness of this information.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

12. List at least one key generalization that you would be likely to make in a speech on this topic.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

13. Provide at least one specific example to support this generalization.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 5.7 – Adapting Language to Audiences

Purpose: To demonstrate the ways in which language choices influence the audience’s perception of a speaker.

Instructions: Use InfoTrac locate and read the article “Social IQ and MBAs: Recognizing the Importance of Communication” by Robert Dilenschneider. (Hint: Use the title of the article as your search terms.)

1. Review Dilenschneider’s speech for his use of pronouns. List at least four specific instances in which this speaker uses personal pronouns to involve his audience.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Dilenschneider also uses rhetorical questions to involve his audience. Locate and list at least one example of a rhetorical question in this speech.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Locate and list at least two examples in Dilenschneider’s speech of references to common experience and/or knowledge.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Imagine yourself as an audience member for Dilenschneider’s speech. How would you evaluate his efforts to relate to the audience?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 5.8 – Predictions Worksheet

Purpose: To practice using audience analysis information to make assumptions about your audience

Instructions: Based on the information from your audience analysis in Activities 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3, complete the following predictions:

1. Most audience members’ interest in this topic is likely to be

______ high ______ moderate ______ low

Why?

2. Most audience members’ understanding of this topic is will to be

______ great ______ moderate ______ little

Why?

3. Most audience members’ attitudes towards me as a speaker are likely to be

______ positive ______ neutral ______ negative

Why?

4. Most audience members’ attitudes towards my topic will be

______ positive ______ neutral ______ negative

Why?

Consider using your classroom discussion forum or chat feature to check your assumptions.

Name __________________________________

Chapter 5 – Your Audience and Speaking Environment

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. Josh’s instructor suggests he become more audience-centered with his speech examples. This means

a. Josh should keep his audience in the middle of the room as he speaks.

b. Josh should center his examples on issues he finds interesting.

c. Josh won’t be able to give his speech on his classic Z-28 Rally Sport because his audience includes women.

d. Josh should use examples and explain his ideas in a way his audience will understand.

1. Athena doesn’t like speeches about environmental issues. One might say she has a generally negative feeling about them. This is known as a

a. standpoint.

b. attitude.

c. belief.

d. value.

2. Garth thinks that it is important for young people to be active citizens and vote. This is known as a

a. standpoint.

b. attitude.

c. belief.

d. value.

3. Dave takes his two-year old daughter shopping and is regularly complemented by store clerks and strangers for “babysitting” his child. This bother’s Dave because no one thinks of his wife as a “babysitter.” Which of the following best describes why Dave is bothered?

a. people’s master statuses

b. people’s attitudes toward fatherhood

c. people’s beliefs about fathering

d. people’s values about parenting

4. Ethnocentrism means

a. the speaker has centered his or her speech on ethnicity of the audience.

b. the belief that one’s own cultural norms are superior to other cultures.

c. the attitude that one’s own ethnicity is the best.

d. A state of being empathetic to the ethnicity differences in your audience.

5. Demographic audience analysis involves consideration for the

a. temporal issues related to your speech.

b. audience as a community.

c. age, ethnicity, sex, and religious orientation of an audience.

d. audience values toward the speech topic.

6. A speaker’s environment includes the

a. physical setting for the speech.

b. time of day the speech is to be given.

c. available technology to be used when speaking.

d. all of the above

7. Cheri will be giving a speech in a large lecture hall which includes the ability to project her PowerPoint slides on a wall behind her; she has never used PowerPoint slides before and is worried about using them properly. Which aspect(s) of her speaking environment seems to concern Cheri?

a. size and physical arrangement

b. technology

c. temporal factors

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

8. Alex is giving a speech at 12:30 on a Monday afternoon. He worried about his audience being tired after lunch and knows he must keep his speech under the time restriction. Which aspect(s) of his speaking environment seems to concern Alex?

a. size and physical arrangement

b. technology

c. temporal factors

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

True/False

T F 10. Being audience centered is a necessary part of effective speaking.

T F 11. Some master statuses are perceived as more valuable than others.

T F 12. A person’s standpoint is essentially the perspective from which that person views society.

T F 13. A person’s master statuses determine that person’s standpoint.

T F 14. To be audience centered, the speaker must not say anything the audience does not wish to hear.

T F 15. Audience analysis isn’t important for an involuntary audience, since they have to listen anyway.

T F 16. Voluntary audiences tend to be supportive of a speaker’s position because they are listening out of personal choice.

T F 17. The dangers of ethnocentrism really don't apply to most American speakers.

T F 18. Temporal factors of a speech include technology, time of day, speaking order and speech length.

Essay

19. Define “audience,” including a brief description of the demographic background of the audience to whom you will give your next speech.

20. Identify a master status impacting your identify. Explain how that master status affects your view of the world.

21. Bruce is training to become an automotive technician. He plans to discuss the differences between standard and synthetic oils available on the market. How would he need to tailor his speech in terms of language, examples, and visual aids in order to be understood by your class?

22. Identify at least three issues that make up the speaking environment, and describe how they influence a speech.

23. Discuss at least two differences between voluntary and involuntary audiences.

24. Explain how a speech given at a high school pep rally would need to differ in terms of physical size, arrangement, technology, and temporal factors from a speech given at the local library.

25. Given your public speaking audience, explain how you would determine their attitudes and beliefs about state-supported gambling such as Lotteries and Super Lotteries as an alternative to other forms of taxation.

Chapter Six: Gathering Supporting Materials

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• determine the types of supporting materials you need for your speech,

• search for information on the Internet, in the library, and through personal interviews,

• evaluate the information you find,

• apply several tips that will help your research efforts.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Abstract (130) A summary of the text contained in an article or publication.

Bibliographic database (130) A database that indexes publishing data for books, periodical articles, government reports, statistics, patents, research reports, conference proceedings, and dissertations.

Boolean operators (129) Words you can use to create specific phrases that broaden or narrow your search on the Internet.

Database (129) A collection of information stored electronically so they are easy to find and retrieve.

Full-text database (130) A database that indexes the complete text of newspapers, periodicals, encyclopedias, research reports, court cases, books, and the like.

Global plagiarism (140) Stealing an entire speech from a single source and presenting it as your own.

Incremental plagiarism (140) Presenting select portions from a single speech as your own.

Index (130) An alphabetical listing of the topics discussed in a specific publication, along with the corresponding year, volume, and page numbers.

Information overload (122) When we take in more information than we can process, but realize there still is more information we are expected to know.

Internet (124) An electronic communications network that links computer networks around the world via telephone lines, cables, and communication satellites.

Interview (134) A planned interaction with another person that is organized around inquiry and response, with one person asking questions while the other person answers them.

Patchwork plagiarism (140) Constructing a complete speech that you present as your own from portions of several different sources.

Plagiarism (140) Presenting another person’s words and ideas as your own.

Preliminary bibliography (141) A list of all the potential sources you’ll use as you prepare your speech.

Probe (137) A question that fills out or follows up an answer to a previous question.

Research inventory (122) A list of the types of information you have for your speech and the types you want to find.

World Wide Web (124) A system that allows users to easily navigate the millions of sites on the Internet.

Name __________________________________

Activity 6.1 – Exploring the Library

Purpose: To help you to learn more about your library’s resources and to shape that information into a speech that can be shared to teach others.

Instructions: College libraries can be intimidating due to the large number of resources. From the list below, choose one area of your college’s library that you want to learn more about:

• The reference room

• Electronic databases

• The online catalog and book collection

• The periodical collection and print periodical indexes

• Partnerships with other libraries (interlibrary loan policies)

Either on your own, or in groups of two or three, investigate this area of the library, answering the following questions:

1. Why does my audience (my speech class) need to know about these library resources?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. What does my audience already know about these library resources? How much experience do my classmates have with these resources?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. What do I already know about this area of the library?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. What can I learn from visiting the library and observing patrons and librarians?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Who can I interview to learn more about the library?

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. What are five key questions that I would like to ask an expert about using these library resources?

a. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

c. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

d. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

e. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

7. What insider tips can I learn from experienced users about these library resources?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

8. What printed materials prepared by the library can I use as resources for my speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

9. What does my audience need to know about the physical location and setting of these resources?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

10. What unfamiliar vocabulary might my audience need to know in order to effectively use these resources?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

11. What useful information about using these resources can I gain from print sources (books and periodicals)?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

12. What useful information about using these resources can I gain from electronic sources?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

13. How can I organize this information to most clearly and effectively teach others about the importance of these library resources?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

14. Are there any anecdotes or illustrations that I can provide that will help me to more clearly communicate about these library resources?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

15. Are there any comparisons or contrasts, statistics, or quotations that can help my listeners to better understand and remember information about these library resources?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 6.2 – Identifying Potential Sources

Purpose: The goal of this exercise is to help you compile a list of potential sources for your speech.

Instructions: For the topic you selected for your speech, fill in the following information:

1. Identify a person, or an event, or a process that you could observe to broaden your personal knowledge base.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Working with paper or electronic versions of your library’s card catalog and periodical indexes (including InfoTrac College Edition), find and list specific print resources that appear to provide information for your speech.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Using a search engine, identify Internet-based resources that may be sources of information for your speech.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Identify a person you could interview for additional information for this speech.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 6.3 – Pre-Research Worksheet

Purpose: To help you plan your research process for a speech

Instructions: Answer the following questions in order to determine your research needs.

1. My subject area is: ___________________________________

2. My topic is: ___________________________________

3. The main things that I already know about this topic are:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. I am already aware of the following good resources on this topic:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Three questions that I need to investigate about my topic are:

a. ______________________________________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________________________________

c. ______________________________________________________________________________

6. Three good search terms to use for searches of the library’s catalog are:

a. _________________________ b. _________________________ c. _________________________

7. Two possible periodicals where I can search for information on this topic are:

a. ______________________________________ b. ______________________________________

8. Three good search terms or search phrases to use while searching the Internet are:

a. _________________________ b. _________________________ c. _________________________

9. A good person to interview in order to learn more about this topic is: __________________________

10. Three good interview questions about this topic are:

a. ______________________________________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________________________________

c. ______________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 6.4 – Interview Preparation Form

Purpose: To help plan your research interview ensuring you gather the appropriate information from a credible source.

Instructions: Complete the following questions:

1. Whom have you identified to interview and why?

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. What kinds of information do you hope to gain from this interview?

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. List at least five questions that you plan to ask at this interview:

a. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

c. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

d. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

e. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

4. Review the questions that you listed and revise them, making each question as clear, objective, and precise as you can:

a. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

c. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

d. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

e. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

5. Consider the organization of this interview and order your questions, numbering them according to which question you will ask first, second, third, etc.

a. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

c. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

d. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

e. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

6. Plan a brief introduction that will start your interview. Remember to include your name and your purpose, as well as thanking the interviewee.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

7. Plan a brief conclusion for the interview. Remember again to thank the interviewee.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 6.5 – Interview Log

Purpose: To plan and review your findings from your interview.

Instructions: Complete the following questions:

1. Who will you interview? ____________________________________

2. The date of the first contact to arrange the interview (via mail, telephone, or e-mail) was:

_____________________

3. The arranged date and time for the interview is: _____________________

4. Things to bring to the interview include:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. As soon as possible after completing the interview, answer these questions:

a. What was the most surprising information that you gained from the interview?

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

b. What was the most puzzling information that you gained from the interview?

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

c. List at least one fact, statistic, or example that was given during the interview that you can use in your speech:

______________________________________________________________________________

d. What was your general impression of the interview?

______________________________________________________________________________

e. If you had the chance to conduct the interview again, what would you do differently?

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 6.6 – Using an Almanac, Atlas, and Biographical Dictionary

Purpose: To find evidence in an almanac, atlas and biographical dictionary.

Instructions: Locate an almanac such as The World Almanac or Book of Facts through your library or access the Information Please Almanac at . Spend some time becoming familiar with how to use the reference work. Then find some information for your next speech.

1. What kind of information is contained in this resource?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. How is this information useful for your speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. What are its limitations?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Instructions: Locate an atlas such as Goode’s World Atlas through your library or access Infoplease ® online at . Spend some time becoming familiar with how to use the reference work. Then find some information for your next speech.

1. What kind of information is contained in this resource?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. How is this information useful for your speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. What are its limitations?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Instructions: Locate a biographical dictionary through your library or access the Biographical Dictionary site at . Spend some time becoming familiar with how to use the reference work. Then find some information for your next speech.

1. What kind of information is contained in this resource?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. How is this information useful for your speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. What are its limitations?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Consider sharing your insights through a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________

Activity 6.7 – Common Knowledge or Plagiarism?

Purpose: To learn the difference between knowledge and fact, paraphrasing and plagiarism.

Instructions: Read the article “The Quest for King Arthur: The Legendary King’s Birthplace Teaches a Lesson on Paraphrasing and Citing Sources” (Writer’s Portfolio) located in Writing!, Nov-Dec 2001 v24 i3 p8 (2). The article is available through InfoTrac or possibly your college library. Answer the following questions:

1. What does King Arthur’s Court have to do with plagiarism?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Based on the article, how would you define “common knowledge?”

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. What is the difference between uncommon facts and interpreted facts?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. What distinguishes paraphrasing from plagiarism?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. How does a person avoid plagiarism when preparing information for a speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. What is the implication for a person caught plagiarizing in your course?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Chapter 6 – Gathering Supporting Material

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. A location on the World Wide Web is also known as a

a. browser.

b. website.

c. URL.

d. bookmark.

2. The actual address of a specific website or page is known as the

a. browser.

b. URL.

c. website.

d. bookmark.

3. Jasmine decides to give a speech about hydrogen vehicles. She finds great information at . She recognizes that this website may be trying to sell her something by the URL. Jasmine decides to find additional resources from other sites. What has Jasmine questioned?

a. the reliability of the information

b. the authoritativeness of the information

c. the currency of the information

d. the relevance of the information

4. Lilly found a very helpful website with the story of Esther Price. The website lacks an author and date of last update. She decides to use a biography she found through the local library instead. What concerns led Lilly to choose a book over the more convenient web page?

a. the authoritativeness and reliability of the information

b. the authoritativeness and currency of the information

c. the reliability and currency of the information

d. the relevance and consistency of the information

5. Aaron gathered information for his speech from a variety of sources but failed to effectively cite the sources of his information. What type of plagiarism is he at risk of committing?

a. global plagiarism

b. patchwork plagiarism

c. incremental plagiarism

d. This would not be considered plagiarism.

6. Beth finds a great pamphlet on giving blood at the local blood bank and selects portions from it for her speech. What type of plagiarism is she at risk of committing?

a. global plagiarism

b. patchwork plagiarism

c. incremental plagiarism

d. This would not be considered plagiarism.

7. Heather used a speech given by her husband the previous term. She claims that he said it was fine with him. She cited all the same sources as he did. What type of plagiarism is this?

a. global plagiarism

b. patchwork plagiarism

c. incremental plagiarism

d. This would not be considered plagiarism.

8. A preliminary bibliography should include

a. only those sources you use in your speech.

b. the library resources such as books and newspapers used in your speech.

c. all the potential sources you’ll use as you prepare your speech.

d. the most helpful sources used in preparing your speech.

9. Information that supports other sources of information through statements, claims, and facts is said to be

a. relevant.

b. current.

c. reliable.

d. consistent.

10. A type of reference work that includes overviews or surveys of a wide range of topics is called

a. an almanac.

b. an atlas.

c. a dictionary.

d. an encyclopedia.

11. A type of reference work that includes books of maps and geographical information is called

a. an almanac.

b. an atlas.

c. a dictionary.

d. an encyclopedia.

12. A type of reference work that includes collections of facts on various subjects is called

a. an almanac.

b. an atlas.

c. a dictionary.

d. an encyclopedia.

True/False

T F 13. Personal knowledge and experience should not be relied on when giving a speech

T F 14. Boolean operators are difficult and time consuming to use.

T F 15. Using a preferred search engine such as Yahoo! is probably the best strategy for finding information on a topic.

T F 16. While the web is quite new, not all the information on the web is current.

T F 17. It is best to use excerpted portions of a printed work rather than an original work, because they are shorter and easier to understand.

T F 18. Getting an orientation to the library is likely to save you time in the long run.

T F 19. A list of the types of information you have and the types you want to find is known as a research inventory.

T F 20. Interviews are useful for providing background information for a speech but rarely add much interest or impact to a speech.

Essay

21. Create a research inventory for a speech about the history of US immigration practices.

22. Discuss the process of conducting a research interview with a local government official (i.e. city mayor or council person).

23. Explain when and why you would use the Internet compared with when you would be better off to use a library. (Hint: See Table 6.1)

24. Samantha wants to learn more about becoming a dental hygienist for a speech she is planning on career options for students. Describe the steps she should follow when conducting a research interview.

25. Offer an explanation of how and why a person should avoid plagiarism in any college course including their public speech class.

Chapter Seven: Developing and Supporting Your Ideas

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• explain the importance of supporting materials in a speech,

• identify and provide examples of the five main types of supporting materials,

• apply tips for using each of the five types of supporting materials effectively,

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Bias (162) Unreasoned distortion of judgment or prejudice about a topic.

Brief narrative (149) A story that takes only a short time to tell and illustrates a specific point.

Claim (145) An assertion that must be proved.

Connotative definition (164) The subjective meaning of a word or phrase based on personal experiences and beliefs.

Definition (164) A statement of the exact meaning of a word or phrase.

Denotative definition (164) The objective definition of a word or a phrase you would find in a dictionary.

Direct quotation (160) An exact word-for-word presentation of another’s testimony.

Etymology (166) The history of a word.

Evidence (145) The materials that speakers use to support their ideas.

Examples (146) Specific instances used to illustrate a concept, experience, issue, or problem.

Expert testimony (160) The testimony of someone considered an authority in a particular field.

Extended narrative (149) A story that takes longer to tell and can be integrated into a speech more fully.

Hypothetical example (146) Instance that did not take place but could have.

Intertextuality (152) The process in which stories reference other stories or rely on parts of other stories to be complete.

Mean (155) The average of a group of numbers.

Median (155) The middle number in a series or set of numbers arranged in a ranked order.

Mode (156) The number that occurs most often in a set of numbers.

Narrative (149) A story that recreates or foretells real or hypothetical events.

Objective (162) Having a fair and undistorted view on a question or issue.

Paraphrase (160) A summary of another’s testimony in the speaker’s own words.

Peer testimony (160) The testimony of someone who has firsthand knowledge of a topic, sometimes called lay testimony.

Personal testimony (160) Your own testimony that you use to convey your point.

Real example (146) An instance that actually took place.

Statistics (152) Numerical summaries of facts, figures, and research findings.

Testimony (159) The opinions or observations of others.

Name __________________________________

Activity 7.1 – Identifying Evidence

Purpose: To increase your familiarity with types of evidence.

Instructions: Below are ten statements containing evidence. In the blank to the left of each statement, identify the specific type of evidence presented. Answers appear with the Chapter 7 self-test answers.

Identifying Evidence

Example: statistic Nearly 25% of children in America do not get adequate nutrition.

1. _________________ Only one in four Americans votes in local elections.

2. _________________ According to Jacob Robinson, President of ABC Chemicals, “no toxic chemicals are released from plant operations.”

3. _________________ Walking home last night I picked up three soft drink cans in one block.

4. _________________ The Outward Bound Course is a journey of self-discovery.

5. _________________ This bar graph shows the relative proportions of money spent on welfare and support of businesses.

6. _________________ My grandmother used to say, “Life is what happens when you’re busy doing other things.”

7. _________________ To understand what it’s like to be homeless, imagine that your room is suddenly gone. You have no place to keep your stuff or to sleep.

8. _________________ College is like a key to success.

9. _________________ Over 400,000 individuals have been diagnosed with HIV.

10. _________________ This enlarged photograph shows what happens when land is clear-cut.

Name __________________________________

Activity 7.2 – Translating Statistics

Purpose: To give you experience in making statistics interesting and clear.

Instructions: Below are statistics that are dry, cluttered, or otherwise ineffective for use in a speech. Translate each statistic into one that is interesting and understandable. When you have completed the exercise, compare your translations with those of other students in your class. There are multiple ways to translate each statistic in the exercise.

Bringing Statistics to Life

|Statistic |Translated Statistic |

|Example: Of the 20,000 students at this university, 5,000 will not |Example: 1 in 4 of the students at our school will not have a job |

|have jobs waiting when they graduate. |on graduation day. |

|1. 30, 801,001cars were recalled in 2007. | |

|2. We spend $100,000 million annually on offensive weapons and less | |

|than 1 million on job training. | |

|3. During this century, the average life span has grown from 40.1 | |

|years to 65.4 years. | |

|4. Women make only 72% of what men make. | |

|5. Each year in this country 2,742 children accidentally consume | |

|poisons. | |

|6. The average person spends 8 hours sleeping and 16 hours | |

|communicating every day. | |

|7. Less than half of the citizens in the U.S. today are Caucasian. | |

|8. Each year over 5,689 small businesses are forced to close in the | |

|United States. | |

|9. There are 16 women serving in the U. S. Senate. | |

|10. More than 60% of elderly people below the poverty line are women.| |

Name __________________________________

Activity 7.3 – Speech Analysis

Purpose: To analyze the support material of a speech.

Instructions: Using resources from the American Rhetoric website, , pick one of the speeches that occurred in the last decade. Read and analyze the speech labeling the supporting material according to the type being used (example, narrative, statistics, testimony, or definitions), and evaluate how effectively the supports were used.

|Support Material |Type |Effectiveness of clarifying, proving, and holding interest |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

Name __________________________________

Activity 7.4 – Identifying Support in a Speech

Purpose: To gain experience identifying different types of support including examples, narrative, statistics and testimony.

Instructions: Locate and read the Harvard commencement speech by Bill Gates, in Network World, June 8, 2007 pNA. You can access the speech using InfoTrac, or perhaps your library subscribes to Network World. Respond to the following questions:

1. What examples does the speaker use?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. What narratives does the speaker use?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. What statistics does the speaker use?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. What testimony does the speaker use?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 7.5 – Narratives of Personal Success

Purpose: To help you harness the power of narratives for your speeches.

Instructions: Imagine you are giving a speech about overcoming challenges. Use InfoTrac College Edition, or another available library database, to identify stories of people overcoming challenges. Look for articles that include narratives you think will help you personalize a point, challenge your audience to think in new ways, or draw your audience in emotionally.

Write a narrative on the concept of overcoming challenges based on the information you find.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Review your narrative using the following tips discussed in Invitation to Public Speaking on pages 149-152.

• Does your narrative make a specific point?

• Is the length appropriate?

• Is the language vivid and the delivery appropriate to the story?

• Is the story appropriate for the audience?

Name __________________________________

Activity 7.6 – Using Statistics Successfully Yourself

Purpose: To learn how statistics can be used to support persuasive arguments.

Instructions: Imagine you work for your city’s Chamber of Commerce. Your task is to develop a web page designed to entice people to move to your community, and you need some statistics that will persuade your audience to relocate. Use resources obtained through your local chamber of commerce or real estate office. If Internet access is available, visit Money magazine’s Best Places to Live page at and search for your city to find statistics about it. Consider statistics related to crime, schools, education, or health care.

Write a short paragraph that describes some of the positive aspects of your community, using statistics to support your claims.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Consider sharing your statement with classmates through discussion in class or via an online discussion forum if available.

Name __________________________________

Chapter 7 – Gathering Supporting Material

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. Specific instances that illustrate a concept, experience, issue, or problem are known as

a. examples

b. narratives

c. statistics

d. testimonies

2. Retired General Colin Powell included in his speech a story about how he once received a free hotdog from a New York City vendor. This approach to support is also known as a(n) ___________________.

a. claim

b. narrative

c. statistic

d. testimony

e. definition

3. Numerical summaries of facts, figures and findings are known as

a. examples

b. narratives

c. statistics

d. testimonies

e. definitions

4. Opinions or observations of others are known as

a. examples

b. narratives

c. statistics

d. testimonies

e. definitions

5. Statements of exact meaning of a word or phrase are known as

a. examples

b. narratives

c. statistics

d. testimonies

e. definitions

6. The middle number in a series is also known as the

a. mean.

b. median.

c. mode.

d. medium.

7. Quoting a person with first hand knowledge of a topic or event is known as

a. expert testimony.

b. peer testimony.

c. personal testimony.

d. paraphrase.

8. Summarizing an expert’s words in the speaker’s own words is known as

a. expert testimony.

b. peer testimony.

c. personal testimony.

d. paraphrase.

9. George includes statistics in his speech from the US Census Bureau including data from the 2006 census that showed adults 18 and older with a graduate degree earned an average of nearly $80,000, while those with less than a high school diploma earned about $20,000.

a. George should have used statistics from a more reliable source

b. George should not have rounded his statistics but instead used the exact numbers

c. George should have quoted the author of the study.

d. George used the statistics appropriately.

10. Which of the following is NOT a reason to use examples in your speech?

a. examples clarify concepts

b. examples elicit emotion

c. examples reinforce points

d. examples unite the speaker and audience

11. Which of the following is NOT a rule for citing sources according to our text?

a. Give credit to others.

b. Give specific information about your source.

c. Deliver all information accurately.

d. Give the full bibliographic citation in your speech.

12. The statement, “Last week’s New York Times tells us that…” is an example of

a. delivering information accurately.

b. giving credit to others.

c. giving specific information about your source.

d. all of the above

True/False

T F 13. Stories can be used to bring the speaker and audience closer together.

T F 14. Testimony, even complex testimony, should never be paraphrased to ensure the original meaning is maintained.

T F 15. It is impossible to use too many statistics.

T F 16. Definitions should only be used to define what something is, not what it isn’t.

T F 17. Hypothetical examples should never be used.

T F 18. Extended narratives are long stories which should include characters, actions, settings and plots.

T F 19. Since bias can’t be avoided, it isn’t much of a concern when using testimony.

T F 20. Definitions should not be offered to clarify an emotionally or politically charged word.

T F 21. It isn’t necessary for a speaker to support every claim made in a speech, but the most substantial claims must be supported with evidence.

T F 22. How you organize your evidence has little effect on the audience as long as it is all in there.

Essay

23. Angela decides to discuss which grade of gasoline is the best choice for her audience. Identify what sort of evidence she would nee to use in order to be perceived as credible and convincing.

24. Najib would like to explain to his American some of the basic tenets of the religion of Islam. What sources of evidence do you recommend Najib use? Explain why those sources would be best for this topic and audience.

25. List and explain any three tips for using examples effectively in a speech.

26. List and explain any three tips for using narrative when giving a speech.

27. List and explain any two tips for using statistics successfully in a speech.

28. List and explain any three tips for using testimony.

29. List and explain any three tips for using definitions.

30. Explain the rules for citing sources in your speech, and give an example of how this would “sound” in the speech.

Chapter Eight: Reasoning

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• identify Aristotle’s three modes of proof,

• describe the five patterns of reasoning used to construct sound arguments,

• test the strength of your claims with Toulmin’s model of reasoning,

• apply tips for reasoning ethically.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Analogical reasoning (181) The process of reasoning suggesting that because two conditions or events resemble each other in way, they will resemble each other in other ways.

Argument (174) A set of statements that allows you to develop your evidence in order to establish the validity of your claim.

Causal reasoning (178) The process of reasoning that supports a claim by establishing a cause-and-effect relationship.

Character (187) The audience’s view of a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.

Competence (187) The audience’s view of a speaker’s intelligence and knowledge of a subject.

Conclusion (177) The logical outcome of an argument that results from the combination of the major and minor premises.

Credibility (187) The audience’s perception of a speaker’s competence and character.

Deductive reasoning (177) The process of reasoning that uses a familiar and commonly accepted claim to establish the truth of a very specific claim.

Ethos (173) The word Aristotle used to refer to the speaker’s credibility

False cause (179) An error in reasoning in which a speaker assumes that one event caused another simply because the first event happened before the second.

Hasty generalization (176) An error in reasoning in which a speaker reaches a conclusion without enough evidence to support it.

Inductive reasoning (174) The process of reasoning that uses specific instances, or examples, to make a claim about a general conclusion.

Inferences (174) The mental leaps we make when we agree that a speaker’s evidence supports his or her claims.

Logos (173) The word Aristotle used to refer to the logical arrangement of evidence in a speech.

Major premise (177) The claim in an argument that states a familiar, commonly accepted belief. Also called the general principle.

Minor premise (177) The claim in an argument that states a specific instance linked to the major premise.

Pathos (173) The word Aristotle used to refer to emotional appeals made by the speaker.

Reasoning by sign (183) The process of reasoning that assumes something exists or will happen based on something else that exists or has happened.

Sign (183) Something that represents something else.

Name __________________________________

Activity 8.1 – Aristotle’s Forms of Proof

Purpose: To learn how to distinguish among ethos, pathos, and logos.

Instructions: Page through a magazine you like and find examples of each form of Aristotle’s three proofs described in chapter eight. To learn more about Aristotle’s three forms of proof, go to The Art of Rhetoric web page at and read the explanations provided. Answer the questions below.

1. Which form of proof persuades you most? ____________________

2. Which form of proof was most common in the magazine you selected? ____________________

3. Do you think there could be a relationship between the type of magazine you like and the forms of proofs you are most persuaded by? How is that possible?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 8.2 – The Toulmin Model of Argument

Purpose: To give you practice at identifying the essentials of an argument: The claim, the reason, the evidence, and the warrant.

Instructions: Either on your own, or in a discussion group of two to three people, complete the following worksheet.

1. In your own words, what is the claim of an argument?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. In your own words, what are the reasons of an argument?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. In your own words, what is the evidence of an argument?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. In your own words, what is the warrant of an argument?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Read the following brief argument, then identify its essential parts.

E-mail should be banned from all campus computers because it is simply a channel for time-wasting junk messages. Over 75% of all messages sent on e-mail are nonsensical distractions: poor attempts at humor, chain letter scams to earn money or discounts, and frivolous communications that add nothing to the quality of life or of learning.

The claim is: ______________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The reason is: _____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The evidence is:____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The warrant is:_____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Again, read the following brief argument, then identify its essential parts.

President Clinton should have been impeached because he lied about having sex with a woman. The testimony in the Starr report, tapes of the grand jury proceedings, and Clinton’s own testimony in the grand jury clearly indicate that a sexual relationship occurred and that Clinton tried to cover it up.

The claim is: ______________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The reason is: _____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The evidence is:____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The warrant is:_____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

7. Now, create your own argument, and label the claim, the reason, the evidence, and the warrant:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

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Name __________________________________

Activity 8.3 – Deciphering Arguments

Purpose: Model two arguments from a speech using a simplified version of the Toulmin model.

Instructions: Using InfoTrac locate the speech, “The Dark Side of Technology” by William N. Joy in Vital Speeches of the Day, Sept 15, 2000 v66 i23 p706 (Hint: The speech can be located by using the speaker’s full name as the search term.)

Argument 1: The central argument of the speech is a deductive argument found on about the second page. Identify which statements represent “premises” and which represent the “general conclusion.”

“all practices in these sciences become information”

“all information is available”

“then clearly the weapon kind of information will be available as well”

Argument 2: This inductive argument is found approximately on page 4. It is in the paragraph that begins: “The danger with these technologies -GNR- is…” Read the argument and then use the information to complete the following parts of the argument in the model. For data, do not try to write complete sentences or give sources.

Data (Grounds/Evidence):

_________________________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________

Warrant (Logical connection between Data and Claim):

_________________________________________________________________________________

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Claim (Conclusion):

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 8.4 – Ethos, Pathos and Logos

Purpose: To help you develop effective persuasive speeches through understanding and applying Aristotle’s techniques of persuasion (ethos, pathos, and logos).

Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read "The rhetoric of mock trial debate: using logos, pathos and ethos in undergraduate competition" by Felicia R. Walker in College Student Journal, June 2005 v39 i2 p277(10).. (Hint: Use “ethos” and “pathos” as your search terms.)

1. In your own words, define the term “ethos” and provide an example that illustrates the concept.

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2. For your next speech, describe at least two specific actions you can take to more effectively develop ethos.

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3. In your own words, define the term “pathos” and provide an example that illustrates the concept.

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4. For your next speech, describe at least two specific actions you can take to more effectively develop pathos.

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5. In your own words, define the term “logos” and illustrates the concept.

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6. For your next speech, describe at least two specific actions you can take to more effectively develop logos.

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7. Although the specific examples and discussions of this article are written for an audience of mock trial competitors, many of the suggestions are relevant for any persuasive speaking occasion. Identify at least two specific suggestions discussed in this article that you can use to improve your next persuasive presentation.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 8.5 – InfoTrac Activity: Pathos and Public Speaking

Purpose: To learn more about preparing speeches with emotional impact.

Instructions: Locate and read the article “Ache for the Impact: Four Steps to Powerful Oratory” by Andrew B. Wilson. (Hint: Use “speechwriting” as your search term.)

1. Wilson compares speechwriting with ski jumping. What are some of the similarities that he draws between the two activities?

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2. Wilson compares the speech opening with the take-off in ski jumping. What is his advice about delivering effective introductions?

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3. In your own words, apply this advice to the introduction for your next speech. What specific plans and revisions can you make to put Wilson’s advice into practice?

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4. Wilson compares the speech ending with the landing in ski jumping. What is his advice about delivering effective conclusions?

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5. In your own words, apply this advice to the conclusion for your next speech. What specific plans and revisions can you make to put Wilson’s advice into practice?

_________________________________________________________________________________

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Name __________________________________

Chapter 8 – Reasoning

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. Appeals to the emotion’s of the audience members are known as

a. logos.

b. pathos.

c. ethos.

d. ethics.

2. Appeals based on the speaker’s credibility are known as ______________

a. logos.

b. pathos.

c. ethos.

d. ethics.

3. The logical arrangement of evidence in a speech is known as ______________

a. logos.

b. pathos.

c. ethos.

d. ethics.

4. The reasoning from a general conclusion to specific supporting cases is called ___________

a. inductive reasoning.

b. deductive reasoning.

c. causal reasoning.

d. analogical reasoning.

5. The reasoning from specific cases to general conclusion is called _______________

a. inductive reasoning.

b. deductive reasoning.

c. causal reasoning.

d. analogical reasoning.

e. reasoning by sign.

6. Reasoning that assumes something exists or will happen based on something else that exists or has happened is known as

a. inductive reasoning.

b. deductive reasoning.

c. causal reasoning.

d. analogical reasoning.

e. reasoning by sign.

7. Reasoning that supports a claim by establishing a cause-effect relationship is known as

a. inductive reasoning.

b. deductive reasoning.

c. causal reasoning.

d. analogical reasoning.

e. reasoning by sign.

8. Using the Map of Reasoning, what you think you want to propose is also known as the

a. claim.

b. grounds.

c. warrant.

d. backing.

9. Using the Map of Reasoning, why you think this or want to propose it is also known as the

a. claim.

b. grounds.

c. warrant.

d. backing.

10. Using the Map of Reasoning, how you know your grounds support your claim is also known as the

a. claim.

b. grounds.

c. warrant.

d. backing.

11. Using the Map of Reasoning, how you know the warrant supports the grounds is also known as the

a. claim.

b. grounds.

c. warrant.

d. backing.

12. The statement, “Living near power lines increases the risk of cancer” is most likely a

a. claim.

b. grounds.

c. warrant.

d. backing.

13. A person that appears sincere, trustworthy, and concerned for the well-being of the audience is said to have

a. credibility.

b. competence.

c. character.

d. backing.

14. What pattern of reasoning is being used in the following example? "All known planets travel about the sun in elliptical orbits; therefore all planets travel about the sun in elliptical orbits."

a. inductive

b. deductive

c. causal

d. analogic

e. reasoning by sign

15. What pattern of reasoning is being used in the following example? "All dogs are mammals. All mammals have kidneys. Therefore all dogs have kidneys."

a. inductive

b. deductive

c. causal

d. analogic

e. reasoning by sign

True/False

T F 16. When developing your speech argument, you should prepare yourself for an angry dispute with your audience.

T F 17. Deduction is also known as argument by example.

T F 18. Hasty generalizations are a hazard with inductive reasoning.

T F 19. Credibility is a perception of a speaker’s competence and character.

T F 20. Competence relates to how sincere or trustworthy a person is.

T F 21. It is important to have enough examples when using inductive reasoning to make a claim.

T F 22. False cause and hasty generalizations are errors in reasoning.

Essay

23. Explain how you would develop a persuasive speech on the topic of global warming using the three modes of proofs introduced by Aristotle.

24. Use inductive reasoning to support the claim that student cheating is a serious problem on your campus.

25. Use deductive reasoning to support the claim that parking is a problem at your institution.

26. Explain the guidelines for using causal reasoning.

27. Use analogical reasoning to support the claim that legalization of drugs will decrease drug abuse.

28. Describe how your local weather forecaster uses reasoning by sign. What signs do they offer for today's weather? Where his or her predictions accurate? .

29. Define and explain the elements of the Toulmin model with an example.

Chapter Nine: Organizing And Outlining Your Speech

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• identify your main points for your speech,

• determine the appropriate number of main points for your speech,

• organize your main points according to five different patterns,

• apply tips for preparing your main points effectively,

• use four different kinds of connectives in your speech,

• create a preparation outline,

• prepare a speaking outline,

• prepare note cards to use as prompts during a speech.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Causal pattern (200) A pattern of organization that describes a cause-and-effect relationship between ideas.

Chronological pattern (197) A pattern of organization that traces a sequence of events or ideas.

Connective (205) A word or phrase used to link ideas in a speech.

Coordination (209) ) The process of arranging points into various levels, with the points on a specific level having the same weight or value.

Internal preview (205) A statement in the body of the speech that details what the speaker plans to discuss next.

Internal summary (206) A statement in the body of a speech that summarizes a point a speaker has already discussed.

Main points (195) The most important ideas you address in your speech.

Organization (195) The systematic arrangement of ideas into a coherent whole.

Preparation outline (207) ) The detailed outine a speaker builds when preparing a speech that includes the title, specific purpose, thesis statement, introduction, main points and subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and source citations of the speech.

Problem-solution pattern (200) A pattern of organization that identifies a specific problem and offers a possible solution.

Signpost (206) A simple word or statement that lets an audience know where a speaker is in a speech or that indicates the importance of an idea.

Spatial pattern (198) A pattern of organization in which ideas are arranged in terms of location or direction.

Speaking outline (218) The condensed form of a preparation outline, used to help a speaker remember his or her ideas when speaking.

Subordination (213) The process of ranking ideas in order to from the most to the least important.

Subpoint (209) A point in a speech that develops an aspect of a main point.

Sub-subpoint (209) A point in a speech that develops an aspect of a subpoint.

Topical pattern (201) A pattern of organization that allows the speaker to divide the topic into subtopics, each of which addresses a different aspect of the whole topic.

Transition (205) A phrase that indicates a speaker is finished with one point and moving to a new one.

Name __________________________________

Activity 9.1 – Writing Thesis Statements

Purpose: To familiarize you with the basic process of organizing and developing your material.

Instructions: This exercise will walk you briefly through each step of the process using an applied example: “Applying for admission to your college/university.”

Take a moment and think about the steps that you took to enroll at your college. (If necessary, use a separate piece of paper to jot down the steps required to apply for admission.) Now complete the following steps:

1. Write a thesis statement that would clearly indicate your specific goal to your audience. (Hint: What is the purpose of this speech?)

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2. List the main points, the steps, one must complete to enroll at your institution. (Remember to avoid creating more than five steps.)

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3. Organize the main points in time order. (This will help you see your organizational pattern.)

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4. What supporting information will be needed to properly explain the process of applying for admission? Consider the “substeps” that are necessary to complete the main steps.

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5. What words will help you smoothly move from main point to main point? List several of them here.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 9.2 – Determining the Main Points

Purpose: To familiarize you with the specific of developing the main points of your speech.

Instructions: Using a topic you are considering for your speech, or a topic discussed in class, complete the following steps: (You may also use the topic from Activity 9.1.)

1. Write your thesis statement:

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2. Underline the two to five specific ideas in your thesis statement. For each underlined item, write a sentence that summarizes what you want your audience to know about that item:

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3. Review your main points. Are they clear? Do they use parallel structure? Are they meaningful? Rewrite any sentence that you feel does not meet these three criteria:

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What is the best order for your main points: topical, chronological or causal?___________________

4. Use the space provided to write your main points in the order that you feel will best assist your audience in understanding your thesis and aid you in reaching your speech goal.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 9.3 – An Alternative Organizing Technique

Purpose: To give you experience in organizing ideas using an alternative brainstorming technique.

Instructions: Tree diagramming, also known as hierarchical outlining, gives you an opportunity to organize your ideas without the apparatus of traditional outlines (the Roman and Arabic numbering and lettering systems which many people find confusing and intimidating).

Use this “blank” outline to practice tree diagramming; fill in the blanks to organize your speech ideas. The large square on the left should state your thesis; the three medium-sized squares should list your main points in the order in which you plan to discuss them; the six small boxes should be used to list supporting details (facts, statistics, examples, stories, quotations, etc.) This exercise can also be done using a blank piece of paper, turned sideways (“landscape”).

Name __________________________________

Activity 9.4 – Outlining the Speech Body

Purpose: To give you experience creating a full outline following recommendations in the chapter.

Instructions: Complete each section using one or more complete sentences. Use the material developed in Activity 9.1 and 9.2 for this exercise.

Speech goal:

Thesis statement:

Transition to main point 1:

Main point 1:

Supporting information:

Transition to main point 2:

Main point 2:

Supporting information:

Transition to main point 3:

Main point 3:

Supporting information:

Name __________________________________

Activity 9.5 – Analyzing a Speech

Purpose: To outline the various components in a famous speech.

Instructions: Pick one speech from the American Rhetoric website, . Your task is to outline the components of the speech by identifying the attention getting strategy (and what type it is), the thesis statement, the main points, the summary, and the kind of concluding attention-getter. You will need to turn in the outline with your answers written on it.

Name __________________________________

Activity 9.6 – Citing Sources & Avoiding Plagiarism

Purpose: To reinforce understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid it.

Instructions: Read the Duke University definition of plagiarism and respond to the questions below.

Duke University defines plagiarism to include:

• Copying from published sources without adequate documentation.

• Purchasing a pre-written paper (either by mail or electronically).

• Letting someone else write a paper for you.

• Paying someone else to write a paper for you.

• Submitting as your own someone else’s unpublished work, either with or without permission.

1. How does your institution define plagiarism? How could you find out?

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2. When might a speaker be inclined to knowingly commit plagiarism?

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3. When might a speaker unknowingly commit plagiarism?

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4. What is the impact of plagiarism from the speaker’s perspective?

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5. What is the impact of plagiarism from the audience’s perspective?

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6. How can incidents of plagiarism in a speech be avoided?

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Consider sharing your insights through a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________

Activity 9.7 – Creating a Keyword Outline

Purpose: To give you practice at revising full sentence outlines into keyword outlines that can be used as prompts while delivering a speech.

Instructions: In your textbook, locate the full sentence outline for the speech “Tap” by Rachel Rota (found on pages 329-331). Convert this full sentence outline to a keyword outline that would be suitable for note cards during the delivery of the speech. (Review pages 220-222 in the text if you need more guidance on preparing speech notes and sample note cards.)

Name __________________________________

Activity 9.8 – Creating a Preparation Outline

Purpose: To give you experience in creating a preparation outline.

Instructions: Below is a basic outline format for your first speech. In the space provided, fill in your full sentence outline.

Introduction

A. Attention Getting Device

B. Thesis Statement

C. Preview of Main Points

Transition

Body

A. Main Point One

1. Evidence

2. Evidence

3. Evidence

Transition

B. Main Point Two

1. Evidence

2. Evidence

3. Evidence

Transition

C. Main Point Three

1. Evidence

2. Evidence

3. Evidence

Transition

Conclusion

A. Summary of Main Points

B. Memorable Closing Statement

Name __________________________________

Activity 9.9 – Evaluating Speeches from the Internet

Purpose: To apply chapter organization concepts to a speech transcript from the Internet.

Instructions: Select an informative speech from the Speech and Transcript Center at . Once you have selected the speech you wish to analyze, complete the following tasks:

1. Identify title and author of the speech you have picked to evaluate.

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2. What is the exact purpose of this speech?

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3. What organizational pattern did the speaker use?

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4. Were the introduction and conclusion effective? If so, why? If not, why not? Explain.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 9.10 – Creating a Speaking Outline

Purpose: To give you experience in understanding the importance of a speaking outline.

Instructions: Below is a key word or speaking outline format for your first speech. Complete the outline using only key words and phrases to remind you of your ideas.

Introduction

A. Attention Getting Device

B. Thesis Statement

C. Preview of Main Points

Transition

Body

A. Main Point One

1. Evidence

2. Evidence

Transition

B. Main Point Two

1. Evidence

2. Evidence

Transition

C. Main Point Three

1. Evidence

2. Evidence

Transition

Conclusion

A. Summary of Main Points

B. Memorable Closing Statement

Name __________________________________

Activity 9.11 – Speaker Signposting Strengthens Organization

Purpose: To analyze the impact of connectives and sign posts.

Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac “Extreme science: pushing the envelope of knowledge in geological time and space." by John F. McDonnell. located in Executive Speeches, August-Sept 2005 v20 i1 p19(3).

1. Read the speech and underline or highlight any words or phrases the speaker uses to signal where they are going in the speech (previews), where they have been (internal summaries), where they are in the speech (transitions), or any other word clues to help the audience understand and remember the organization of the speech (signposts).

2. Label each element you’ve highlighted with its proper descriptor.

3. What impact does the speaker’s use of connectives have on the clarity of the speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

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Consider sharing your insights through a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________

Activity 9.12 – Unscrambling the Organization

Purpose: To practice organizing ideas for an invitational speech.

Instructions: In groups or individually, annotate the statements below to indicate what parts of the speech they are. You should note the three main points and corresponding subpoints for an invitational speech about the United Way. Add transitions between the main points to complete the structure of the speech.

The United Way also supports other avenues of giving to the community.

The United Way brings together key public and private entities to address many of the social ills of our community.

Because of its holistic view, contributing to the United Way is a great way to give back to the community.

I’d like to discuss with my audience the idea of donating to the United Way and to other community-based agencies.

Volunteering is yet another way to support these agencies and projects.

Those who donate can feel confident that their contributions will be wisely distributed, because the advisory committee that determines the distribution formula is composed of volunteers from our own community.

When time or money are tight, simply speaking highly of the United Way and other forms of giving is a third positive act.

One contribution to the United Way supports forty-one different agencies and projects in this community.

Donations to individual agencies and projects are excellent ways to give to the community.

Name __________________________________

Chapter 9 – Organizing Your Speech

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

13. According to your textbook, which of the following factors is most important when deciding how many main points to include in a speech?

a. time available to speak

b. audience’s level of familiarity with the topic

c. access to information on different subtopics

d. personal understanding of the topic

14. Identify the organization pattern used in the following thesis: “The three main steps in repairing concrete include, patching, filling and finishing.”

a. chronological

b. spatial

c. problem-and-solution

d. causal

15. Identify the organizational pattern used in the following thesis: “The safety equipment used in ice hockey includes head gear, hand protection, knee protection and skates.”

a. chronological

b. spatial

c. problem-and-solution

d. causal

16. Identify the organizational pattern used in the following thesis: “Because of a lack of available campus parking, numerous vehicles have been damaged.”

a. chronological

b. spatial

c. problem-and-solution

d. causal

17. Identify the organization pattern used in the following thesis: “Kayaking is an exciting water sport requiring substantial equipment, skill and athleticism.”

a. chronological

b. spatial

c. problem-and-solution

d. topical

18. Identify from the options below the tip needed (if any) to improve the following: “Electronic music is produced by various people and for various reasons.”

a. Separate your main points.

b. Word your main points consistently.

c. Balance your main points.

d. The main point is fine as stated.

19. Adefina wishes to discuss the 10 steps to follow when applying for financial aid in her upcoming speech. Her instructor is concerned this may be a problem. Which step to developing main points might best explain the instructor’s concern?

a. Identify your main points.

b. Use an appropriate number of main points.

c. Order your main points.

d. Use connectives between main points.

20. “Today’s workers are experiencing high levels of burnout, which is caused by increased demands on their time and energy,” is a thesis statement organized following the _____________________ method of organization.

a. chronological

b. spatial

c. causal

d. problem-solution

e. topical

21. “The art of batik has an intriguing history as well as methods of production and designs that reflect the skill and politics of the artisan” is a thesis statement organized following the _____________________ method of organization.

a. chronological

b. spatial

c. causal

d. problem-solution

e. topical

22. Statements such as “first, second, and third” or “the most important thing to remember” are examples of

a. internal previews.

b. internal summaries.

c. signposts.

d. transitions.

23. Identify the reason citing sources in you speech is important from the list below.

a. It adds credibility to your ideas.

b. It adds to your own credibility.

c. It is ethical to do.

d. all of the above

24. Which of the tips below is not a tip for the preparation outline?

a. use complete sentences

b. label the introduction, body, conclusion and connectives

c. use key words and phrases

d. keep an audience centered focus

25. Which of the tips below is NOT a tip for the speaking outline?

a. use an outline format

b. write clearly and legibly

c. add cues for delivery

d. check for balance

26. Outlines are based on the principle of

a. organization.

b. subordination.

c. balance.

d. cohesion.

True/False

T F 15. All the resources you plan to cite in the speech should be included in the preparation outline.

T F 16. The speaking outline is a brief version of the preparation outline.

T F 17. It is recommended that your speaking notes be written in a larger size than normal.

T F 18. It is not appropriate to write delivery cues on the speaking outline.

T F 19. The works cited page is not part of the preparation outline.

T F 20. Balancing your main points in the body of your speech requires that you spend an approximately equal amount of time on each point.

T F 21. Internal previews are very much like the preview offered in the introduction of a speech.

T F 22. It is not appropriate to combine internal summaries with transitions.

T F 23. Signposts let your audience know where you are in your speech.

T F 24. Citing sources is required to avoid plagiarizing, but does little more to enhance a speech.

Essay

25. Create a speaking outline on the topic of your most popular recreational activity.

26. Explain the difference between a preparation outline and a speaking outline.

27. Create a set of note cards briefly outlining the tips for creating a speaking outline.

28. Explain what guides the number of main points used in a speech, along with the dangers of attempting to cover too much or too little.

29. Mario wants to give a speech about the equipment used by players in the game of hockey. Make a recommendation to him regarding at least two approaches to organizing such a speech.

30. Describe the four different kinds of connectives possible in a speech, and offer examples of each.

Chapter Ten: Introductions and Conclusions

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• describe the four functions of an effective introduction,

• prepare a compelling introduction,

• describe the two functions of an effective conclusion,

• prepare a compelling conclusion,

• identify at least four tips each for preparing an introduction and a conclusion.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Preview (228) A brief overview in the introduction of a speech of each main point in the speech.

Rhetorical question (229) A question a speaker asks that an audience isn’t supposed to answer out load but rather in their own minds.

Summary (238) A concise restatement of the main points at the end of a speech.

Name __________________________________

Activity 10.1 – Writing Speech Introductions

Purpose: The goal of this activity is to create choices for how you will begin your speech.

Instructions: Complete the following:

1. For the student speech by Amanda Buckman on page 355 of Invitation to Public Speaking, write three different introductions—using startling statement, rhetorical question, story, personal reference, quotation, or suspense—that you believe meet the goals of effective introductions, and that you believe would be appropriate for the speech goal and audience.

a.

b.

c.

2. Which do you believe is the best? Why?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Write the introduction in outline form.

Name __________________________________

Activity 10.2 – Memorable Introductions and Conclusions

Purpose: To give you the opportunity to learn more about effective introductions and conclusions through listening to and analyzing the speeches of others.

Instructions: For this activity, you are to locate examples of specific types of introductions and conclusions. Be creative in looking for your examples. You are invited to research movie speeches that can be found on video or excerpted on the Internet (for example, there are several memorable speeches in Braveheart, Animal House, Gettysburg, and A Few Good Men). You can also research historical speeches that can be found on videotape (often at local libraries) and on websites such as . You are also encouraged to use InfoTrac College Edition and browse the journal Vital Speeches of the Day for examples.

1. Identify an example of a speech which opens with a startling statement (give the source of the speech as well as the startling statement).

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_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Identify an example of a speech which opens with a rhetorical question (give the source of the speech as well as the rhetorical question).

_________________________________________________________________________________

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3. Identify an example of a speech that opens with a story (give the source of the speech as well as a brief description of the story).

_________________________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Identify an example of a speech that opens with a personal reference (give the source of the speech as well as the personal reference). Remember that the personal reference is a speaker’s reference to the audience, not to himself or herself.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Identify an example of a speech that opens or closes with a quotation. Give the source of the speech as well as the quotation.

_________________________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Identify an example of a speech that opens by using suspense. Give the source of the speech as well as a brief description of the speaker’s use of suspense.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 10.3 – Starting with a Quotation

Purpose: To identify quotations that could be used in the introduction to a speech.

Instructions: Locate a quotation you might use in your next speech. Resources for locating quotations include books of quotes available through the library, and Internet sites offering quotations from many speakers on a variety of subjects (go to: )

1. What tone would the quotation set for the speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Is the quotation humorous or serious?

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Is the person quoted credible as perceived by your audience?

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4. How does the quotation relate to your topic?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Consider sharing your quotation during an in-class discussion or online forum.

Name __________________________________

Activity 10.4 – Catching the Audience’s Attention

Purpose: To practice a variety of approaches to catching attention in the introduction.

Instructions: Using your text as a guide, review various approaches to catching your audience’s attention. Create a catchy introduction using any three of the following approaches described in chapter 10.

Ask a question:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Tell a story:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Recite a quotation or poem:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Give a demonstration:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Make a startling statement:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

State the importance of the topic:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Share your expertise:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

State what’s to come:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 10.5 – Creating Speech Conclusions

Purpose: The goal of this activity is to create choices for how you will conclude your speech.

Instructions: Complete the following:

1. For the introductions you developed in Activity 10.1, write three different conclusions (summary, answer your introductory question, refer back to the introduction, recite a quotation or poem) that review important points that you want the audience remember and leave the audience with vivid imagery or an emotional appeal.

a.

b.

c.

2. Which do you believe is the best? Why?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Write the conclusion in outline form.

Name __________________________________

Chapter 10 – Introductions and Conclusions

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. When the University of Pennsylvania commencement speaker opened his speech with these words, "My name is Bono and I am a rock star," which function of the introduction was he fulfilling?

a. catch the audience’s attention

b. reveal the topic

c. establish credibility

d. preview your speech

2. Which function of the introduction establishes the organization of your speech’s main points?

a. catch the audience’s attention

b. reveal the topic

c. establish credibility

d. preview your speech

3. Which function of the introduction contains an ethical dimension?

a. catch the audience’s attention

b. reveal the topic

c. establish credibility

d. preview your speech

4. Which function of the introduction discloses the subject of your speech?

a. catch the audience’s attention

b. reveal the topic

c. establish credibility

d. preview your speech

5. A main objective for a compelling conclusion of any speech is to

a. introduce key concepts.

b. move the audience to take action.

c. resolve any inconsistencies in the main points.

d. reinforce the thesis statement.

6. Which of the following isn't recommended in your text for preparing a compelling conclusion?

a. summarize your main points.

b. refer back to your introduction

c. recite a quotation

d. answer your introductory questions

e. state the sources used in your speech

True/False

T F 7. Singing a song is an appropriate way to open your speech and capture attention.

T F 8. Singing a song is an appropriate way to end your speech and create closure.

T F 9. The introduction is not a good time to be creative.

T F 10. Conclusions are the last thing in your speech and therefore need the least preparation.

T F 11. The conclusion is not a good time to be creative.

T F 12. The conclusion requires only that you summarize your main points.

T F 13. The conclusion of your speech is not an audience-centered activity.

T F 14. It is a good idea to keep your audience guessing as to the topic of your speech until the conclusion, when you should clearly reveal your topic.

T..F.. 15. Telling a story is an appropriate way to capture your audience's attention.

Essay

16. Write an introduction on the topic of arachnophobia (the fear of spiders) that includes all four of the functions of an effective introduction.

17. Prepare a conclusion for the introduction you have written above that includes the two functions of an effective conclusion.

18. List and explain the tips for an effective introduction.

19. List and explain the tips for an effective conclusion.

20. Devise three creative ways to capture your audience’s attention for an informative speech on the dangers of second-hand smoke .

21. Review a speech by Bono on You-tube and identify his attention-getting tactics.

Chapter Eleven: Language

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• use clear and accurate language in your speeches,

• use culturally inclusive and gender inclusive language,

• explain the differences between spoken and written language,

• describe at least three ways to use language to create memorable images,

• describe at least four ways to use language to create a pleasing rhythm.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Abstract language (247) Language that refers to ideas or concepts but not to specific objects.

Alliteration (258) The repetition of a particular sound in a sentence or a phrase.

Antithesis (258) The placement of words or phrases in contrast or opposition to one another.

Concrete language (247) Language that refers to a tangible object—a person, place, or thing.

Idiom (248) A fixed distinctive expression whose meaning is not indicated by its individual words.

Language (245) The system of verbal or gestural symbols a community uses to communicate with one another.

Metaphor (254) A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things by describing one thing as being something else.

Mixed metaphor (255) A metaphor that makes illogical comparisons between two or more things.

Mnemonic device (258) A rhyme, phrase, or other verbal device that makes information easier to remember.

Oral style (252) A speaking style that reflects the spoken rather than the written word.

Parallelism (257) The arrangement of related words so they are balanced or of related sentences so they have identical structures.

Personification (255) A figure of speech that attributes human characteristics to animals, objects, or concepts.

Referent (246) The object, concept, or event a symbol represents.

Repetition (257) Repeating keywords or phrases at the beginnings or endings of sentences or clauses to create rhythm.

Rhythm (257) The arrangement of words into patterns so the sounds of the words together enhance the meaning of the phrase.

Simile (254) A figure of speech that makes an explicit comparison of two things, using the words like or as.

Symbol (246) A word or phrase spoken by a speaker.

Thought, or reference (246) The memory and past experiences that audience members have with an object, concept, or event.

Name __________________________________

Activity 11.1 – The Power of Words

Purpose: To experience the power of language through a famous speech.

Instructions: Locate the speech made by Mary Fisher at the Republican National Convention. The speech is widely available and can be located at Gifts of Speech, . This speech may also be available on video or DVD; check with your instructor.

Carefully read the speech and highlight any notable or creative use of language and then respond to the following.

1. Does the speaker create any images through the use of simile or metaphor? Offer an example.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Does the speaker use parallelism? Offer an example.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Does the speaker use repetition? Offer an example.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Does the speaker use alliteration? Offer an example.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Does the speaker use antithesis? Offer an example.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. What other use of language do you find particularly moving?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Consider sharing your insights through a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________

Activity 11.2 – Developing Effective Language Strategies

Purpose: To apply the chapter’s information about effective language to the analysis of an actual speech.

Instructions: Locate the transcript of a sample speech that you find particularly effective in its wording and language. Particularly good samples are found at . One good example is George Graham Vest’s “Tribute to the Dog.” Once you have identified the speech you wish to work with, use it to complete the following worksheet.

1. How would you characterize the oral style of this speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Identify a word or phrase used in this speech which is particularly effective due to the connotations it evokes.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that is particularly effective due to its use of specific words.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that is particularly effective due to the use of concrete words and sensory language.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that is particularly effective due to the precision of the words used.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that uses a word you are not familiar with or which you think others in the audience might be unfamiliar with.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

7. In your opinion, was the use of this unfamiliar word justified? Why or why not?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

8. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that is particularly effective due to the use of a metaphor.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

9. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that is particularly effective due to the use of a simile.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

10. Locate a portion of this speech that is particularly effective due to its use of repetition.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

11. Locate an instance of a specific and active verb that contributes to the effectiveness of this speech.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

12. Locate an internal or a sectional transition in this speech which contributes to the effectiveness of the communication.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

13. In your opinion, what one or two language resources/effects best explains the impact of this speech’s wording?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 11.3 – Considering the Use of Sensitive Language

Purpose: To allow you to compare various reactions to sensitive language.

Instructions: Complete the following worksheet, then discuss your answers in groups of two to four students. As you compare responses to this worksheet, attempt to describe not only what you answered, but also why you responded as you did. (You may wish to review chapter eleven before completing this activity.)

For each of the following sample sentences, choose whether you would feel comfortable using these phrasings in a speech given to your class. If you would not use the sentence as worded, rewrite it in a form that you find more acceptable.

1. All men are created equal. Use/Not Use

2. This was a retarded decision that cost the company millions. Use/Not Use

3. Many schizos have real problems in communicating clearly Use/Not Use

with others.

4. When a teacher gives an assignment, he should also provide a Use/Not Use handout detailing the requirements.

5. The blonde and blue-eyed lawyer argued her side of the case Use/Not Use

with great intensity.

6. At garage sales and flea markets, the practice of “jewing down” Use/Not Use

the price of items is common.

7. When my friends and I go out to eat, we find that the easiest way Use/Not Use

to settle the bill is to simply go Dutch treat.

8. A student should be certain that they understand the total financial Use/Not Use

aid package before committing to any school.

9. The perky secretary is always in early, with coffee ready Use/Not Use

for all the staff.

10. If a businessman wants to succeed in this economy, he must Use/Not Use

have a college degree.

11. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is one of the only Negroes to be honored Use/Not Use

with a national holiday in America.

12. Last week’s newspaper reported that Orientals are over-represented Use/Not Use

in national advertising.

13. In order for a student to succeed at this college, he/she must study Use/Not Use

at least ten hours a week.

14. Supply a sentence or word or phrasing which you have heard someone else use which you found inappropriate or insensitive:

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

15. After discussing your responses with others in your class, what insights have you gained about sensitivity and language choices?

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

Consider sharing your answers and insights through a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________

Activity 11.4 – Using Language More Effectively

Purpose: To provide you with practical suggestions for using language more effectively.

Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read “Speak with Style and Watch the Impact” by Carl Wayne Hensley. (Hint: Use the author’s full name as your search term.)

1. How does Hensley characterize the speaking style of modern America?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Hensley’s first suggestion for improving the style of speeches is “Guard against language homicide.” What metaphors does Hensley use to develop this idea and to give a more listeners a more specific sense of his meaning?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. List and briefly describe what you see as the most useful advice Hensley provides as to how to avoid language homicide.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Hensley’s second suggestion for improving speaking style is “Choose correct words and correct grammar.” Review Hensley’s examples of commonly misused language. Which of these misuses do you struggle with?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 11.5 – Identifying Language Techniques

Purpose: To recognize the use of imagery and rhythm in popular music selections.

Instructions: Review liner notes of your favorite music for use of various language techniques described in the text. See how many of the following strategies you can locate.

simile:

metaphor:

personification:

parallelism:

repetition:

alliteration:

antithesis:

Use of these language strategies tends to make music more interesting to listen to and at times leads us to think in new ways about things we’ve encountered regularly.

• How might you incorporate these language strategies into your own speeches?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

• What impact might they have on your audience?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Consider sharing your favorite lyrics with others in class or through a discussion forum.

Name __________________________________

Activity 11.6 – Exploring Idioms

Purpose: To understand how we use idioms in our everyday communication.

Instructions: Review the list of idioms located below, and answer the questions that follow. For additional examples, go to .

at the eleventh hour

beat one’s brains out

burn the midnight oil

grab a bite

hit the books

on the cutting edge

rub someone the wrong way

wet behind the ears

You don’t say!

1. Circle any of the above listed idioms you have used.

2. Pick any six that you may use, and explain what they mean and when they might be used.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

3. Identify the meaning of any idiom above that you don’t know.

Consider creating a class list of idioms during class or through an online forum discussion.

Name __________________________________

Chapter 11 – Language

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. The statement by Astronaut Neil Armstrong, “That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind,” is an example of

a. simile.

b. metaphor.

c. repetition.

d. antithesis.

e. alliteration.

2. The statement by Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton, “If women are healthy and educated, their families will flourish. If women are free from violence, their families will flourish. If women have a chance to work, their families will flourish” is an example of

a. simile.

b. metaphor.

c. repetition.

d. antithesis.

e. alliteration.

3. The statement, “When it comes to midterms, it's kill or be killed. Let's go in and slay this test.,” is an example of

a. simile.

b. metaphor.

c. repetition.

d. antithesis.

e. alliteration.

4. The statement, “Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate,” is an example of

a. simile.

b. metaphor.

c. repetition.

d. antithesis.

e. alliteration.

5. The statement, by Vice President Spiro Agnew, “In the United States today, we have more than our share of the nattering nabobs of negativism.” is an example of

a. simile.

b. metaphor.

c. repetition.

d. antithesis.

e. alliteration.

6. The statement, “Fearless Fred fought ferociously,” is an example of

a. simile.

b. metaphor.

c. repetition.

d. antithesis.

e. alliteration.

7. The statement, “The process is like sandpaper on wood, and it never reverses itself,” is an example of

a. simile.

b. metaphor.

c. repetition.

d. antithesis.

e. alliteration.

8. The statement, “The tropical storm slept for two days,” is an example of

a. simile.

b. metaphor.

c. repetition.

d. antithesis.

e. personification.

9. The expression “war on drugs” is an example of

a. simile.

b. metaphor.

c. repetition.

d. antithesis.

e. personification.

10. The statement, “She’s as smart as a whip,” is an example of

a. a metaphor.

b. the passive voice.

c. a simile.

d. personification.

11. One of the key differences between an oral style and a written style is that the

a. oral message cannot be as easily reviewed and reprocessed.

b. oral style uses more figurative language.

c. written style is always more formal.

d. all of the above

True/False

T F 12. The phrase, “If you believe you are safe, you are in danger,” is an example of alliteration.

T F 13. Similes, metaphors and personification are ways of creating imagery in your speech.

T F 14. Parallelism, repetition, alliteration, and personification are examples of language that create a pleasing rhythm in the speech.

T F 15. Saying your favorite pop band played good is a correct and accurate use of the term good.

T F 16. Having a dictionary nearby when you read is a good way to increase your vocabulary.

T F 17. There isn’t much difference between the written and spoken word.

T F 18. Creative use of language is okay for politicians who have paid speech writers, but isn’t important for most speakers.

Essay

19. Explain how a person will know if their language is clear and accurate.

20. Give examples of language that is culturally appropriate, and explain why sensitivity to cultural differences in language use is important.

21. Explain why gender-inclusive language like flight attendant and fire fighter are more appropriate to use than gender-biased terms for these same professions.

22. Explain three ways in which spoken and written language differs.

23. Develop a metaphor or simile to vividly describe your a scary driving experience.

24. Using the word "insurgent," explain the Semantic Triangle of Meaning introduced on page 246 of your text.

25. Review a political campaign speech and identify four concrete and four abstract terms. Explain why the politician may have chosen these terms for this speech and audience.

Chapter Twelve: Delivering Your Speech

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• identify and describe four different methods of delivering a speech,

• list and demonstrate the verbal components of delivery,

• list and demonstrate the nonverbal components of delivery,

• identify effective strategies for rehearsing your speech,



Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Articulation (272) The physical process of producing specific speech sounds in order to make language intelligible.

Conversational style (264) A speaking style that is more formal than everyday conversation, but remains spontaneous and relaxed.

Delivery (263) The action and manner of speaking to an audience.

Dialect (273) The pattern of speech that is shared among ethnic groups or people from a specific geographic locations.

Extemporaneous speech (264) A speech that is carefully prepared and practiced from brief notes rather than from memory or a written manuscript.

Eye contact (276) Visual contact with another person’s eyes.

Facial Expression (277) The movement of your eyes, eyebrows, and mouth to convey reactions and emotions.

Gestures (278) Movements, usually of the hands but sometimes of the full body, that express meaning and emotion or offer clarity to a message.

Impromptu speech (265) A speech that is not planned or prepared in advance.

Inflection (270) Manipulation of pitch to create meanings or moods.

Manuscript speech (266) A speech that is read to an audience from a written text.

Memorized speech (267) A speech that has been written out committed to memory, and given word for word.

Monotone (270) A way of speaking in which a speaker does not alter her or his pitch.

Pauses (271) Hesitations and brief silences in speech or conversation.

Personal appearance (274) The way speakers dress, groom, and present themselves physically.

Pitch (270) The highness or lowness of a speaker’s voice on the musical scale.

Posture (277) The way speakers position and carry their bodies.

Pronunciation (273) The act of saying words correctly according the accepted standards of a language.

Proxemics (278) The use of space during communication.

Rate (270) The speed at which a speaker speaks.

Vocal variety (269) Changes in the volume, rate, and pitch of a speaker’s voice that affect the meaning of the words delivered.

Vocalized pauses (272) Pauses that speakers fill with words or sounds like “um,” “er,’ or “uh.”

Volume (269) The loudness of a speaker’s voice.

Name __________________________________

Activity 12.1 – Speech Rehearsal Form

Purpose: The goal of this exercise is to help you analyze the effectiveness of your rehearsals.

Instructions: Rehearse your speech and then complete the following worksheet. Remember that one (1) complete rehearsal includes a practice, an analysis, and a second practice.

First Practice

Find a place where you can be alone to practice your speech. Follow the first four points of the practice procedure listed on page 279.

Analysis

Replay the tape. Look at your outline again and answer the following questions:

Did the introduction get attention and lead into the speech? ______

Were the main points clearly stated? ______

Were the main points well developed? ______

Was the material adapted to the audience? ______

Were section transitions present? ______ Were the section transitions clear? ______

Did the conclusion summarize the main points? ______

Did you leave the speech on a high note? ______

Were the visual aids well used? ______

Were the ideas expressed:

clearly? ______

vividly? ______

emphatically? ______

appropriately? ______

Did you have good eye contact? ______

Did you sound enthusiastic? ______

Did you show vocal expressiveness? ______

Did you sound spontaneous? ______

Did you speak fluently? ______

List three specific changes you will make in your next practice session:

a.

b.

c.

Second Practice

Practice your speech again, incorporating the verbal and nonverbal changes you worked out above. Did you achieve your goals for the second practice? ______

Explain:

Name __________________________________

Activity 12.2 – Practicing with Vocal Variations

Purpose: To give you practice at experimenting with rate of speech and vocal expressiveness while delivering a speech.

Instructions: In groups of two or three, complete the following exercises. (You will need a stopwatch or a watch/clock with a sweep second hand for the timed exercises.)

1. Have each group member read a set of sentences, varying the emphasis according to the bold-faced words. After each sentence, group members should give feedback as to how they interpret the sentence.

Give me five dollars, please. What are you looking at? I just love this college.

Give me five dollars, please. What are you looking at? I just love this college.

Give me five dollars, please. What are you looking at? I just love this college.

Give me five dollars, please. What are you looking at? I just love this college.

Give me five dollars, please. What are you looking at? I just love this college.

2. Have each group member read the following passage three times: first, at the speaker’s normal rate of speed; second, as slowly as possible, while remaining “normal”; and third, as rapidly as possible, while remaining “normal.” Have another group member time the three readings. (This speech, delivered over one hundred years ago, uses male pronouns to refer to both genders. You are invited to revise the speech to make the language more inclusive. You are also encouraged to discuss the effects of this non-inclusive language if it were used today.)

The one absolutely unselfish friend that man can have in this selfish world, the one that never deserts him, the one that never proves ungrateful or treacherous, is his dog. A man’s dog stands by him in prosperity and poverty, in health and in sickness. He will sleep on the cold ground when the wintry winds blow and the snow drives fiercely, if only to be near his master’s side. He will kiss the hand that has no food to offer, he will lick the wounds and sores that come in encounters with the roughness of the world. He guards the sleep of his pauper master as if he were a prince. When all other friends desert, he remains. When riches take wing, and reputation falls to pieces, he is as constant in his love as the sun in its journey through the heavens. If fortune drives his master forth, an outcast in the world, friendless and homeless, the faithful dog asks no higher privilege than that of accompanying him, to guard him against danger, to fight against his enemies.

Senator George Graham Vest, speaking to a jury about Old Drum, a dog shot in 1869.

Johnson County Circuit Court, Warrensburg, Missouri.

3. This excerpt of Vest’s 19th century jury speech contains 180 words. For each group member, calculate the number of words spoken per minute.

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. What is the normal rate of speed for each group member?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. What is the range of speed for each group member?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. What has each group member learned about his or her personal rate of speech, as compared to normal speech rates?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

7. Note at least three different ways of providing emphasis in the reading of this tribute to dogs. How can vocal expression add to or alter the meaning of this speech?

a.

b.

c.

Name __________________________________

Activity 12.3 – Why Pi?

Purpose: To allow you to analyze the speech “Why Pi?” on paper as well as online.

Instructions: You may listen to the speech titled “Why Pi” at the CengageNOW website. Prepare to discuss your answers to the following questions:

Content

1. Was Katy’s goal clear? _______

2. Did she have high-quality information? _______

3. Did Katy use a variety of kinds of developmental material? _______

4. Did Katy effectively cite the sources of her material? _______

Organization

5. Did the introduction gain attention and lead into the speech? _______

6. Did the transitions lead smoothly from one point to another? _______

7. Did the conclusion tie the speech together? _______

Presentation

8. Did Katy sound enthusiastic? _______

9. Did she show sufficient vocal expressiveness? _______

10. Was her presentation spontaneous? _______

11. Was her presentation fluent? _______

12. What do you think of the rate of Katy’s speech? _______

13. Did Katy have good eye contact? _______

14. What emotion did Katy express through her facial expression? Was this appropriate? _______

15. What do you think of her use of gestures? _______

Overall

16. What is your overall impression of this speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 12.4 – Speech Rehearsal Log

Purpose: To document your rehearsal strengths and areas for improvement.

Instructions: Complete the following form. (Photocopy this rehearsal log as needed.)

Rehearsal #______

I rehearsed my speech on: _______________________ (Date) _________________ (Time)

The total time spent at this rehearsal was: _________________

Others present as peer respondents/evaluators were:

_________________________________________________________________________________

The strengths of the speech are:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The areas of the speech needing further revision and/or practice are:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Rehearsal #______

I rehearsed my speech on: _______________________ (Date) _________________ (Time)

The total time spent at this rehearsal was: _________________

Others present as peer respondents/evaluators were:

_________________________________________________________________________________

The strengths of the speech are:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The areas of the speech needing further revision and/or practice are:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Speech Evaluation Checklist

Although the general criteria for evaluating any speech are included here, emphasis for this first speech is placed on the primary criteria shown in boldface (speech goal, all terms of speech organization, and several items of speech presentation).

Check items that were accomplished effectively.

Content

______ 1. Was the goal of the speech clear?

______ 2. Did the speaker have high-quality information?

______ 3. Did the speaker use a variety of kinds of developmental material?

______ 4. Were visual aids appropriate and well used?

______ 5. Did the speaker establish common ground and adapt the content to the audience’s interests, knowledge, and attitudes?

Organization

______ 6. Did the introduction gain attention, gain good will for the speaker, and lead into the speech?

______ 7. Were the main points clear, parallel, and meaningful complete sentences?

______ 8. Did the transitions lead smoothly from one point to another?

______ 9. Did the conclusion tie the speech together?

Presentation

______ 10. Was the language clear?

______ 11. Was the language vivid?

______ 12. Was the language emphatic?

______ 13. Did the speaker sound enthusiastic?

______ 14. Did the speaker show sufficient vocal expressiveness?

______ 15. Was the presentation spontaneous?

______ 16. Was the presentation fluent?

______ 17. Did the speaker look at the audience?

______ 18. Were the pronunciation and articulation acceptable?

______ 19. Did the speaker have good posture?

______ 20. Was the speaker movement appropriate?

______ 21. Did the speaker have sufficient poise?

Based on these criteria, evaluate the speech as (check one):

______ excellent ______ good ______ satisfactory ______ fair ______ poor

Name __________________________________

Chapter 12 – Delivering your Speech

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. What type of speech is prepared and practiced in advance, although the actual performance and wordings may vary from occasion to occasion?

a. impromptu

b. extemporaneous

c. manuscript

d. memorized

2. As they walk into the meeting Jason is asked by his boss to update the work team on a project he is leading. What type of speech is Jason about to give if he has not planned or prepared in advance?

a. impromptu

b. extemporaneous

c. manuscript

d. memorized

3. Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State shares a prepared written statement about International Human Rights Day. What type of speech is she giving?

a. impromptu

b. extemporaneous

c. manuscript

d. memorized

4. What type of speech is given word for word with out the benefit of a script?

a. impromptu

b. extemporaneous

c. manuscript

d. memorized

5. The highness or lowness of a speaker’s voice are aspects of vocal

a. pitch.

b. volume.

c. articulation.

d. quality.

6. Xavier’s American audience was having a hard time understanding him. Xavier spoke English as a second language, his first language being Spanish. In addition to speaking louder, what else should Xavier adjust to quickly improve his audience’s understanding?

a. rate

b. pitch and inflection

c. pauses

d. articulation

e. pronunciation

7. The act of saying words correctly according to accepted standards of a language is known as?

a. rate

b. pitch and inflection

c. pauses

d. articulation

e. pronunciation

8. This gives an audience time to absorb and process information and is often used to reinforce a word or point.

a. rate

b. pitch and inflection

c. pauses

d. articulation

e. pronunciation

9. Ramon tends to speak quickly and run words together, mumble and slur. Which component of verbal delivery must Ramon improve?

a. rate

b. pitch and inflection

c. pauses

d. articulation

e. pronunciation

10. Bernice's delivery is dry, slow and monotone. What component of verbal delivery must she improve?

a. rate

b. pitch and inflection

c. pauses

d. articulation

e. pronunciation

11. Which of the following is NOT a component of nonverbal delivery?

a. appearance

b. eye contact

c. dialect

d. facial expression

e. proxemics

True/False

T F 12. Proxemics refers to how effectively the speaker uses time in the managing of their speech and question-and-answer session.

T F 13. The text recommends practicing your speech many times in order to sound natural and feel comfortable.

T..F.. 14 American audiences believe speakers who make little eye contact are insincere, dishonest and uncomfortable.

T F 15. Making eye contact with your audience for more than half your speech is likely to increase perceptions of credibility and trustworthiness.

T F 16. A person could be perceived as confident based solely on their posture.

Essay

17. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of at least three of the four delivery methods.

18. Explain the four different methods for delivering a speech and describe how your preparation for each would differ.

19. Heidi is struggling with her verbal delivery. What might some of her challenges be and how could she make improvements?

20. Identify what you think is the most important element of nonverbal delivery and provide support for your claim.

21. Explain what personal appearance means, how to decide how formal or informal to dress, and the impact that decisions about appearance have on speaker credibility.

Chapter Thirteen: Visual Aids

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• discuss the importance of using visual aids,

• identify and describe the different types of visual aids,

• determine what to show on a visual aid,

• format visual aids effectively,

• identify the five guidelines for using visual aids.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Balance (305) The relationship of the items on a visual aid to one another.

Bar graph (296) A graph that compares quantities at a specific moment in time.

Demonstration (288) A display of how something is done or how it works.

Drawing (298) A diagram or sketch of someone or something.

Flow chart (295) A chart that illustrates direction or motion.

Font (302) A type or style of print.

Font size (302) The size of letters in a particular text.

Graph (296) A visual comparison of amounts or quantities that shows growth, size, proportions, or relationships.

Line graph (296) A graph that shows trends over time.

List (294) A series of words or phrases that organize ideas one after the other.

Map (299) A visual representation of geographic features, urban areas, roads, stars and planets, and the like.

Model (288) A copy of an object, usually built to scale, that represents an object in detail.

Object (288) Something that can be seen or touched.

Organizational chart (295) A chart that illustrates the makeup of a group.

Picture graph (296) A graph that presents information in pictures or images.

Pie graph (296) A graph that shows the relative propotions of parts to a whole.

Name __________________________________

Activity 13.1 – Choosing and Preparing Visual Aids

Purpose: The goal of this activity is to identify information whose visual presentation would increase audience interest, understanding, and retention.

Instructions: Complete the following:

1. Identify ideas from your next speech you believe should be depicted with visual aids in order to create audience interest, facilitate understanding, or increase retention.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

1. What type(s) of visual aid will be most appropriate to develop for each of the ideas you identified above?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. What method will you use to display each visual aid?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 13.2 – Professionalizing Your Visual Aids

Purpose: To give you practical suggestions for the effective use of visual aids.

Instructions: It is often helpful to learn “insiders’ tips” on subjects from experts. Presentations magazine has sponsored an online website which features strategies and techniques employed by some of the most successful public speakers in America. Visit the website and read the online article “Add Pizzazz to Presentations” by Marjorie Brody. Complete the following worksheet.

1. While ‘low tech’ visual aids may be common in the classroom, why does Brody argue for using multimedia for visual aids in a professional speaking environment?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Brody recommends several tips for using overhead transparencies. List three of the tips:

a.

b.

c.

3. Brody also argues that using a limited number of slides, while somewhat expensive, is best for formal presentations. List three tips Brody gives:

a.

b.

c.

4. For longer formal presentations, Brody recommends the use of videotapes and film as visual aids in a professional speaking environment. List three tips given by Brody:

a.

b.

c.

5. According to Brody, how can computers be used to enhance professional presentations?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. What considerations does Brody suggest when using computers to enhance your visual aids?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

7. List three other tips Brody provides for using computers and visual aids:

a.

b.

c.

Name __________________________________

Activity 13.3 – Developing Good Visual Aid Habits

Purpose: To apply the knowledge discussed in chapter about the effective use of visual aids.

Instructions: Prepare a one-page handout or PowerPoint slide on “Mistakes to Avoid when Using Visual Aids.” The audience for this handout is your speech class. Your handout should emphasize your main points, organize your information so that it is visually pleasing, and reflect knowledge of the concepts discussed in this chapter.

It is suggested that you review the chapter first to select what you feel is the most important and relevant material. Then, use the section of the chapter entitled “Formats for Visual Aids” to plan and revise the specific details of your handout.

Name __________________________________

Activity 13.4 – Using Color with Your Visual Aids

Purpose: To learn more about the ways in which presenters can use color to increase the impact of their message.

Instructions: Locate, using InfoTrac, and read the article “Envisioning Persuasion: Painting the Picture for the Jury” by Rodney Jew and Martin Q. Peterson. (Hint: Use “visual communication technique” as your search term.)

1. List at least three statistics or facts presented in this article that argue for the use of visual images and color.

a.

b.

c.

2. In less than two sentences, summarize the advice that this article gives about the use of visual images in the “Select” and “Compare” phases of the message.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. List and briefly describe the three “guideposts” for using visuals that are offered by this article.

a.

b.

c.

4. What suggestions does this article offer for using the speaker as a visual aid?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. This article discusses color symbolism and preferences at length. Identify information that you found surprising or interesting.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Write a two-to-three sentence action plan for applying material from this article to your next speech.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 13.5 – Thinking Critically about PowerPoint

Purpose: To understand the limitations of using PowerPoint.

Instructions: Use InfoTrac College Edition to locate the article, “Five tips for misusing PowerPoint,” by Barry R. Weissman, Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, May 2005 v39 i5 p52(2). Read the article and respond to the following questions:

1. What does Weissman say are the misuses of PowerPoint?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. How has PowerPoint become a distraction to the audience for speeches you’ve seen?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. How could a speaker overcome those limitations?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. What are some alternatives to using PowerPoint too much?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Visual Aid Assessment Checklist

| |Excellent |Good |Competent |Needs Improvement |

|Type of visual is well-suited to information and | | | | |

|audience | | | | |

|All information is clearly labeled | | | | |

|Size of type face is appropriate | | | | |

|Appearance of type face is visually pleasing | | | | |

|Visual presents an appropriate amount of information| | | | |

|and is not cluttered with details | | | | |

|Information is presented in a way that is easily and| | | | |

|quickly grasped | | | | |

|Layout of information uses white space effectively | | | | |

|Layout of information uses special font qualities | | | | |

|effectively (boldface, underlining, etc.) | | | | |

|Color, if used, enhances the impact of the visual | | | | |

|General impression of the visual | | | | |

Name __________________________________

Chapter 13 – Visual Aids

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. Bob is planning a speech to inform his audience about polyatomic ions. What is the best reason to use visual aids in this instance?

a. help gain and maintain audience attention

b. help audiences recall information

c. help explain and clarify information

d. increase persuasiveness

e. reduces nervousness

2. Barb decides to show three short videos showing various popular rock bands. In this instance, the speaker is using visuals aids primarily to

a. help gain and maintain audience attention.

b. enhance credibility.

c. help explain and clarify information.

d. increase persuasiveness.

e. reduces nervousness.

3. Mickey is a baseball player and quite anxious about giving his first speech. He decides to explain the mechanics of hitting a baseball successfully. In this instance the speaker is using visuals aids primarily to

a. help gain and maintain audience attention.

b. help audiences recall information.

c. help explain and clarify information.

d. increase persuasiveness.

e. reduces nervousness.

4. Finn decides to use a number of graphs and charts to prove how much better Pete Rose’s statistics are than many members of the Major League Baseball’s Hall of Fame. In this instance, the speaker is using visuals aids primarily to

a. help gain and maintain audience attention.

b. help audiences recall information.

c. help explain and clarify information.

d. increase persuasiveness.

e. reduces nervousness.

5. Mark wants to help his audience understand the unique look and extraordinary firepower of the A-10 “Warthog.” Which one of the following visual aid types should he use?

a. object

b. model

c. demonstration

d. chalkboard

e. handouts

6. Justin decides to inform his audience about the equipment needed for snowboarding. Which one of the following visual aid types should he use?

a. object

b. model

c. demonstration

d. chalkboard

e. handouts

7. Sallie hopes to inform her classmates on how to do a popular line dance. Which one of the following visual aid types should she use?

a. object

b. model

c. demonstration

d. chalkboard

e. handouts

8. This type of graph compares quantities at a specific moment in time.

a. bar graph

b. line graph

c. pie graph

d. picture graph

9. This type of graph shows trends over time.

a. bar graph

b. line graph

c. pie graph

d. picture graph

10. This type of graph shows the relative proportion of parts to the whole.

a. bar graph

b. line graph

c. pie graph

d. picture graph

11. This type of graph shows information in pictures or images.

a. bar graph

b. line graph

c. pie graph

d. picture graph

12. Molly worked for hours creating her PowerPoint slides for her invitational speech on recycling. She did her best to use the visuals during her speech, but somehow her slides became out of sync in the middle of her speech. She ended her speech, but still had one slide left to show. Molly’s difficulty stems from which one of the following guidelines for effective visual aid use?

a. prepare in advance

b. practice in advance

c. use visuals only when you are discussing them

d. talk to the audience, not the visual

13. Mia worked hard to prepare materials for her informative speech on the art of Pablo Picasso. At the beginning of her speech, she gave each audience member a handout, which included a variety of pictures, front and back, by the famous artist. Which guideline for effective visual aid use has she neglected?

a. prepare in advance

b. practice in advance

c. use visuals only when you are discussing them

d. talk to the audience, not the visual

14. José has carefully prepared slides summarizing the quarterly production statistics for his department. He feels they are clear and attractive. He uses the graphs projected on the screen behind him as a trigger for his comments and discusses each slide carefully. He splits his attention between his audience and his slides. Which guideline for effective visual aid use has he neglected?

a. prepare in advance

b. practice in advance

c. use visuals only when you are discussing them

d. talk to the audience, not the visual

15. Patricia has developed her PowerPoint slide to include everything she wants to say. This way she believes she won't forget any portion of her speech. She has 6 slides each consisting of a long paragraph of information. What has Patricia done wrong?

a. She failed to check her equipment in advance.

b. She did not understand the purpose of a visual aid.

c. She didn't explain each visual aid.

d. The visual aids should have incorporated humor.

e. She needs to speak to the audience, not to the visual aid.

True/False

T F 16. Charts help an audience understand the relationship among steps or parts compared to the whole.

T F 17. Line graphs compare quantities at a specific moment in time.

T F 18. Drawings should be complex and realistic or not be used.

T F 19. Cool colors are calm and relaxing and should always be used for text or graphics in visual aids.

T F 20. Hot colors grab an audience’s attention and should be used sparingly when presenting your visual aids.

T F 21. It is acceptable to pass out a photographs if you have only one.

T F 22. When using a map the speaker shouldn't worry if it is drawn to scale.

Essay

23. Explain the reasons it might be a good idea to include visual aids in a speech to inform.

24. Identify any additional reasons that make visual aids helpful for a persuasive speech.

25. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of computer-projected technology over more traditional, low technology forms of visuals aids.

26. Renaldo is giving a speech about Costa Rica. Suggest three visual aids he should use for this informative speech and include suggestions as to why these are necessary for his speech.

Chapter Fourteen: Informative Speaking

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• describe the five types of informative speeches,

• apply the four most common patterns of organization for informative speeches,

• identify three tips for giving effective informative speeches,

• identify three principles for giving ethical informative speeches.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Informative speaking environment (313) An environment in which a speaker has expertise or knowledge that an audience needs but doesn’t already have.

Informative speech (313) A speech that communicates knowledge and understanding about a process, an event, a person or place, an object, or a concept.

Speech about a concept (319) An informative speech about an abstraction, such as an idea, a theory, a principle, a worldview, or a belief.

Speech about a place or a person (317) An informative speech that describes a significant, interesting, or unusual place or person.

Speech about a process (314) An informative speech that describes how something is done, how something comes to be, or how something works.

Speech about an event (315) An informative speech that describes or explains a significant, interesting, or unusual occurance.

Speech about an object (318) An informative speech about anything that is tangible, that can be perceived by the senses.

Name __________________________________

Activity 14.1 – Developing a Specific Purpose and Thesis Statement

Purpose: To assist you in creating and evaluating your specific purpose statement.

Instructions: Following the guidelines offered in the text on pages 85-87 to develop a clear specific speaking purpose for a speech assignment to inform in your class.

General Purpose: ___________________________________________________________

Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Thesis Statement: ______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Reminders:

General purposes typically include:

• To inform: describe, clarify, explain, define

• To invite: explore, interact, exchange

• To persuade: change, shape, influence, motivate

• To introduce: acquaint, present, familiarize

• To commemorate: praise, honor, pay tribute

• To accept: receive an award, express gratitude

Specific purposes should:

• State your specific speaking purpose clearly

• Keep the audience in the forefront of your mind

• Use definitive, complete sentences (no questions)

Thesis statements should:

• State the exact content of your speech in a single declarative sentence

Name __________________________________

Activity 14.2 – Analyzing an Informative Speech

Purpose: To allow you to analyze the speech “Tap” by Rachel Rata.

Instructions: You may listen to the speech titled “Tap” by Rachel Rata at the CengageNOW, or read the text of the speech in the textbook on pages 329-331. Discuss your answers to the following questions:

Primary Criteria

1. Was Rachel’s specific goal designed to increase audience information? _______

2. Was Rachel effective in establishing her credibility of this topic? _______

3. Was Rachel’s information intellectually stimulating? _______

4. Did Rachel show creativity in idea development? _______

5. Did Rachel show the relevance of her information? _______

6. Was Rachel’s organizational pattern appropriate for the intent and content of the speech? _______

General Criteria

7. Was Rachel’s introduction effective? _______

8. Were Rachel’s main points clear? _______

9. Was Rachel’s conclusion effective? _______

10. Was Rachel’s language clear, vivid, emphatic, and appropriate? _______

11. Was Rachel’s speech delivered enthusiastically, with vocal expressiveness, fluently, spontaneously, and directly? _______

Overall

12. What is your overall impression of this speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 14.3 – Impromptu Organization

Purpose: To gain familiarity and practice with organizational patterns appropriate for a speech to inform.

Instructions: Review the discussion on organization in your text on pages 320-324. Together with two or three other students prepare a speaker’s outline for an informative speech on one of the topics below. Pay particular attention to how you organize the ideas.

world peace

backpacks

ice cream

socialized medicine

crystal meth

arachnophobia

cell phones

racism

Mexico

making beer

disasters

water purification

Introduction:

Body:

Conclusion:

Name __________________________________

Activity 14.4 – Identifying Organizational Patterns

Purpose: To identify and assess the effectiveness of organizational patterns.

Instructions: Use InfoTrac College Edition to locate and read the article, “I Phone, you phone, we all phone for iPhone," located at The Online Reporter, August 11, 2007 v0 i552 p6(2), about the Apple iPhone. Answer the following questions:

1. How is the article organized?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Does it use one of the organizational patterns you’ve explored in this chapter? Explain.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. How effective is the organization of the article? Why?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Did the article follow the guidelines suggested in this chapter for giving speeches about concepts? How?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. If the purpose of the article was to persuade, how might the organization change?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 14.5 – Identifying Organizational Patterns

Purpose: To consider the power of narrative in supporting and organizing informative speeches.

Instructions: Use InfoTrac to locate and read the article by Vincent Muli Wakituku entitled “Weaving in Stories Makes a Presentation Memorable” in Presentations, Sept 2001 v15 i9 p74. Answer the following questions:

1. What impact does the Dr. Wakituku’s parable about the mother and son have?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Summarize a parable or personal short story from your own experience that you might use to help an audience better understand some concept or issue. Provide as much detail as possible.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Where might you look for parables or personal short stories if you didn’t know any yourself?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Impromptu Critique Sheet

Three minutes to prepare a two-minute speech.

Name _______________________________________ Time ____________ Points ____________

Key: + = Excellent; ( = Satisfactory; – = Needs improvement; 0 = Failed to complete

Introduction

Captured attention and interest/related to the audience _______

Introduced the topic _______

Established credibility _______

Previewed main points _______

Body

Main points clear _______

Connectives _______

Main points balanced _______

Reasoning sound _______

Conclusion

Signaled the finish _______

Summarized main points _______

Closed decisively _______

Delivery

Eye contact _______

Volume _______

Avoided distracting mannerisms _______

Additional comments:

Name __________________________________

Speech Evaluation Checklist

Content

______ 1. Was the goal of the speech clear?

______ 2. Did the speaker have high-quality information?

______ 3. Did the speaker use a variety of kinds of developmental material?

______ 4. Were visual aids appropriate and well used?

______ 5. Did the speaker establish common ground and adapt the content to the audience’s interests, knowledge, and attitudes?

Organization

______ 6. Did the introduction gain attention and goodwill, set the tone, build credibility, and lead into the speech?

______ 7. Were the main points complete sentences that were clear, parallel, and meaningful?

______ 8. Did transitions lead smoothly from one point to another?

______ 9. Did the conclusion tie the speech together?

Language

______ 10. Was the language clear?

______ 11. Was the language vivid?

______ 12. Was the language emphatic?

______ 13. Was the language appropriate?

Delivery

_____ 14. Did the speaker sound enthusiastic?

_____ 15. Did the speaker show sufficient vocal expressiveness?

_____ 16. Was the presentation spontaneous?

_____ 17. Was the presentation fluent?

_____ 18. Did the speaker look at the audience?

_____ 19. Were the pronunciation and articulation acceptable?

_____ 20. Did the speaker have good posture?

_____ 21. Did the speaker have sufficient poise?

Based on these criteria, evaluate the speech as (check one):

______ excellent ______ good ______ satisfactory ______ fair ______ poor

Name __________________________________

Evaluation Form for Informative Speech

|Task |Excellent |Good |Competent |Must improve |

|Introduction: Relates topic to audience needs and interests | | | | |

|Alerts audience to central idea or purpose | | | | |

|Provides clear preview or road map | | | | |

|Body: Presents new information or new insights | | | | |

|Provides helpful definitions to help audience understand topic| | | | |

|Provides sufficient supporting evidence (facts, examples, and | | | | |

|expert testimony) to help audience understand topic | | | | |

|Information is logically organized and easy-to-follow | | | | |

|Transitions and signposts are used | | | | |

|Conclusion: Reviews the main points | | | | |

|Memorably relates topic to audience needs and interests | | | | |

|Delivery: Uses standard language and avoids vocal | | | | |

|interferences | | | | |

|Uses gestures purposefully to emphasize main points | | | | |

|Eye contact and facial gestures relate to audience with | | | | |

|confidence | | | | |

|Volume and pace of speech suit audience needs | | | | |

Name __________________________________

Chapter 14 – Informative Speaking

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. A speech explaining the steps to applying for a loan is a speech about

a. process.

b. events.

c. places and people.

d. objects.

e. concepts.

2. A speech that helps an audience understand what happened, why it happened and what effect it had is a speech about

a. process.

b. events.

c. places and people.

d. objects.

e. concepts.

3. A speech about anything tangible, typically organized topically, is a speech about

a. process.

b. events.

c. places and people.

d. objects.

e. concepts.

4. A speech about abstractions, such as ideas, theories, principles, worldviews or beliefs, is a speech about

a. process.

b. events.

c. places and people.

d. objects.

e. concepts.

5. A speech about the discovery of penicillin is a speech about

a. process.

b. events.

c. places and people.

d. objects.

e. concepts.

6. A speech explaining the features of a hybrid vehicle is a speech about

a. process.

b. events.

c. places and people.

d. objects.

e. concepts.

7. A speech about the adult literacy challenges in the local community is a speech about

a. process.

b. events.

c. places and people.

d. objects.

e. concepts.

8. Which of the organizational patterns would be best for a speech on the historic use of drugs in professional sports.?

a. chronological organization

b. spatial organization

c. causal organization

d. topical organization

9. Which of the organizational patterns would be appropriate for a speech about the cleaning, grooming and feeding of a pet snake?

a. chronological organization

b. spatial organization

c. causal organization

d. topical organization

10. A speaker’s main points are:

I. Cigarette smoke releases toxic substances into the air

II. Toxic substances from cigarettes are linked to several chronic health problems.

This speech makes use of which organizational pattern?

a. chronological organization

b. spatial organization

c. causal organization

d. topical organization

11. A speaker’s main points are:

I. Fashion in the 60s was elegant

I. Fashion in the 70s was ugly

II. Fashion in the 80s was boring

This speech makes use of which organizational pattern?

a. chronological organization

b. spatial organization

c. causal organization

d. topical organization

True/False

T F 12. How to adopt a pet is a speech about an object.

T F 13. Informative speakers tend to present examples, statistics and testimony in a fairly neutral fashion.

T F 14. Informative speeches should not overload the audience with information, nor should they be too simplistic.

T F 15. Spatial organization tends to present pieces of information by the positions they represent in physical space.

T F 16. In an informative speech about a process, you would likely use the causal pattern of organization.

T F 17. The chronological organizational pattern can be used in an informative speech whose topics can be easily and logically divided into subtopics.

Essay

18. Brittany wants to talk about the McDonalds corporation. Identify five different informative speeches that she could give based on the five types discussed in this chapter.

19. Identify a topic that should be organized chronologically. Explain how you would structure the main points for that speech.

20. Explain the three principles for giving an ethical informative speech.

21. List and explain the three tips for giving an effective informative speech.

22. Explain when, how and why a person would use causal organization.

23. Explain when, how and why a person would use topical organization.

Chapter Fifteen: Invitational Speaking

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• identify the three conditions for an invitational speaking environment,

• describe the two types of invitational speeches,

• apply the four most common patterns of organization for invitational speeches,

• identify three tips for giving effective invitational speeches,

• identify two principles for giving ethical invitational speeches.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Condition of equality (338) The condition of an invitational speech that requires the speaker to see audience members as holding equally valid perspectives and positions that are worthy of exploration.

Condition of self-determination (339) The condition of an invitational speech that requires the speaker to recognize that people know what is best for them and have the right to make choices about their lives based on this knowledge.

Condition of value (339) The condition of an invitational speech that requires the speaker to recognize that the members of the audience, although their views might differ from the speaker’s, have inherent value.

Invitational environment (337) The environment in which understanding, respecting, and appreciating the range of positions possible on an issue, even if those positions are quite different from the speaker’s own, are the highest priority.

Invitational speaking (336) Entering into a dialogue with an audience in order to clarify positions, explore issues and ideas, or articulate beliefs and values.

Multiple perspectives pattern (348) An organizational pattern that allows the speaker to address the many sides and positions of an issue.

Speech to articulate a position (339) An invitational speech for which a speaker invites an audience to see the world as she or he does and to understand issue from her or his perspective.

Speech to explore an issue (342) An invitational speech for which the speaker attempts to engage an audience in a discussion about an idea, concern, topic, or plan of action.

Name __________________________________

Activity 15.1 – Developing a Specific Purpose and Thesis Statement

Purpose: To assist you in creating and evaluating your specific purpose statement.

Instructions: Following the guidelines offered in the text on pages 85-87 to develop a clear specific speaking purpose for a speech assignment to inform in your class.

General Purpose: ________________________________________

Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Thesis Statement: ______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Reminders:

General purposes typically include:

• To inform: describe, clarify, explain, define

• To invite: explore, interact, exchange

• To persuade: change, shape, influence, motivate

• To introduce: acquaint, present, familiarize

• To commemorate: praise, honor, pay tribute

• To accept: receive an award, express gratitude

Specific purposes should:

• State your specific speaking purpose clearly

• Keep the audience in the forefront of your mind

• Use definitive, complete sentences (no questions)

Thesis statements should:

• State the exact content of your speech in a single declarative sentence

Name __________________________________

Activity 15.2 – Understanding Invitational Speech

Purpose: To increase familiarity with the invitational style of speech.

Instructions: Use InfoTrac to look up Judy Olian’s speech “The Past and Prologue,” Vital Speeches of the Day (April 15, 2001), p. 398.

1. How does the speaker use invitational language?

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2. Does she articulate effectively that she is offering only one possible perspective on the topic discussed? Explain.

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3. What advice might you give this speaker concerning invitational language?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 15.3 – Articulating a Position

Purpose: To understand a speech to articulate a position.

Instructions: Use InfoTrac to locate Benjamin Olaakande’s article, “My Perspective on the ‘F’ Word,” Vital Speeches of the Day (March 1, 2001), p. 311. The speaker addresses failure and offers his perspective for dealing with it.

1. How does Olaakande encourage discussion with the audience?

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2. Specifically, what phrases or expressions could be deemed invitational?

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3. What examples does he offer to help articulate his position?

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4. Was the speech effective as an invitational speech? Why or why not?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 15.4 – Analyzing an Invitational Speech

Purpose: To critically review the effectiveness of a speaker’s invitational efforts.

Instructions: Watch or read Amanda Bucknam’s speech entitled “Funding for HIV/AIDS in Africa and the United States.” The speech is available on the Interactive Student and Professional Speech Videos Website and is located on pages 355-358 of Invitation to Public Speaking. Answer the following questions:

What does Amanda do to address the condition of equality required of an invitational speech?

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What does Amanda do to address the condition of value required of an invitational speech?

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3. What does Amanda do to address the condition of self-determinism required of an invitational speech?

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Which type of invitational speech is best represented by Amanda speech? (Refer to pages 339-342.)

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5. What organizational pattern does it appear Amanda follows in her speech? (Refer to pages 344-349.)

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Does Amanda follow the tips for invitational speaking? Explain. (Refer to pages 351-353.)

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Name __________________________________

Activity 15.5 – Building a Supportive Climate

Purpose: To assess a communication climate.

Instructions: Go to to assess the type of climate you share with your current or a past supervisor at work. Read the commentary below the survey and score your answers accordingly. Respond to the questions below.

1. Were you surprised by how you rated? Why or why not?

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2. What might you do to improve the climate in the future?

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3. How is climate, as described in the supporting materials for this instrument, related to the invitational speaking that you are learning about in this class?

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Name __________________________________

Critique Sheet: Invitational Speech

Name _______________________________________ Time ____________ Points ____________

Key: + = Excellent; ( = Satisfactory; – = Needs improvement; 0 = Failed to complete

Introduction Time: __________

Captured attention/interest _____

Introduced the topic _____

Established credibility _____

Previewed main points _____

Body

Main points clear _____

Main points explained clearly _____

Connectives _____

Source citation _____

Audience centered _____

Use of invitational language _____

Clarity of PowerPoint _____

Management of PowerPoint _____

Dialogue With Audience Time: __________

Condition of equality _____

Condition of value _____

Condition of self-determination _____

Listening and response _____

Summary/Conclusion Time: __________

Signaled the speech is ending _____

Summarized main points _____

Final conclusions _____

Closed decisively _____

Delivery

Volume ______

Eye contact _____

Avoided distracting mannerisms _____

Articulation _____

Rate _____

Extemporaneous/conversational style _____

Enthusiasm _____

Outline

Complete sentence form _____

Logical subordination _____

Grammar _____

Works cited _____

Name __________________________________

Chapter 15 – Invitational Speaking

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. What type of invitational speech is exemplified in the following?

“Although many people fear guns, two hunting experiences in my childhood taught me to use guns responsibly and ethically, and I believe the lessons I learned have been invaluable in my life.”

a. an invitational speech about a concept

b. an invitational speech to explore an issue

c. an invitational speech to explore ideas

d. an invitational speech to articulate a position

2. What type of invitational speech is exemplified in the following?

“I’d like to describe for my audience the controversy over three theories of how the universe was created…and then explore which theory should be taught in schools.”

a. an invitational speech about a concept

b. an invitational speech to explore an issue

c. an invitational speech to explore ideas

d. an invitational speech to articulate a position

3. Which organizational pattern is suggested by the following thesis statement?

“Trying to understand the response to the many hate crimes that have been committed in New York, Chicago and Los Angeles might help my own community heal from our tragedy.”

a. chronological organizational pattern

b. spatial organizational pattern

c. topical organizational pattern

d. multiple perspective organizational pattern

4. Which organizational pattern is exemplified by the following thesis statement?

“Perhaps some of the many theories throughout time and across cultures that explain how the universe was created—particularly creationism, the big bang theory, ancient Egyptian and African theories, and Native American theories—could be taught in our public schools.”

a. chronological organizational pattern

b. spatial organizational pattern

c. topical organizational pattern

d. multiple perspective organizational pattern

5. Which of the following are the tips offered regarding invitational speaking?

a. know your position, use invitational language, allow time for discussion

b. self-determination, equality, value

c. avoid criticizing the audience, allow time for discussion, stick to your plan

d. know your audience’s position, use invitational language, leave time for discussion

6. Jasmine gave a well practiced invitational speech but failed to offer her audience a chance to identify their perspectives. Which condition of invitational speaking did she violate?

a. The condition of equality

b. the condition of value

c. the condition of self-determination

d. all conditions were satisfied

7. Rachel afforded her audience a chance to share their perspectives but when they did she seemed to respond to each suggestion like an objection to be refuted. Which condition of invitational speaking did she violate?

a. The condition of equality

b. the condition of value

c. the condition of self-determination

d. all conditions were satisfied

8. Dustin closed his invitational speech with a call to action asking his audience members to sign a petition calling for a repeal of the conceal carry law. Which condition of invitational speaking did he violate?

a. The condition of equality

b. the condition of value

c. the condition of self-determination

d. all conditions were satisfied

True/False

T F 9. The condition of value requires the speaker to recognize that the audience members’ views have inherent value.

T F 10. The condition of equality presumes that audience members have equally valuable perspectives worthy of exploration.

T F 11. The condition of self-determination recognizes that audience members know what is best for themselves and others.

T F 12. Chronological organizational patterns are not useful for invitational speaking.

T F 13. Invitational language includes statements such as, “you should,” “the only correct position is,” and “anyone can see.”

T F 14. A primary ethical responsibility for invitational speakers is to stay true to their purpose.

T F 15. Invitational speakers must be willing to change their own views.

T F 16. The best way to organize an invitational speech to articulate a position is the multiple-perspectives pattern.

T F 17. Using invitational language can help manage or reduce the hostility of audience members.

T F 18. When exploring an issue, the speaker doesn’t really need to prepare very much about their chosen topic.

Essay

19. Explain the conditions of equality, value, and self-determination for an invitational speech.

20. Distinguish an invitational speech to articulate a position from a speech to explore an issue.

21. Give an example of how you could use the multiple-perspectives organizational pattern for a speech exploring the issue of stem cell research.

22. List and discuss the three tips for giving an effective invitational speech.

23. Explain why ethical listening skills are a part of the invitational speech.

Chapter Sixteen: Persuasive Speaking

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• describe the three types of persuasive speeches,

• apply the most common patterns of organization for persuasive speeches,

• identify three tips for effective persuasive speeches,

• identify the principles for giving ethical persuasive speeches.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Call to action (368) To request that an audience engage in some clearly stated behavior.

Comparative advantages organization (372) The organizational pattern that illustrates the advantages of one solution over others.

Counterarguments (375) Arguments against the speaker’s own position.

Fear appeal (376) The threat of something undesirable happening if change does not occur.

Gain immediate action (368) To motivate an audience to engage in a specific behavior or take a specific action.

Gain passive agreement (368) To ask an audience to adopt a new position without asking them to act in support of that position.

Monroe’s motivated sequence (372) A sequential process used to persuade audiences by gaining attention, demonstrating a need, satisfying that need, visualizing the beneficial results, and calling for action.

Persuasive speech (361) A speech whose message attempts to change or reinforce an audience’s thoughts, feelings, or actions.

Problem-cause-solution organization (370) The organizational pattern that focuses on identifying a specific problem, the causes of that problem, and a solution for the problem.

Problem-solution organization (369) The organizational pattern that focuses on persuading an audience that a specific problem exists and can be solved or minimized by a specific solution.

Question of fact (362) A question that addresses whether something is true or not.

Question of policy (363) A question that addresses the best course of action or the best solution to a problem.

Question of value (362) A question that addresses the merit or morality of an object, action or belief.

Two-sided message (375) A persuasive strategy that addresses both sides of an issue, refuting one side to prove the other is better.

Name __________________________________

Activity 16.1 – Developing a Specific Purpose and Thesis Statement

Purpose: To assist you in creating and evaluating your specific purpose statement.

Instructions: Following the guidelines offered in the text on pages 85-87 to develop a clear specific speaking purpose for a persuasive speech assignment in your class.

General Purpose: _______________________________________

Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

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Thesis Statement: ______________________________________________________________________

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Reminders:

General purposes typically include:

• To inform: describe, clarify, explain, define

• To invite: explore, interact, exchange

• To persuade: change, shape, influence, motivate

• To introduce: acquaint, present, familiarize

• To commemorate: praise, honor, pay tribute

• To accept: receive an award, express gratitude

Specific purposes should:

• State your specific speaking purpose clearly

• Keep the audience in the forefront of your mind

• Use definitive, complete sentences (no questions)

Thesis statements should:

• State the exact content of your speech in a single declarative sentence

Name __________________________________

Activity 16.2 – Brainstorming Persuasive Speeches

Purpose: To help you in generating topics and creative approaches to be used in persuasive speeches.

Instructions: Either on your own, or in discussions with group members, complete the following worksheet.

1. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to contribute money in support of a worthy cause. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many organizations and charitable causes as you can think of that could be promoted in a persuasive speech.

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2. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to contribute their time to a volunteer effort. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many volunteer efforts as you can think of that could be promoted in a persuasive speech.

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3. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to change some habit or lifestyle choice. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many “bad habits” or “poor lifestyle choices” as you can think of that could be “targets for change” in a persuasive speech.

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4. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners for their support in changing a policy or law. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many college/university, local, state, or federal laws and policies as you can think of that should be changed.

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5. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to support the foundation of something new. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many “new-but-badly-needed” ideas as you can which could be advocated in a persuasive speech.

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6. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to abolish, cancel, or get rid of something that is harmful, wasteful, or simply obnoxious. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many suggestions for “abolishing something” as you can.

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7. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to choose between “X” and “Y,” or they may claim that “Z” is clearly the most superior example currently available. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many “top-of-the-line” products or services which could be advocated in a persuasive speech.

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8. Review the lists you have generated and select the most intriguing ideas you have generated. Share these with a small group of classmates to gain a sense of what ideas your audience is likely to be most receptive to, or to gain a sense of resistance which your speech topic must address.

Ideas likely to be favorably received:

Ideas likely to be resisted:

Ideas likely to meet with neutral, uninformed, or apathetic responses:

Name __________________________________

Activity 16.3 – Analyzing Persuasive Speeches

Purpose: To provide you with experience at analyzing effective models of persuasive speaking.

Instructions: Locate the transcript of an effective persuasive speech. Good sources for this search are InfoTrac (browse the indexed journal Vital Speeches of the Day), and websites which provide the texts of famous speeches. (You can visit or search Google for examples.)

Once you have identified a persuasive speech that you wish to work with, read it through once, and then reread it as needed to complete this worksheet.

1. What is the topic of the speech?

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2. What is the speech goal or proposition?

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3. What are the reasons given in support of this goal?

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4. In your opinion, where has the strongest supporting reason been placed?

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5. How have the supporting reasons been organized? (Logical reasons pattern, problem-solution pattern, comparative advantages patterns, criteria satisfaction pattern, Monroe’s motivational pattern, or some hybrid of these?) As clearly as possible, outline or describe the organization of this persuasive speech.

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6. Identify and list at least three pieces of evidence that you feel are effective in supporting the reasons and the speech goal.

a.

b.

c.

7. Identify and list at least three instances in which the speaker uses emotional appeals or pathos to motivate and persuade the audience.

a.

b.

c.

8. In your opinion, what is the key aspect of this speech that makes it effectively persuasive?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 16.4 – Writing a Persuasive Thesis Statement

Purpose: The goal of this activity is to develop an effective persuasive speech specific goal and thesis statement.

Instructions: Complete the questions below.

1. Check the type of persuasive goal you have for this speech:

____ change or strengthen a belief

____ move to action

2. Write a first draft of your speech goal using a complete sentence that specifies the type response you want from the audience:

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3. Review what you have written. Underline the infinitive phrase. Does the infinitive phrase express precisely the specific audience reaction desired? If not, revise the infinitive phrase:

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4. Review what you have written. Does the statement clearly express the complete response you want from your audience? If not, revise the infinitive phrase until it has this clarity, and write your final draft of your speech goal:

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5. Identify and list the specific issues you will cover in order to reach your speech goal:

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6. After reviewing the issues, write a thesis statement that incorporates these issues:

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Name __________________________________

Activity 16.5 – Selecting Reasons

Purpose: To plan your reasoning strategy for a persuasive speech.

Instructions: Respond to the questions below.

Write the specific goal that you will use for this persuasive speech.

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Write at least six reasons that support your specific goal:

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

Place stars next to the three or four reasons that you believe are the best.

Name __________________________________

Activity 16.6 – Creating a Keyword Outline

Purpose: To give you practice at revising full sentence outlines into keyword outlines that can be used as note card prompts while delivering a speech.

Instructions: In your textbook, locate the full sentence outline for the speech “No Child Left Behind: Addressing the School Dropout Rate among Latinos” by Dana Barker (text pages 379-382). Convert this speech to a keyword outline that would be suitable for note cards during the delivery of the speech. (Review pages 220-222 in the text if you need more guidance on preparing speech notes and sample note cards.)

Name __________________________________

Evaluation Form for Persuasive Speech

(Based on Monroe’s Motivational Pattern)

|Task |Excellent |Good |Competent |Must improve |

|Introduction: Captures audience attention (Step 1) | | | | |

|Establishes credibility | | | | |

|Body: Identifies and clearly explains authentic audience need| | | | |

|(Step 2) | | | | |

|Proposes a clear and specific solution to the need (Step 3) | | | | |

|Visualizes the solution and relates it to the audience needs | | | | |

|(Step 4) | | | | |

|Reasons are supported by at least three varieties of support: | | | | |

|facts, statistics, definitions, examples, descriptions, | | | | |

|analogies, narratives, or expert opinions. | | | | |

|Anticipates and responds to possible audience objections | | | | |

|Conclusion: Specifically describes how to act on the solution| | | | |

|(Step 5) | | | | |

|Provides a sense of closure | | | | |

|Delivery: Uses standard language and avoids vocal | | | | |

|interferences | | | | |

|Uses gestures purposefully to emphasize main points | | | | |

|Eye contact and facial gestures relate to audience with | | | | |

|confidence | | | | |

|Volume and pace of speech are suited to audience needs | | | | |

Name __________________________________

Chapter 16 – Persuasive Speaking

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. Which type of persuasive speech is suggested by the following? “From the library to the farthest parking lot, the lighting on campus is not adequate to ensure safety after dark.”

a. question of fact

b. question of value

c. question of policy

d. question of purpose

2. Which type of persuasive speech is suggested by the following? “A more rigorous high school curriculum is of benefit to everyone..”

a. question of fact

b. question of value

c. question of policy

d. question of purpose

3. Which type of persuasive speech is suggested by the following? “We must act now to ensure a safe supply of water for future citizens.”

a. question of fact

b. question of value

c. question of policy

d. question of purpose

4. Which of the following is the best example of a position statement of fact for a persuasive speech?

a. Affirmative action does not have any effect on improving the status of minorities.

b. Affirmative action is unfair.

c. Affirmative action laws should be repealed.

d. All of the above could be statements of fact.

5. Which of the following is the best example of a position statement of value for a persuasive speech?

a. Pornography should be banned from the Internet.

b. Pornography on the Internet is not as serious a problem as the media portrays it to be.

c. It is more important to preserve freedom of expression than to protect children from pornography.

d. All of the above could be statements of value.

6. A statement of _____________ indicates that the speaker will persuade listeners that something should or should not be done.

a. value

b. position

c. fact

d. policy

7. A speaker’s main points are:

I. Traffic accidents have increased.

II. The chief reason for increase in accidents is the increase in the speed limit.

III. The speed limit should be reduced immediate in this affected area.

This is an example of what organizational pattern?

a. problem-cause-solution

b. problem-solution

c. comparative advantages

d. Monroe’s motivated sequence

8. Jim is planning to give a speech on the topic of recycling. He wants his audience to take immediate action and start recycling in order to reduce the community’s waste management problems. Which organizational pattern would be most appropriate given the information provided?

a. problem-solution

b. problem-cause-solution

c. comparative advantages

d. Monroe’s motivated sequence

9. Kari is concerned about the impact of hormones in the food supply. Which organizational pattern would be most appropriate given the information provided?

a. problem-solution

b. problem-cause-solution

c. comparative advantages

d. Monroe’s motivated sequence

10. Josh feels he wants to persuade his audience to participate in the campus’s alternative Spring Break service activity rather than go on their traditional trip to Daytona Beach, Florida. Which organizational pattern would be most appropriate given the information provided?

a. problem-solution

b. problem-cause-solution

c. comparative advantages

d. Monroe’s motivated sequence

11. Acknowledging ______________ is an effective way of enhancing a speaker's own position.

a. two-sided messages

b. counterarguments

c. fear appeals

d. credibility

12. ______________ is/are most effective when the speaker refutes one issue to prove the other.

a. Two-sided messages

b. Counterarguments

c. Fear appeals

d. Credibility

13. ______________ cause(s) audience members to take notice of an issue.

a. Two-sided messages

b. Counterarguments

c. Fear appeals

d. Credibility

True/False

T F 14. Ethical persuasion involves telling the truth, not manipulating evidence, and presenting information accurately and completely.

T F 15. Comparative advantages organization is typically used with speeches addressing a problem of value.

T F 16. Monroe’s motivated sequence is only effective if your audience is already motivated to support your position.

T F 17. It is unethical to use emotional language in a speech.

T F 18. Fear appeals should never be used if a speaker wishes to remain ethical in his or her persuasion.

Essay

19. For a speech on the topic of air pollution, prepare a specific purpose statement as a question of fact, a question of value, and a question of policy.

20. Prepare a thesis statement for a speech using problem-cause-solution organization.

21. Compose a thesis statement for a speech using comparative advantages organization.

22. Design a thesis statement for a speech using Monroe’s motivated sequence.

23. Explain how you might organize a speech to gain immediate action differently from a speech to gain passive agreement.

Chapter Seventeen: Persuasion and Reasoning

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• use evidence effectively in a persuasive speech,

• enhance your credibility before, during, and at the end of your speech,

• use emotional appeals effectively and ethically to persuade your audience,

• appeal to mythos effectively and ethically to persuade your audience,

• avoid five of the most common fallacies in persuasive arguments.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Ad hominem fallacy (401) An argument in which a speaker attacks a person rather than the person’s argument.

Bandwagon fallacy (401) An argument that something is correct or good because everyone else agrees with it or is doing it.

Character (390) The audience’s view of a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well being of the audience.

Common ground (392) The similarities, shared interests, and mutual perspectives a speaker has with an audience.

Competence (390) The audience’s view of a speaker’s intellegence, expertise, and knowledge of a subject.

Credibility (390) The audience’s perception of a speaker’s competence and character.

Derived credibility (391) The credibility a speaker develops during a speech.

Either-or fallacy (402) An argument in which a speaker claims our options are “either A or B” when actually more than two options exist. Sometimes called false dilemma.

Ethos (388) The word Aristotle used to refer to the speaker’s credibility.

Fallacy (400) An argument that seems valid, but is flawed because of unsound evidence or reasoning.

Initial credibility (391) The credibility a speaker has before giving a speech.

Logos (388) The word Aristotle used to refer to logical arrangement of evidence in a speech.

Mythos (397) The interrelated set of beliefs, attitudes,values, and feelings held by members of a particular society or culture.

Pathos (388) The word Aristotle used to refer to emotional appeals made by a speaker.

Red herring fallacy (403) An argument that introduces irrelevant information into an argument in order to distract an audience from the real issue.

Slippery slope fallacy (404) An argument in which a speaker claims that taking a first step in one direction will lead to inevitable and undesirable further steps.

Terminal credibility (391) The credibility given to a speaker at the end of a speech.

Name __________________________________

Activity 17.1 – The Toulmin Model of Argument

Purpose: To give you practice at identifying the essentials of an argument: the claim, the reason, the evidence, and the warrant.

Instructions: Either on your own, or in a discussion group of two to three people, complete the following worksheet:

1. In your own words, what is the claim of an argument?

_________________________________________________________________________________

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2. In your own words, what are the reasons of an argument?

_________________________________________________________________________________

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3. In your own words, what is the evidence of an argument?

_________________________________________________________________________________

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4. In your own words, what is the warrant of an argument?

_________________________________________________________________________________

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5. Read the following brief argument, then identify its essential parts.

E-mail should be banned from all campus computers because it is simply a channel for time-wasting junk messages. Over 75% of all messages sent on e-mail are nonsensical distractions: poor attempts at humor, chain letter scams to earn money or discounts, and frivolous communications that add nothing to the quality of life or of learning.

The claim is: ______________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The reason is: _____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The evidence is:____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The warrant is:_____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Again, read the following brief argument, then identify its essential parts.

President Clinton should have been impeached because he lied about having sex with a woman. The testimony in the Starr report, tapes of the grand jury proceedings, and Clinton’s own testimony in the grand jury clearly indicate that a sexual relationship occurred and that Clinton tried to cover it up.

The claim is: ______________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The reason is: _____________________________________________________________________

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The evidence is:____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

The warrant is:_____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

7. Now, create your own argument, and label the claim, the reason, the evidence, and the warrant:

_________________________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________

Activity 17.2 – Identifying Cultural Beliefs

Purpose: To understand how speakers use mythos to appeal to a culture’s beliefs and values

Instructions: Visit the “Martha Stewart Living” website at .

1. What are some of the values apparent on this site?

_________________________________________________________________________________

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2. What is the story these values tell?

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3. What is the logic contained in these stories?

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4. To what extent do you think the values and stories from the Martha Stewart Living site are representative of American culture in general?

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5. How do you think the use of these stories affects Martha Stewart’s credibility?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 17.3 – Drawing on Mythos

Purpose: To understand how speakers use mythos to appeal to a culture’s logic.

Instructions: Use InfoTrac to locate "Excerpts From Speeches on Broad Variety of Issues at the Convention in Boston" . from The New York Times, July 28, 2004 pP8 col 01 (37 col in) Answer the following questions with respect to any one of the speakers included.

1. Which cultural beliefs does the speaker appeal to?

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2. What is the logic of those beliefs?

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3. Would this speech be effective if given to audiences who belonged to other cultures? Explain

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4. Are there members of the U.S. culture who may not be persuaded by this speech? Why or why not?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 17.4 – Identifying Fallacies

Purpose: To learn the basic fallacies of reasoning and how to identify them in a speaker’s argument

Instructions: Locate Tim Holt's web page on logical fallacies at his website . He explains some of the more common fallacies of reasoning. Choose three of the fallacies, click on their links, and read more about them.

1. Locate a newspaper article and within the "speak up" or editorial section identify an example of one of these fallacies..

2. Underline the problem area in the article and label the fallacy.

3. Where have you heard speakers make similar mistakes in reasoning?

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4. Why do audiences sometimes fall victim to a speaker’s use of fallacies?

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Consider using your classroom discussion forum or chat feature to share your insights.

Name __________________________________

Activity 17.5 – Using Your Research Persuasively

Purpose: To learn from research on persuasion what effective speakers can do to make their appeals more effective.

Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read “Making the Research Work for You,” by John A. Call. (Hint: Use “jury persuasion” as your search term.)

1. What does research suggest about jury members’ abilities to recall facts of the trial?

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2. How is this information relevant to you as you prepare your next persuasive speech?

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3. In your own words, describe the concept of a “story model.”

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4. List at least one story or version of a story that audience members might construct as they listen to your next persuasive speech.

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5. In your own words, describe how the article’s advice about trial opening statements can be used by any persuasive speaker to improve the introduction of a speech.

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6. In your own words, define the terms “forewarning” and “inoculation.”

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7. Using your next persuasive speech as an example, describe how you can use either forewarning or inoculation to insure the successful communication of your message.

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8. What advice does this article give about the use of pathos or emotional appeals?

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9. Using your next persuasive speech as an example, explain how you can apply this advice to the delivery of your persuasive message.

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10. Identify and briefly describe another research finding discussed in this article that you can use to increase the effectiveness of your next persuasive speech.

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Activity 17.6 – Analyze persuasive speech strategies

Purpose: To practice analyzing the persuasive strategies used in speech making.

Instructions: Locate the transcript of the speech by Robert L. Dilenschneider “Television's crises: No way to run a business,” using InfoTrac or as published in Executive Speeches, June-July 2005 v19 i6 p6(3).

1. What does the speaker suggest is “wrong” with television?

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2. What explanation does the speaker offer for this problem?

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3. What evidence does the speaker offer self-regulation works? How effective is this strategy?

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4. Identify one idea that this article offers which you might utilize in a persuasive speech.

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Critique Sheet: Persuasive Speech

Name _______________________________________ Time ____________ Points ____________

Key: + = Excellent; ( = Satisfactory; – = Needs improvement; 0 = Failed to complete

Introduction

Captured attention and interest/related to the audience _____

Introduced the topic _____

Established credibility _____

Previewed main points _____

Body

Main points clear _____

Established a need for change ______

Clear solution ______

Attempted to gain immediate action _______

Main points supported _____

Sources cited _____

Connectives _____

Audience centered _____

Avoided fallacies _____

Clarity of PowerPoint _____

Managed PowerPoint _____

Conclusion

Signaled the finish _____

Summarized main points _____

Delivery

Volume ______

Eye contact _____

Avoided distracting mannerisms _____

Articulation _____

Rate _____

Extemporaneous/conversational style _____

Enthusiasm _____

Outline

Complete-sentence form ______

Logical subordination _____

Grammar _____

Works cited _____

Name __________________________________

Chapter 17 – Persuasion and Reasoning

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. The appeal to the audience’s emotions is known as

a. logos.

b. pathos.

c. ethos.

d. ethics.

2. The appeal to the speaker’s credibility is known as

a. logos.

b. pathos.

c. ethos.

d. ethics.

3. The logical arrangement of evidence in a speech is known as

a. logos.

b. pathos.

c. ethos.

d. ethics.

4. Nan is a dietician and has decided to persuade her audience to eat a diet high in antioxidants for long term health benefits. Given what we know about Nan, her ___________ would be high.

a. initial credibility

b. derived credibility

c. terminal credibility

d. competence

5. Najib has conducted interviews and has included information from four different sources including the local fire chief to use in his persuasive speech on fire safety. This means his ___________ would be high.

a. initial credibility

b. derived credibility

c. terminal credibility

d. competence

6. While Carey’s speech sounded good to the audience, upon further consideration some of the information was discovered to be inaccurate. This means his ___________ would be low.

a. initial credibility

b. derived credibility

c. terminal credibility

d. competence

7. Roberto was debating politics with his roommate who had just said, “I don’t care what the Governor said—he’s a cheat and a liar, any way you look at it!” This is an example of the ___________ fallacy.

a. red herring

b. either or

c. ad hominem

d. bandwagon

8. A television commercial shows lots of people drinking and enjoying a new softdrink product. This commercial encourages viewers to commit the ___________ fallacy.

a. red herring

b. either or

c. ad hominem

d. bandwagon

9. Mario suggests that any one not in favor of the Patriot Act must be a Communist. This is an instance of the ___________ fallacy.

a. red herring

b. either or

c. hasty generalization

d. bandwagon

10. When Moisha attempts to distract her audience from the real issue. She is attempting to us a ___________ fallacy.

a. red herring

b. either or

c. ad hominem

d. bandwagon

11. The statement, “In seven years one unspayed female cat and her unspayed offspring can produce 420,000 cats” is an example of

a. general evidence.

b. novel information.

c. credible sources.

d. false cause.

12. A person that appears sincere, trustworthy and concerned for the well-being of the audience is said to have

a. credibility.

b. competence.

c. character.

d. backing.

13. A person that demonstrates intelligence, expertise, and subject knowledge is said to have

a. credibility.

b. competence.

c. character.

d. backing.

True/False

T F 14. The slippery slope fallacy suggests one false step will lead to everyone falling down.

T F 15. Mythos refers to a shared set of beliefs, attitudes and values held by members of a society.

T F 16. When you want to convince your audience that something is true, good or appropriate, you will be more successful is your evidence if general rather than specific.

T F 17. Terminal credibility doesn’t much matter, because it comes at the end of the speech after everything has been said.

T F 18. Guilt is a primary emotion expressed similarly across cultures.

T F 19. Happiness is a primary emotion expressed similarly across cultures.

T F 20. Anger is a secondary emotion expressed differently across cultures.

T F 21. Shame is a secondary emotion expressed differently across cultures.

Essay

22. Explain the importance of using emotional appeals ethically.

23. Explain what mythos is, and how it can be used to persuade.

24. Create an example of the ad hominem fallacy.

25. Which of the reasoning fallacies do you believe is most commonly committed? Defend your answer.

26. Explain and provide an example of the bandwagon fallacy.

27. Explain and provide an example of the either-or fallacy.

28. Explain and provide an example of the red herring fallacy.

29. Explain and provide an example of the slippery slope fallacy.

Chapter Eighteen: Speaking on Special Occasions

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:

• describe the four types of special occasion speeches,

• identify at least four tips for giving effective special occasion speeches.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Acceptance speech (420) A speech that acknowledges gratitude, appreciation, and pleasure at receiving an honor or a gift.

Commemorative speech (417) A speech that praises, honors, recognizes, or pays tribute to a person, an event, an idea or an institution.

Introductory speech (414) A speech that gives the audience a sense of the unique perspective of the person introduced or welcomed and that familiarizes the audience with an event.

Speech of award (417) A speech given to present a specific award to someone and describe why that person is receiving the award.

Speech of tribute (417) A speech given in honor of someone.

Speech to entertain (422) A lighthearted speech that addresses issues or ideas in a humorous way.

Timing (422) The way a speaker uses pauses and delivery for maximum effect.

Name __________________________________

Activity 18.1 – Analyzing a Special Occasion Speech

Purpose: To apply research skills and analyze the construction of a special occasion speech.

Instructions: Locate a speech of introduction utilizing online search tools or traditional library catalogs as described in Chapter 6 (pp.127-134). You might also consider speeches made locally or available through InfoTrac or your favorite search engine. Carefully read the speech and answer the following questions:

1. How is the speech organized?

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2. Which “type” of special occasion speech did you find?

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3. Does the speech follow the recommendations offered for this type of speech? Explain.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 18.2 – Speeches of Commencement

Purpose: To examine the conventions of graduation speeches, so as to speak with greater originality and effectiveness.

Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read the Harvard commencement speech by Bill Gates. (Hint: Use the author’s name and/or the term commencement speech as your search string.)

1. How does the speech begin? How appropriate is this approach? Why?

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2. How does Bill Gates connect with this audience?

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3. How does Bill Gates attempt to inspire his audience?

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4. After having read this article, suggest an unconventional message that you would like to deliver for a graduation speech that would still be appropriate for this ceremonial occasion.

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5. In your own words, explain why it might be difficult to speak with sincerity or originality on a ceremonial occasion.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 18.3 – Speeches of Acceptance

Purpose: To give you experience with understanding and evaluating an acceptance speech.

Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read The acceptance speech of Julius Lester for his Boston Globe-Horn Book award, John Henry. (Hint: Use as your search term either “acceptance speech” or the author’s name.)

1. What is the typical way in which recipients begin an acceptance speech?

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2. Julius Lester begins his acceptance speech with a story. What is the effect of this beginning?

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3. Lester contrasts his response at being told he had won a Newberry Award with his response at being informed that he had won the Boston Globe-Horn Book Award. What is the effect of contrasting these two stories?

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4. Lester thanks a number of people who contributed to his achievement. Identify a specific instance of this acknowledgment that you feel is particularly well worded or communicated with particular impact (and explain your choice).

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5. List and briefly describe at least one way in which Lester gives his audience something new or unexpected, something that makes this acceptance speech memorable.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 18.4 – Speeches of Tribute

Purpose: To give you experience with understanding and evaluating a tribute speech.

Instructions: Using InfoTrac, locate and read “Remarks at the Congressional Tribute Honoring Officer Jacob J. Chestnut and Detective John M. Gibson.” (Hint: This article is a transcript of a speech given by President Clinton on July 27, 1998. It may be useful to locate and read newspaper articles covering Chestnut and Gibson’s deaths before reading the transcript of Clinton’s tribute.)

1. A conventional tribute speech praises the accomplishments of an individual. What does Clinton praise these two men for?

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2. Locate an example from this tribute speech that demonstrates how Clinton uses either a specific illustration, vivid language, or another figurative language device to increase the impact of his message.

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3. Clinton’s tribute speech to the two men praises the accomplishments and character of others. List at least two other people or groups of people who are praised in this speech and briefly describe the possible reasons for acknowledging them in this tribute:

a.

b.

Name __________________________________

Speech Assignment: Speech of Introduction

Prepare a two- to three-minute speech of introduction. Assume that you are introducing the featured speaker for a specific occasion. Criteria for evaluation include creativity in establishing speaker credibility and presenting the name of the speaker and the speech title.

Speech Assignment: Speech of Presentation

Prepare a three- to five-minute speech in which you present a gift, a plaque, or an award to a member of your class. Criteria for evaluation include showing what the award is for, the criteria for winning, and how the person met the criteria.

Speech Assignment: Speech of Acceptance

This assignment can go together with the speech-of-presentation assignment. Prepare a one- to two-minute speech of acceptance in response to another speaker’s speech of presentation. The criterion for evaluation is how imaginatively you can respond in a brief speech.

Speech Assignment: Speech of Welcoming

Prepare a two- to three-minute speech welcoming a specific person to your city, university, or social organization. Criteria for evaluation include how well you explain the nature of the institution and how well you introduce the person being welcomed.

Speech Assignment: Speech of Tribute

Prepare a four- to six-minute speech paying tribute to a person, living or dead. Criteria for evaluation include how well you develop the person’s laudable characteristics and accomplishments.

Name __________________________________

Chapter 18– Speaking on Special Occasions

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. Which type of special occasion speech is affiliated with the following goal?

“Illustrate a person’s unique achievements.”

a. speech of introduction

b. speech of commemoration

c. speech of acceptance

d. speech to entertain

2. Which type of special occasion speech is affiliated with the following goal?

“Generate enthusiasm for the event.”

a. speech of introduction

b. speech of commemoration

c. speech of acceptance

d. speech to entertain

3. Which type of special occasion speech is affiliated with the following goal?

“Show awareness of the significance of the award.”

a. speech of introduction

b. speech of commemoration

c. speech of acceptance

d. speech to entertain

4. Which type of special occasion speech is affiliated with the following goal?

“Make the audience think about the implications of an issue.”

a. speech of introduction

b. speech of commemoration

c. speech of acceptance

d. speech to entertain

5. Which guidelines are most important when giving a speech of acceptance?

a. share what is unique, express appreciation, tell the truth

b. understand the purpose, recognize others, respect time limits

c. use humor carefully, speak about meaningful issues, attend to deliver

d. be brief, be accurate, be appropriate

6. Which guidelines are most important when giving speech of introduction?

a. share what is unique, express appreciation, tell the truth

b. Understand the purpose, recognize others, respect time limits

c. use humor carefully, speak about meaningful issues, attend to deliver

d. be brief, be accurate, be appropriate

7. Which guidelines are most important when giving a speech to commemorate?

a. share what is unique, express appreciation, tell the truth

b. Understand the purpose, recognize others, respect time limits

c. use humor carefully, speak about meaningful issues, attend to deliver

d. be brief, be accurate, be appropriate

8. Which type of special occasion speech is affiliated with the following goal?

“Entertain the audience.”

a. speech of introduction

b. speech of commemoration

c. speech of acceptance

d. speech to entertain

True/False

T F 9. An introductory speech should acquaint the audience with the person or event, establish the initial credibility of the speaker being introduced, and generate enthusiasm for the person or event.

T F 10. Speeches of tribute are only given for people that have passed away.

T F 11. It is not necessary to tell the truth; in fact it is best to embellish the truth in a speech of commemoration.

T F 12. Due to its lighthearted approach, a speech to entertain need not address a meaningful issue.

T F 13. Timing in a speech to entertain refers to how effectively the speaker uses the time allotted.

T F 14. When introducing another person, you should always begin with their name and credentials.

T F 15. When accepting an award, it is important to express thanks for the award and show your awareness of the award’s significance.

T F 16. When accepting an award, it is impolite to recognize others.

T F 17. Potentially offensive humor is only appropriate in a speech to entertain.

Essay

18. Create a speaker’s outline for a speech of introduction about yourself.

19. Imagine you are presenting your favorite teacher with an award. Prepare a speaking outline for a speech of award to recognize that teacher.

20. Explain the goals of a speech of acceptance, including a discussion of what is important for such an address.

21. Describe what makes a speech to entertain different than a speech to inform.

22. Compare the similarities between a speech to entertain and a persuasive speech.

23. As the best man, Jeff needs to give a toast at Dave's wedding. Using the tips from this chapter offer Jeff at least four suggestions of what he should do and/or avoid doing.

Appendix A: Speaking in Small Groups

Goals

In this chapter you will learn:

• explain what small groups are and why people speak them

• describe the six most common formats for small group speaking,

• use the reflexive thinking method to solve problems in a group,

• conduct a productive meeting,

• identify at least three tips for managing question-and-answer sessions,

• identify at least four tips for speaking effectively and ethically in small groups.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Agenda (437) A list of topics that will be discussed in a meeting and for how long.

Brainstorming (436) The process of generating ideas randomly and uncritically, without attention to logic, connections, or relevance.

Groupthink (436) The act of a group conforming to a single frame of mind and choosing a solution without fully and objectively examining other potential solutions.

Meeting (437) A formal gathering of a group to discuss an issue or solve a problem.

Oral Report (434) Speech given by an individual that presents a group's findings, conclusions, or proposals to other members of a group or to a larger audience.

Panel discussion (434) Structured discussion, facilitated by a moderator, among group members that takes place in front of an audience.

Problem-solving session (435) Discussion among group members that uses the reflective thinking method to identify solutions to a problem.

Reflective thinking method (435) A five-step method for structuring a problem solving discussion: identify the problem, analyze the problem, suggest possible solutions, consider the implications of the solutions, and reach a decision about the best solution.

Small group (431) Three to fifteen people who must work together to achieve a common goal, and who have the ability to influence one another through verbal and nonverbal communication.

Small group speaking (431) Speaking to give a presentation to a small collection of individuals or speaking as part of a small group of people.

Symposium (434) Public discussion in which several people each give speeches on a different aspect of the same topic.

Team presentation (435) Presentation made by several members of the group, with each person presenting a different speech on a single topic.

Name __________________________________

Activity 19.1 – Gender and Leadership

Purpose: To review industry tips for making group presentations.

Instructions: In InfoTrac locate and read “Tag-Team Pitches: Group Presentations Are a Different Ball Game. Here’s How to Play,” in Sales & Marketing Management, March 2002 v154 I 3 p 57(1). (Hint: Use “group” and “presentations” as your search terms.) Respond to the following questions:

1. How helpful are the comments offered in the article?

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2. Are the comments consistent with what you’ve learned in the speech class? Explain.

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3. What have you learned in your speech class that you could add to complete the article’s tips.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 19.2 – Leading Problem-Solving Discussions

Purpose: To provide you with practical suggestions for leading a problem-solving group discussion.

Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read “How to Run a Problem-Solving Meeting,” by Mark J. Friedman. (Hint: Use “problem-solving” and “meeting” as your search terms.)

1. Friedman argues that a facilitator is needed to ensure the most positive outcomes for problem-solving groups. Why do you think that this person is referred to as a facilitator and not as a leader?

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2. According to this article, the facilitator need not be a technical expert. What other qualifications are more important, as Friedman sees it, and do you agree?

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3. According to Friedman, it is difficult for managers to perform the role of facilitators. Why is this, and do you agree with Friedman’s assessment of this difficulty?

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4. What does Friedman suggest for the optimal group size, and how does this compare to the size of the group that you feel most comfortable working in?

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5. What specifics does Friedman recommend for the initial introduction phase of the meeting, and why are these introductions important to the group’s functioning?

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6. Friedman suggests that before starting work, the group, working as a team, should establish ground rules. Give an example of what these rules should include and discuss why they are important.

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7. What is to be gained by soliciting feedback on the group’s processes after the group has completed its work?

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8. Briefly describe another suggestion or discussion from this article that you found helpful.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 19.3 – Asking Effective Questions

Purpose: To help you to become a more effective questioner and a more effective participant in group problem solving.

Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read “The Power of Asking the Right Questions” by Sam Deep and Lyle Sussman. (Hint: Use the authors’ names or the title of the article as your search term.)

1. The article offers several metaphors to illustrate the power of questions. List one of these metaphors, then provide an original metaphor of your own which illustrates why questioning is a valuable skill to attain.

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2. The article suggests that asking questions can help to develop consensus and rapport. What style of leadership is best suited to questioning, and what style of leadership does not readily ask questions?

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3. Provide a specific illustration and a description of a way in which a task-oriented leader can effectively use questions.

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4. Provide a specific illustration and a description of a way in which a people-oriented leader can effectively use questions.

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5. What are the potential risks associated with asking questions?

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6. How can a team leader minimize these risks while using questioning as a valuable part of his or her leadership skills and abilities?

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Name __________________________________

Activity 19.4 – Gender and Leadership

Purpose: To provide you with real-world evaluations of the differences that gender can sometimes make in leadership styles.

Instructions: Using InfoTrac locate and read “Leadership finds balance: Women take charge of tribes: Five American Indian tribes in Oklahoma have women as leaders.” by S.E. Ruckman located in Tulsa World (Tulsa, OK), July 17, 2007 pNA . (Hint: Use “women” and “leadership” as your search terms.)

1. According to this article, what are significant differences between the ways in which men and women approach leadership roles?

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2. From your experience and knowledge, how would you assess the accuracy of these claimed differences? (Support your response with specifics and examples.)

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3. Briefly describe at least one characteristic of leadership that this article claims is more “female” but which you feel is not gender specific.

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4. According to this article, what are some of the problems that women in leadership positions may experience?

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5. As you see it, are these problems real and significant for women leaders? Explain.

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6. Imagine yourself in conversation with the authors of this article: what would you add to the discussion.

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Name __________________________________

Activity 19.5 – Robert’s Rules of Order Revised

Purpose: To create a modified version of Robert’s Rules of Order for use in a small group.

Instructions: Read Robert’s Rules of Order at the website . Think of a group you lead or to which you belong. Answer the following questions:

1. Recall the meetings you have had recently and describe any organizational or procedural problems the group encountered.

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2. Consider how a version of Robert’s Rules of Order could work for your group. As a team, draft a set of modified rules for your group, or any group, to follow as a way to improve effectiveness.

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Name __________________________________

Appendix A – Speaking in Small Groups

Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.

Multiple Choice

1. Small group speaking involves

a. speaking to a small collection of individuals.

b. speaking as part of a team.

c. both a and b

d. none of the above

2. Which of the following is the first step of the reflective thinking method?

a. consider the implications of the solution

b. suggest possible solutions

c. analyze the problem

d. identify the problem

e. reach a decision about the best solution

3. Which step of the reflective thinking method helps group members present their findings more successfully?

a. consider the implications of the solution

b. suggest possible solutions

c. analyze the problem

d. identify the problem

e. reach a decision about the best solution

4. In which step of the reflective thinking method might advantages and disadvantages best be discussed?

a. consider the implications of the solution

b. suggest possible solutions

c. analyze the problem

d. identify the problem

e. reach a decision about the best solution

5. Which type of group presentation involves an informal discussion among group members?

a. oral report

b. panel discussion

c. symposium

d. team presentation

6. Which type of group presentation involves a well coordinated, formal presentation on the same topic by group members?

a. oral report

b. panel discussion

c. symposium

d. team presentation

7. Which type of group presentation involves a formal presentation by group members that may disagree with one another?

a. oral report

b. panel discussion

c. symposium

d. team presentation

8. Which type of group presentation involves a report of findings, conclusions, or proposals to an audience?

a. oral report

b. panel discussion

c. symposium

d. team presentation

9. Which type of group presentation often involves comments from the audience?

a. oral report

b. panel discussion

c. symposium

d. team presentation

True/False

T F 10. A small group consists of three to fifteen people who must work together to achieve a common purpose, and have the ability to influence one another.

T F 11. People speak in groups for the same reasons they speak publicly.

T F 12. Meetings should follow a logical plan.

T F 13. Effective delivery skills are less important in a group presentation than when delivering by oneself.

Essay

14. Explain the steps of the reflective thinking method.

15. Compare and contrast the four types of group presentations.

Name __________________________________

Preparation for a Problem-Solving Group Discussion

I. What is the size and scope of the problem?

B. Consider the number of people or things involved.

C. Consider relevant ratios and other numbers that compare this problem to other situations.

D. Consider current actions being taken to address the problem.

II. What are the causes of the problem?

A. How do those involved perceive the problem?

B. How do relevant groups and informal organizations perceive the problem?

C. How do relevant institutions perceive the problem?

D. How are societal norms and expectations related to the problem?

III. What criteria should be used to test solutions?

A. Who are the individuals involved who must favor this solution and what are their needs?

B. Who are relevant groups involved who must favor this solution and what area their needs?

C. How much time will this solution need before it produces positive effects?

D. How much money will this solution require?

E. Is this solution practically feasible?

F. Does this solution comply with existing rules, laws, and regulations?

Answer Key

Self Test Answers

Chapter 1

1. A 5

2. D 9

3. A 10

4. B 11

5. C 13-14

6. A 14-16

7. B 9

8. C 9

9. E 9

10. B 9

11. E 9

12. T 5

13. F 15

14. F 16

15. F 7

16. T 11

17. F 5

18. T 14

19. T 14

20. T 11-12

Chapter 2

1. A 24

2. D 25

3. B 24

4. C 25

5. E 36

6. B 32

7. C 34

8. C 42

9. D 40

10. F 32

11. F 37-38

12. T 35

13. F 37-38

14. F 40

15. F 38

Chapter 3

1. D 53

2. C 53

3. A 51

4. A 64

5. C 67

6. D 67

7. A 61

8. E 62

9. D 58

10. B 55

11. T 68

12. F 68

13. T 63

14. T 59-60

15. T 51

16. T 50

17. F 51-62

Chapter 4

1. D 74-76

2. B 84

3. D 84

4. C 84

5. B 84

6. C 84

7. A 87-88

8. A 84

9. A 87-88

10. C 75

11. A 74

12. T 76, 84, 85, 86 and 89

13. T 76-77

14. T 80-84

15. T 89

16. T 89

17. T 89-92

18. F 89-92

19. F 74

Chapter 5

1. D 97

2. B 101

3. D 101

4. C 101

5. B 101

6. C 101

7. D 105

8. B 107

9. C 108

10. T 97

11. T 99

12. T 101

13. F 99-101

14. F 97

15. F 103-104

16. F 103

17. F 101

18. F 108

Chapter 6

1. B 124

2. B 139

3. A 126

4. B 126

5. B 140

6. C 140

7. A 140

8. C 141

9. D 126

10. D 133

11. B 132

12. A 132

13. F 124

14. F 129

15. F 129

16. T 126

17. F 126

18. T 128

19. T 122

20. F 134

Chapter 7

1. A 146

2. B 149

3. C 152

4. D 159

5. E 164

6. B 155

7. B 160

8. D 160

9. D 157-159

10. D 146-149

11. D 168-169

12. B 168

13. T 151

14. F 159

15. F 152

16. F 164

17. F 146

18. T 149

19. F 159

20. F 164

21. F 145

22. F 145

(Activity 7.1)

1. statistic

2. quotation

3. example (undetailed)

4. comparison (analogy)

5. visual aid

6. quotation

7. example (hypothetical)

8. comparison (simile)

9. statistic

10. visual aid

Chapter 8

1. B 173

2. C 173

3. A 173

4. B 177

5. A 174

6. E 183

7. C 178

8. A 186

9. B 186

10. C 186

11. D 186

12. A 186

13. C 187

14. A 174

15. B 177

16. F 164

17. F 177

18. T 176

19. T 187

20. F 187

21. T 174

22. T 176-179

Chapter 9

1. A 195

2. A 197

3. B 198

4. D 200

5. D 201

6. A 202

7. B 196

8. C 197

9. E 201

10. C 206

11. D 212

12. C 212

13. D 219-220

14. B 213

15. T 217

16. T 218

17. T 220

18. F 220

19. F 212

20. T 214

21. T 205

22. F 205

23. T 206

24. F 212

Chapter 10

1. A 232

2. D 228

3. C 228

4. B 228

5. D 238

6. E 237-240

7. T 231

8. T 240

9. F 229

10. F 240

11. F 240

12. F 239

13. F 237

14. F 228

15. T 229

Chapter 11

1. D 258

2. C 257

3. B 254

4. D 258

5. E 258

6. E 258

7. A 254

8. E 255

9. B 254

10. C 254

11. D 252

12. F 258

13. T 254-255

14. F 255-258

15. F 251

16. T 251

17. F 252

18. F 260

Chapter 12

1. B 264

2. A 265

3. C 266

4. D 267

5. A 270

6. A 270

7. E 273

8. C 271

9. D 272

10. B 270

11. C 273

12. F 278

13. T 263

14. T 276

15. T 276

16. T 277

17.

Chapter 13

1. C 286

2. A 285

3. E 287

4. D 287

5. B 288

6. A 288

7. C 288

8. A 296

9. B 296

10. C 296

11. D 296

12. B 305

13. C 306

14. D 306

15. B 293

16. T 295

17. F 296

18. F 298

19. F 303

20. F 303

21. F 299

22. F 300

Chapter 14

1. A 314

2. B 315

3. D 318

4. E 319

5. B 315

6. D 318

7. E 319

8. A 321

9. D 324

10. C 323

11. A 324

12. F 318

13. T 328

14. T 326

15. T 322

16. F 321

17. F 321

Chapter 15

1. D 339

2. B 342

3. B 347

4. D 348-349

5. A 351

6. A 338

7. B 338-339

8. C 339

9. T 338

10. T 338

11. F 339

12. F 344

13. F 353

14. T 355

15. F 354

16. F 344-351

17. T 353

18. F 353

Chapter 16

1. A 362

2. B 362

3. C 363

4. A 362

5. C 362

6. D 363

7. A 370

8. D 372

9. A 369

10. C 372

11. B 375

12. A 375

13. C 376

14. T 377

15. F 372

16. F 373

17. F 376

18. F 376

Chapter 17

1. B 388

2. C 388

3. A 388

4. A 391

5. B 391

6. C 391

7. C 401

8. D 401

9. B 402

10. A 403

11. B 389

12. C 390

13. B 390

14. F 404

15. T 397

16. F 388

17. F 391

18. F 394

19. T 394

20. F 394

21. T 394

Chapter 18

1. B 417

2. A 414

3. C 420

4. D 422

5. B 420

6. D 414

7. A 417

8. D 422

9. T 414

10. F 417

11. F 417

12. F 422

13. F 422

14. F 414

15. T 420

16. F 420

17. F 422

Appendix A

1. C 431

2. D 435

3. C 436

4. A 436

5. B 433

6. D 433

7. C 433

8. A 433

9. B 433

10. T 431

11. T 432

12. T 437

13. F 442

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