UNIT 6; “WATER & CLIMATE”

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NOTE PACKET # 7

“WATER AND CLIMATE”

NAME: EARTH SCIENCE

PERIOD:

7.1) EARTH’S WATER

Origin of Water

➢ Most of Earth’s water

diagram;

outgassing





Water on Earth

➢ 97 %

➢ 3 %

➢ Most of the fresh water (2.1%) ( )

➢ Only 0.9 % is accessible ( , or

).

THE WATER CYCLE (aka )

➢ A model used to

➢ The water cycle is driven by;





➢ The source for the water on land is .

➢ Water reaches the land by the process of

FOUR THINGS MAY HAPPEN TO PRECIPITATON THAT REACHES EARTH’S SURFACE…

1) .

2) ( & )

3)

Infiltrates – .

4)

WATER CYCLE VOCABULARY

evaporation

*

transpiration

*

condensation

*

precipitation

*

infiltration ( )

*

(lithosphere -

)

groundwater

*

runoff

* .

( ).

THE WATER CYCLE DIAGRAM

Label the diagram below with the seven water cycle vocabulary words listed above.

[pic]

INFILTRATION OR RUNOFF ?

Characteristics of

1 –

* Water does not have time to soak in when there is a

diagram;

2 –

* Water can not enter the ground if

diagram;

3 –

porosity -

* If the porosity is large,

diagram;

POROSITY IS AFFECTED BY…

A -

* rounded particles have the porosity.

diagram;

B -

* closely packed particles will have porosity.

diagram;

C –

* well sorted particles will all be the

and they will have a porosity than poorly sorted particles.

diagram;

For POROSITY…….(particle)

4 –

permeability -

impermeable =

* The greater the permeability, the the infiltration.

diagram;

PERMEABILITY IS AFFECTED BY…

A) ;

➢ larger particle size =

permeability.

diagram;

B) ;

➢ a porous material may be if pores are not connected.

diagram;

C) ;

➢ tight packing or cementing of particles may seal off

pores = permeability.

diagram;

D) ;

➢ during the winter,

diagram;

5 – (aka. capillary action)

*

* capillary action is greatest

* small particles = pore spaces = capillarity.

diagram;

6 –

*

* runoff .

➢ water has

diagram;

7 –

* roads, parking lots and buildings are

* less seepage (infiltration) means runoff ( )

diagram;

INFILTRATION vs. RUNOFF

Infiltration occurs when.. Runoff occurs when…

Which set of surface soil conditions on a hillside would result in the most infiltration of rainfall?

(1) gentle slope, saturated soil, no vegetation

(2) gentle slope, unsaturated soil, vegetation

(3) steep slope, saturated soil, vegetation

(4) steep slope, unsaturated soil, no vegetation

EXAMPLE;

Which container has the ….

Greatest rate of infiltration.

Greatest permeability..

Greatest capillarity…

Smallest porosity..

RUNOFF & STREAM DISCHARGE

Runoff can occur when…

*

*

*

Most runoff .

The greater the amount of runoff,

stream discharge



Flooding occurs when a stream

In general, the probability of flooding decreases when there is an increase in the amount of

(1) precipitation (3) runoff

(2) infiltration (4) snow melt

7.2) CLIMATE

climate



There are two major aspects of climate

1.

2.

TEMPERATURE

Two characteristics of the temperature;

1)

2) -

MOISTURE



Arid climate =

Humid climate =

Whether the climate is arid or humid is not determined by

SEVEN FACTORS THAT AFFECT CLIMATE

1 – ( )

Latitude will affect…

➢ and



Latitude and Temperature

At low latitudes….

➢ angle of insolation and duration of insolation.

➢ average temperature, for the year, is .

➢ there is variation temperature ( range).

At high latitudes…

➢ angle of insolation and duration ( hours)

➢ average temperature, for the year, is .

➢ temperature range, from winter to summer.

Latitude and Moisture

➢ moisture depends on the

➢ rising air ( pressure) = precipitation and

climates.

➢ sinking air ( pressure) = precipitation

and climates.

Identify the areas of humid and dry climates by drawing arrows.

Example;

Mark the following locations on the map.

In this example, we are only considering the effects of latitude.

Th – line of latitude that will have the highest average yearly temp.

Tl – line of latitude that will have the lowest average yearly temp.

Rs – line of latitude that will have the smallest yearly temperature range.

Rl – line of latitude that will have the largest yearly temperature range.

Wet – zone where rising air will produce a wet climate.

Dry – zone where sinking air will produce a dry climate.

The average temperature at Earth’s equator is higher than the average temperature at Earth’s South Pole because the South Pole

(1) receives less intense insolation

(2) receives more infrared radiation

(3) has less land area

(4) has more cloud cover

Which climatic conditions exist where the trade winds converge?

(1) cool and wet (3) warm and wet

(2) cool and dry (4) warm and dry

2 -

➢ A large body of water, will

➢ Water heats and cools .

Marine vs. Continental climates

Marine climates –

* summers.

* winters.

* annual temperature range.

Continental climates –

* winters.

* summers.

* annual temperature range.

Example;

Shade the areas on the map where there would be a marine climate.

(In this example we will ignore the planetary winds.)

Large oceans moderate the climatic temperatures of surrounding coastal land areas because the temperature of ocean water changes

(1) rapidly, due to water’s low specific heat

(2) rapidly, due to water’s high specific heat

(3) slowly, due to water’s low specific heat

(4) slowly, due to water’s high specific heat

Which factor most likely causes two cities at the same elevation and latitude to have different yearly average temperature ranges?

(1) rotation of Earth

(2) duration of insolation

(3) distance from a large body of water

(4) direction of prevailing winds

3 -

➢ if the winds blow from water to land,

Example;

Shade the areas on the map where the prevailing winds enhance a marine climate.

The arrows in the cross section below show the prevailing winds moving across northern New York State into Vermont during the summer.

Compared to the climate of location A, the climate of location B is

(1) warmer and wetter (3) cooler and wetter

(2) warmer and drier (4) cooler and drier

4 -

➢ currents flowing away from the equator carry

to latitudes and cause the climate to be

and .

➢ currents flowing away from the poles, carry

waters to latitudes and cause the climate to be

and .

Which ocean current transports warm water away from Earth’s equatorial region?

(1) Brazil Current (3) Falkland Current

(2) Guinea Current (4) California Current

London, England, is located at approximately 51° 30' north latitude and 0° longitude. Elmira, New York, is located at approximately 42° 10' north latitude and 76° 54' west longitude. What is one reason why London has a warmer average winter temperature than Elmira?

(1) London is located closer to the equator.

(2) London is located at a higher elevation.

(3) London’s climate is modified by the North Atlantic Ocean Current.

(4) London’s climate is modified by its longer duration of insolation.

5 -

➢ the higher the altitude, at any given latitude,

➢ areas of higher altitude tend to have

Example;

Shade the areas on the map where higher elevations will make the climate colder and wetter.

The arrows on the cross section below show the prevailing wind that flows over a mountain. Points A and B represent locations on opposite sides of the mountain.

Which statement correctly describes the differences in the climates of locations A and B?

(1) Location A is warmer and drier than location B.

(2) Location A is cooler and wetter than location B.

(3) Location B is warmer and wetter than location A.

(4) Location B is cooler and drier than location A.

6 –

➢ windward side is and .

➢ leeward side is and .

diagram;

Example;

Shade the side of the mountains that will receive more precipitation.

Write the word “dry” to indicate where a “rain shadow” (desert) will occur.

The cross section below shows the flow of winds over a mountain ridge.

The heaviest rainfall would most likely occur on which side of this mountain and in which type of air mass?

(1) on the leeward side, in a mP air mass

(2) on the leeward side, in a cT air mass

(3) on the windward side, in a mT air mass

(4) on the windward side, in a cP air mass

7 -

➢ vegetation will keep an area

-----------------------

1 - draw mineral grains.

2 - shade in the minerals.

3 - label the location of a pore space.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT

INFILTRATION

Areas of sinking air and dry climate.

Areas of rising air and humid climate.

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