Methods of research exam - BU

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Benha University

Faculty of Nursing

Nursing administration department

Methods of Research

1st Term 4th Year

Final Exam

Date: 26 /1 /2011 time : 2 hours degree: 100

All questions to be answered:

i. Define the following : ( 10 degree)

1- Veracity

Obligation to tell the truth

1- Clinical nursing research:

Is research designed to generate knowledge to guide nursing practice and to improve the health and quality of life of nurses’ clients.

2- Sampling

Is the process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the entire population.

3- Research Design.

i. a plan for gathering data for answering specific research questions.

ii. the framework used to conduct the research.

4- Research proposals:

i. are documents describing what researchers propose to study, prepared before a project has commenced.

ii. Are Clear, concise, well-organized document that spells out what it is you propose to do and why you are proposing to do it.

ii. Short Answers ( 20 degree)

1- The specific purposes of nursing research include:-

1- identification,

2- description,

3- exploration,

4- explanation,

5- prediction,

6- and control

2 - Research reports can take various forms as:-

1- papers,

2- dissertations,

3-journal articles,

4-presentations at professional conferences

3-major class of quantitative study are:

➢ 1- Experimental designs:

o Experimental

o Quasi-experimental

➢ 2- Non-experimental designs:

o Descriptive

o Correlational

4- Types of biophysiologic measures are :-

1-in vivo measures.

2-in vitro measures.

5-List ( 5) Qualitative Research Methods:-

• Observation

• In-depth interviews

• Focus groups

• Discourse/content analysis

• Case studies

• Oral history

◆ Video

◆ Text and Image analysis (documents, media data)

6- Types of qualitative self-report techniques are:-

1- -Completely unstructured interviews

2- Semi-structured (or focused) interviews

3- Focus group interviews.

4- Life histories

5- The think aloud method

6- Personal diaries

7- The critical incidents technique .

iii. -Identify which of the following research could be Quantitative Research and which are Qualitative Research. ( 5 degree)

1- Bournes and Mitchell (2002) undertook an in-depth study to describe the experience of waiting in a critical care waiting room.

The Answer ………………… Qualitative Research …………………………………………………….

2- Hupcey (2000) undertook a study that involved the development of a model explaining the psychosocial needs of patients in the intensive care unit. Feeling safe was the overwhelming need of patients in the intensive care unit.

The Answer …………………… Quantitative Research ………………………………………………………

3- McDonald, Freeland, Thomas, and Moore (2001) conducted a study to determine the effectiveness of a preoperative pain management intervention for relieving pain among elders undergoing surgery.

The Answer …………………… Quantitative Research ……………………………………………………

4- Sadala and Mendes (2000) explored the experiences of 18 nurses who cared for patients who had been pronounced brain dead but kept alive to serve as organ donors.

The Answer …………… Qualitative Research ……………………………………………………………….

5-Reynolds and Neidig (2002) studied the incidence and severity of nausea accompanying combinative antiretroviral therapies among HIV infected patients, and explored patterns of nausea in relation to patient characteristics.

The Answer …………………… Quantitative Research ……………………………………………………

iv. matching ( 5 degree)

| | | | |

|No |A |No |B |

|1 |Person undertaking the study |1 |Directional hypothesis |

|2 |System of organizing concepts |2 |dependent Variable |

|3 |Relationship between a single independent variables and a single dependant |3 |Study participant |

| |variable | | |

|4 |Information gathered |4 |Concepts |

|5 |variables that the researcher creates. |5 |Deductive reasoning |

|6 |It is a process by which specifics are inferred from general principles. |6 |Qualitative Research |

|7 |Build theories |7 | Theory |

|8 |Person contributing information |8 |active variables |

|9 |Specifies not only the existence but the expected direction of the |9 |Simple hypothesis |

| |relationship | | |

|10 |That which is being investigated |10 |Inductive reasoning |

| | |11 |Quantitative Research |

| | |12 |Data |

| | |13 |Investigator |

|The |1 |2 |3 |

|answer | | | |

|1 |Research is not systematic inquiry that uses disciplined methods to answer questions or solve problems. |T | |

|2 |A problem statement is an expression of dilemma or disturbing situation that needs investigation . |T | |

|3 |Closed ended questions allow participants to respond to question in their own words | |F |

|4 |Interview after the possibility of complete anonymity. | |F |

|5 |When an attribute is extremely varied in the group under investigation, the group is said to be heterogeneous |T | |

|6 |in non experimental research, researchers make observations of existing situations and characteristics without |T | |

| |intervening. | | |

|7 |Research questions direct rewording of statements of purpose interrogatively rather than declaratively. |T | |

|8 |Background of the problem need to provide a brief, focused review of the literature |T | |

|9 |The proposal is comprehensible to only expert in the field | |F |

|10 |The most common scaling technique is the visual analog scale. | |F |

|11 |Sample in Qualitative Research is large sample. | |F |

|12 |Life histories are narrative self disclosures about individual life experiences |T | |

|13 |Researcher used standardized instruments in Qualitative Research. | |F |

|14 |Open ended questions are more difficult to construct | |F |

|15 |Qualitative Research is test theories | |F |

v. -- Differentiate ( 15 degree)

1- Basic research and applied research.

|Basic research |applied research |

|Undertaken to advance knowledge in a given area, helps the researcher |Undertaken to remedy a particular problem or modify a situation, helps the |

|understand relationships among phenomena. |researcher to make decisions or evaluate techniques. (Clinical nursing |

|Pursuit of knowledge or finding truth |problems). |

|Generates, refines or tests theory |Knowledge intended to directly influence clinical practice |

|Often uses laboratory setting |Conducted in actual practice conditions |

|Findings may not be directly useful in practice |Solve problems, make decisions, predict/control outcomes |

|May be used later in development of treatment/ drug/ theory |Evaluate interventions |

| |Test/validate theories |

| |Evaluate “Basic” research knowledge for usefulness |

2- Probability sampling and non Probability sampling

|Probability sampling |Non Probability sampling |

|(random sample): It is a sample which is chosen so that every member of the |(non-random sample): This is sample chosen according to the person's |

|population is equally likely to be a member of the sample. |own judgment so result cannot be generalized to the whole population. |

|Simple random sample: This a sample drawn in such way that every individual in |There are three types of non probability sampling: |

|the population has an equal chance of appearing in the sample. |A- convenience sampling: It uses participants who are easily accessible|

|B- Stratified random sample: In this case, we start by dividing the population |to the researcher and who meet the criteria of the study. |

|into different strata according to their characteristics (e.g. male and female,|Snawball sampling: It is a particular type of convenience sampling in |

|different age groups, rural and urban). Then from each of those strata, we |which the researcher net works with a small sample of accessible |

|choose a random sample from each stratum, the final sample is the total of the |participants and use them to assist in identifying other participants |

|samples from different strata. |with the specific trait. |

|C- Cluster sampling: In this case the population first divided in to clusters |B- Quota sampling: In this case the population are divided into strata |

|or groups as sample units rather than individuals and all the elements within |then the researcher determines which strata are to be studied, then |

|the chosen cluster are examined (e.g. house holds, schools) and the sample is |computers number of participants needed for each strata, once quota for|

|selected from these clusters by simple random method. |each strata is determined, the subjects are solicited via a convenience|

|D-Multistage sampling: in this case the sample is taken in a series of stages. |sampling method. |

|First, start by big clusters (e.g. zones) from this draw a sample, each zone is|C- Purposive/theoretical/judgemental sampling: In this type, the |

|then divided into cities and villages, and from each of these you can choose a |researcher based on knowledge and expertise of the subject, selects or |

|sample, from each city choose a district or house by random method, and then |hand picks the elements of the study. The chosen element are though to |

|randomly draw a sample of families or individuals. |best represent the phenomena being studied. |

|E- Systematic sampling: Relies on arranging the target population according to | |

|some ordering scheme and then selecting elements at regular interval through | |

|the ordered list. In this case we choose every Nth individual e.g. every 5th, | |

|10th, etc., the first one to be included should be randomly selected. | |

vi. -Write one research proposal, either quantitative or qualitative for problem you select. ( 25 degree)

According to the problem you select, you must present it in this sequence:-

- Title

- Introduction

- Significance of the problem

- Aim of the study

Research question

- Subject and methods

Research design

Setting

Subject

Tools of data collection

Methods of data collection

- Results

- discussion

- Conclusion

- Recommendation

- Reference

Good luck

Dr : Mahboba Sobhy

Dr: Latifa Tawfik

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