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Study Guide: REL 105 – Dr. SnyderFall 2017Scheindlin - The Book of JobSummary Job, a righteous and prosperous man, struggles with suffering when all his possessions are taken away from him (due to a deal between the Accuser and God). His friends (Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar) believe that Job is receiving punishment for his sins and urges him to repent. Job ends up almost cursing God. Elihu says that Job is wrong to curse God and the day he was born. God answers Job and says that he has no idea who God is and the power he possesses. Job repents for cursing God and continues being a righteous man now blessed yet again. Focuses two issues Suffering: Is there a reason behind this? Knowledge: Can I know it? (idea of talking to someone, in this case God)Theodicy: definition of the problem of evil in light of God Atheist argument good/evil and right/wrong“Why?” - even Jesus asks this question himselfTheodicy Thoughts:Should we deserve punishment because of original sin, if so how much? Also just because someone is a sinner does that mean they should suffer more than others? Story says Job is righteous, yet he still suffered “Do we not accept the good with the bad?” -JobJustice- ppl ask what am I doing wrong? Yet we many not be doing anything wrong and the fact that we center that question around ourselves may be arrogant. Scientific Naturalism: Belief that all effects are caused by material things. May or may not imply spirit, yet spirit has nothing to do with creating or natural process. Box theory: Is the box steel or spongy? Can we hear/see God or is the box sealed from all intelligent design concepts (blind watchmaker) Craftsmanship:Real character and story/ historical but slightly changed? Yet message of the book is the same either way whether historically accurate or not. Presented literarily. Structure = Prose, Poetry, Prose Parallelism: orderly, Hebrew poetry is very orderly, yet Scheindlin says poetry is more free Scheindlin’s Interpretation:Prose: sets the stage, introduction is on the rational basis, the original storyPoetry: shows the emotion and expression, shows the Author still had a love of life, comforting to move “from rational to emotional like beautiful diversion which gives rich delight that takes away from pain and gives us a voice to vent.” Story of Job = the story of Everyman - relatable story, gives emotion to our ventingTheodicy: there doesn’t have to be a reason for suffering and we may not have the knowledge to know why something happens and that’s okay. We are looking for meaning that doesn’t exist Satin isn’t mentioned in his introduction… do we dismiss chp 1-2 or not? Different Jobs?Do you see commonality between raging Job and Job the patient or are they separate? Meditation on Wisdom: At surface it is still poetry, yet on what basis do we prove it is real poetry or not? Sheindlin this it’s too rational to match the overall emotion of the rest of the poetry. Useful for people who are more rational and need a bit of summary in their reading to follow along Ecclesiastes-Summary:Vanity vanity vanity. No context Wisdom literatureJob-suffering/why do we suffer? Psalms-worship Proverbs-family/work Ecclesiastes-meaning of life/whats the point? Song of Solomon-love song/deals with marraigeFocuses on the meaning of life Ch. 1-Endless cycle of vanityCh. 12-coming deathThesis: Vanity of vanitiesBasis: Observation and reflectionExperiment: Ch.2- try to enjoy lifeDifference? Wise and fool both dieBoth books point to a need for the resurrection Conclusion: There has to be a resurrection, otherwise life is pointless“Eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we die”“Heaven will make life on earth look like one night in a bad hotel”Thornbury - “Assessment of Shaffer on Aquinas”Schaeffer say Aquinas separates philosophy from theologySchaeffer says Thomas said “will is fallen, intellect is not”“What Schaeffers argument lacks in technical merit, it gains in historical applicability.Aquinas, Summa contra Gentiles, 1.3-4, 7-8 Because we are human, we are limited in what we are able to understand about GodGod is not limited by our perception of sense/reason “As the eyes of bats are to the sun, so is the intelligence of our soul to the things most manifest by nature”3 disadvantages of leaving God to reasonKnowledge of God confined to fewSome too stupid, busy, or lazy2. Would take a very long time3. Bound to make errors“No opinion or belief is sent to man from God contrary to natural knowledge”“...because it surpasses reason, it is counted by some as contrary to reason which cannot be”Conclusion: understanding God is impossibleSchaeffer, Escape from Reason3552825104775value/faith/religion/subjectivefacts/proof/objective/discussionvalue/faith/religion/subjectivefacts/proof/objective/discussionFact/value Split:Upper story/lower story Some argue no connection between the two Yet in order to gain value we need to take a leap of faith Its impossible to maintain a split - instances like racism prove this Leap of Faith/Faith:Leap of faith: a risk, some unknown; go out on a limb to do something that doesn’t seem rational, belief in the irrational, not reasoned, a faith in faith. God could be a sense of purpose/ an idol we live for People wanted to maintain christianity's meaning so showed piousness towards GodIt’s okay to not know everything about God/ part of believing means not knowing all the answersWe are personal and not infinite so we can talk to God and he hears but may not respond. Necessary and Sufficient:Difference between these reasonsCollection of books not just one singular book. Because one story is proved inaccurate doesnt mean the others are as well. Summary of a bunch of authors and the modern diversion away from a world where we are separate from but also connect to God simultaneously. Wells, “Survival of the Fakest” The Design Inference:Methodological naturalism: look for natural causes, nothing besides nature, we can only deal with causation. Philosophical naturalism: we are in a box but can look outward beyond the box to help get more of an understanding What if the thing I’m looking at includes more than nature? What if data implies intelligence? All sides agree that nature has an appearance of design. Gould, “Impeaching a Self-Appointed Judge”Split between religion and scienceJohnson, “Response to Gould”Racism is both science and morality, therefore it is impossible to maintain a split Ruse, “Transcript”Accepts that evolution is a theory but still believes in it Just as much faith to believe in religion or macroevolution Meyer, “A Scientific History- and Philosophical Defense - of the Theory of Intelligent Design” Intra vs interspecies: intra = adaptation within species and inter = all from one speciesWhat kind of Science? - a historical evaluation of causes that affect what you see. creating past causes from current events. Not repeatability: not scientific law From this you acquire firm lawWhat kind of Data?Irregular and complex - no patterns, scatter plotRegular and not complex - natural causesRegular and complex - language, hint at intelligent designExplanatory Limits:Specified complexity: is regular and complexIrreducible complexity: you can’t break down any further Analogous Model/ Language Families:Can’t go back to one source but few are at the start of creationDistinct ones cannot be linked together Information through intelligence, life is too complicated to be chance which shows some sort of designGenesisContext: our questions about the creation of man wasn’t part of the original context. Genesis was rather a map of the beginning of families and where nations came from. A book of Beginnings Man as man: in the image of God (Genesis 9:6 - whoever harms man will also be harmed because you are ruining the image of God)Family: woman is from man Sin & Death: moral causeGovernment: covenant Nations: tower of Babel (languages create nations, unique way of binding ppl together)A tradition of Faith: “father of..” “seed of…” “named…”Summary:1.light and dark 2. Heaven and earth 3. Land and sea 4. Stars(sun) and moon 5. Water and air life 6. Land life (humans and animals)Introduction to Genesis:Identity: Who are we? heritage/ nations/ actions/ beliefs/ passions/ associations? Memory is key to identity Outline: (toledoth: historical narrative) Chp 1-11: World 1:1 Introduction (story)2:4 Heavens and Earth 5:1 Adam (genealogy)6:9 Noah (story)10:1 Sons of Noah (genealogy)11:10 Shem (genealogy)11:27 Terah (story)Chp 12-50: 1 family (toledoth generations)25:12 Ishmael (genealogy)25:19 Isaac (story)36:1 Esau (genealogy)37:2 Jacob (story)As Humans we need 2 big things - THIS WILL BE ON TEST RevelationResurrection Abraham: The Father of Faith: Calling, Lying, Believing, Covenant, Seed, TestedSeed and antithesis, will never combine seed of women and seed of serpent Themes: Genesis 1:1 create, form and fullness, historical narrative“In the beginning God created the heavens & the earth” Genesis 12:1-3 promises of land and seed, blessings v. curse, relationship with God“Go forth from your country and from your relatives, and from your father's house, to the land which I will show you. And I will make you a great nation… and so you shall be a blessing… and in you all the families of the earth will be blessed.”Questions: Who is God? Who is man? What is the problem? Solution? Exodus 1-24, 32-34Documentary Hypothesis: documents behind the texts we have point to different names of God, ppl stitched them together to form a single book. (JEDP)Name of God: Yahweh = I am, verb to be, “I am who I am,” “I will be what I will be,” “Gracious on whom I am gracious,” shows God is whenever and wherever he wants. TimeIn the LandOut of the land 2000 B.C.patriarchsEgypt Wilderness1400 B.C.judges and kingsbabylon and cyrus600 B.C.Scribes 70A.D. JesusRoman EmpireSlavery SalvationSinaiMultiplicationBurning BushRock and MannaMosesPlaguesTen “words”PassoverGolden CalfRed Sea“Higher Criticism” - the Cyrus question - Isaiah 45:1 - did people insert prophesies or were they already there, Ch 44-66 written later Response:1. No manuscript poof 2. Different names of God mentioned don’t lead to two different sources 3. Repetition proves against 2 sourcesGod protects them when few in number and under threat Israel multiplies and then becomes a target to Egypt, plagues come and pumble Egyptians, God remembers covenant with Abraham and so he blesses them Golden Calf + Ten commandments: (know 3)Godly: 1. No other Gods 2. No graven images 3. Name not in vain 4. Sabbath Lineage/ Heritage: 5. Honor father and mother Neighborly: 6. No murder7. No adultery 8. No stealing 9. No false witness 10. No coveting/strong desires(what breaks a man’s pride lies in his heart. Most common)Plagues and Passover:Lots of plagues… last one = first born dies. (blood over door of Jews means their first born would live) The Canonization of Israel: Judge Saves723900161925Lord Pity Israel 85248838100Judges 2Judges 2Did evilIsrael Lord angryGroansEnemy OppressedAt the end of each cycle the people became worse and more corrupt along with the judges. Dan: Spiritual Apostasy Benjamin: Moral Apostasy Canonization: ppl don’t follow God’s command to break away from canan lifestyle so they soon become corrupt and allow both cultures to mix. Judges: people who save sinful israelites Conquest →Judges →KingsJoshuaOthnielSaulEhud DavidBarakSolomonWhy TotalGideoneliminateJephthahLeast be aSamsonsnareEliSamuelWhy Slow?Testing them Teaching them 1 Samuel Why a king? Wanted a physical leader to followA king like the other nationsKing was not necessary for Israelites reasons Necessary for God’s reason, people need more gov.King is a necessary evilThey need a king that will lead them to GodWhat do we learn about man?Faith-Jonathan, David - represent faithful men to God Pride-Saul - representation of pridefulness and how it corrupts What do we learn about God?“Let me know your ways that I may know you” - Exodus 33:13Glory realism, not idealism2 Samuel David (King)Absalom (David’s Son)Joab (Leader of David’s army)Summary:What can we learn about man?Sentimentalism can lead to a loss of focusLoyalty and Patriotism can lead to immortality (either can be extreme/ taken too far)What can we learn about God?Silence doesn’t imply approval, justice can be delayed and subtleLessonThe best of men, are men at best. (David = humanized)New Era/linesSamuel - creates a line of prophetsDavid - creates a line of Kings (dynasty) (man of war)Solomon - built God’s Temple (man of peace)Covenant (promise or oath to be or to do) Noah: won’t flood the earth again Abraham: land and seed Moses: If... Then… (Ex 19:5-6) covenants David: have a house (dynasty) for eternity (seed promises) New Covenant ( Jeremiah 31:31-34)Psalm 110 Most cited part of Bible God isn’t only interested in what is said but how it’s said, not only truth but also beauty (like Hebrew scriptures)Isaiah 36-55From Isaiah comes a series of prophets History: Old testament writing is of promises, things God says he will do. Seed of womenSeed of SerpentPromiselawGospel“added”Gen 3:15B.C.A.DSeed of womenSeed of SerpentPromiselawGospel“added”Gen 3:15B.C.A.DPromise: Things God says he will do Monotheism Challenge: tell us what you’re going and then do it Law: Added. Only there to prove that people are sinful and not religious. Gov/kings it’s a necessary evil Gospel: good news. That God is fulfilling his promises in the person and work of Jesus Christ. The overall message is that God is not as wrathful as we think in the Old Testament and it’s not just comprised of law. Law was added on top of promises and proves that God had good intentions later in timeLessons: Christianity is…Not an ideal (philosophical) Not an ethic (morals)But an event (history) - real people, real places, real timesGod gives us a witness on our level where we can test and examine it Prophecy: the monotheism challenge to the idols (Isaiah 41-48) Historicism: (when scientific naturalism applies to history)Seamless web of inevitable progress. Incidents MUST happen which rivals prophecy. Think of the boxC.S. Lewis and Truck Picture:View from the pack of a pickup truck mimics life. You can only see backwards and the further forward you go the more you forget what is behind you/ can’t see it once it’s too far. If you look left you miss the right and if you look right you miss the left. The only person who can see forward is the driver, this is God Responses: Skepticism: no one know the big picture Traditionalism: comfort in a large group Revelation: ask the driver Jeremiah 25, 31Reset of Israel, “If my people are judged, all nations will be judged”HabakkukViolence in Israel leads to judgement by BabylonPunishment fits the crime2. “They’re worse than us”Wicked are punished3. Praise song: “In wrath remember mercy”DanielOld EmpiresEgypt-SouthIsraelAssyria-NorthNew EmpiresBabylon-head of GoldLion w wingsMedo-Persian-chest of silverBear on one sideGreece-Legs of BronzeLeopard with 4 wingsRome-feet of Iron/clayBeast w iron teethKingdom of God-rock - mountains that rise up from stone Empires as beasts-cruelty of empires. People complain about other’s sinning yet are wiped out themselves. God levels the playing fields by crushing them all. (all proud ppl will be punished. Those who are saved are righteous and live by faith. In vain you must remember God’s mercy) Antichrist pattern-little horn, rulers that use religious like words but use them for evil. Necessary evil to punish people and to lead them more towards God instead of depending on the ruler. The hand-Sovereignty of God that controls all things. ORDERPeople:AdamJobNoahShemAbrahamIsaac/IshmaelJacob/EsauJudah/JosephMosesJoshuaOthnielEhudBarakGideonJephthahSamsonEliSamuelSaulDavid/ Absalom/ JoabSolomonIsaiahDanielBooks:GenesisExodus Deuteronomy Judges1 Samuel 2 Samuel Job Psalms ProverbsEcclesiastesSolomon Isaiah Jeremiah Daniel HabbakukMalachiPOSSIBLE ESSAY QUESTIONSExplain intelligent design using the following words: design inference, complex & regular, specified complexity, irreducible complexity Explain Sheindlin's view of the book of Job and poetry v. proseEXAM 2Mark Christianity and Liberalism by Machen Sermon on the Mount - Matthew 5-7John 1,5,13-17Acts 1-2, 15Galatians, Romans 1 PeterPliny’s LetterMartyrdom of PerpetuaNicene CreedChalcedonian CreedAthanasian CreedEXAM 2Mark 10/13Four Gospels: the four portraits all give a very different image of a complicated character. Still about one event. Matthew - Jewish Audience, Son of David the King, emphasis on authority Mark - Roman audience, suffering servant Luke - Greek Audience, Son of Man, Jesus’ humanity John - Universal audience, Son of God, Jesus’ divinity We don’t have the exact words of Jesus but we have his voice through the gospels, they are flexible culturallyNo BIOGRAPHIES but portraits - these are called Preachments instead, way to preach (know and believe), Jesus is the fulfillment of God’s promisesRelationshipThe synoptic problem: all very related and intertwined but different wording eachQuelle - hypothetical theory of source material quotes in order to promote political viewpoints of this section in the church. They often put words into Jesus’ mouth in order to prove their point, rewrote everything to fit their history What do men say that I am, what do you say that I am ?Catagories Elijah, other prophets, messiah, Son of God Identity “Christ”Didn’t know this till he said he would die on the cross. The “Anointed One” = Christ = messiah 1. Kingly: Reign of God to Man - top down 2. Priestly: Represents sin of Man to God - bottom up 3. Jesus is the mediator who goes between two parties Christianity and Liberalism by Machen 10/16 - 10/23Modernism and Machen Machen (1881-1937) - influenced by professor Herman, German religious thought and deep faith in ChristianityHow can we not believe in physical resurrection and while still be devoted to Christ? Modernism Progressivism- translate into new age, old document but can be brought into new eraThe theological progressives believe that Jesus isn’t his literal son but that his relationship to God makes him a son of God. Theological liberalism - Christianity is a life/spirit, not doctrine Gospels are fiction and natural describe psychologically what happened in the form of a myth, no historical claims Common FactorSchleiermacher - faith is a feeling of dependence on God Strauss - first one to flat out deny that Gospels are accurate - begins quest for historical Jesus Machen - basically a polemic writing to attack out of level of disgust. repetitive/emphasis Liberalism Throws out all miracles, determines their view of Christianity Conflict with history/ facts/ and miraclesTemptation to say “How do we know he has risen?”Need of the hour - to reflourish Christian education. Starts at home with family and church Fact/Value split is bad. We need history and personal experience Science doesn’t apply to religion, only personal experience - this is where problems come fromSermon on the Mount 10/16Jesus sat down and spoke “blessed are the….for they shall recieve____. Marks on their way to heaven”Differentiates himself from them - goes over teachings and how they correlate to actions TeachingsIf you’ve been angry = sin, look lustfully = sinPresses the law in full, they are ABSOLUTES Love your enemies and pray for them Action Praying and fasting, feeding the poorYou can do these things in secret without recognition Can’t serve God and curse at the same time He is about the heart not appearances If you’re life doesn’t surpass the scribes and pharisees then you don’t get into heaven 2 kinds of people Seed of women Seed of serpent Do the will of the father in heaven in order to receive eternal life. Need to be changed by God through actions. Jesus split the nation. Didn’t bring peace but a sword Matthew 5-7 10/16All that God has promised is now being fulfilled through Jesus Son of David: eternal throne Son of Abraham: worldwide blessing Assessment - how we assess claims, docs, persons. Because Jesus didn’t write anythingPresent: Puzzle of his person Humility and Claims - egotistical claims with humility C.S. Lewis - liar, lunatic, lord J Gresham Machen -Future: Phenomenon of the Church Martyrs of Peace - witness, died w/o fighting back Movement Past: Prophecies of Old Covenant Messianic Psalms Isaiah 53 - looks like Jesus, remarkably like him John 1,5,13-17 10/18 BOMFOG-Brotherhood of Man, Fatherhood of God-chief doctrine of liberalismJesus-The Apostle of GodApostle-official representative of someone w/their authority and their message (John 5:19)Jesus in the gospel of JohnSpoke God’s wordsDid God’s worksTraitsLimited to God’s works and wordsCoextensive with God’s works and wordsConclusionJesus is translation of God into “our terms”God became one of us to be understoodImage/revelation- “The word”WorshipJesus-The Lamb of GodCentral message of New Testament-1 Corinthians 15Christ died for our sins “Gospel”-Christ rose againTraits:Deliberate: Jesus chose to die-not a victimUnjust: Oppression-trial by night was illegalPublic: crucifixion- “lifted up”-humiliatingVicarious: For others, died in their placeAbandoned: “My God, why have you forsaken me?”Vindicated: Rose again, coming soon 10/20 Apostle: ambassador and messenger in the name of authority/ GodYou cannot self appoint yourself as an apostle Jesus = an apostle of God John 1:1 word was God 1:14 Word became flesh among us 1:18 he explained him as God the Son Send truth of Holy Spirit out with them God →Jesus → Holy Spirit (Apostles) All work at revealing the invisible God to us. Apostles sent out with Holy Spirit Spirit of Truth Teach them truth 288607547625Apostles The 12 gone to JewsSual Paul To gentilesApostles The 12 gone to JewsSual Paul To gentilesBring to remembrance of his words Bear witness to Jesus Guide them all into truth Disclose to them the things to come Apostles Peter and John in Palestine with Jesus Saul = not one of 12 disciples Target Audience = gentiles Acts 1-2, 15 10/25Galatians 10/25Main Issues in Theology:Authority (Chs. 1-2) - Who says? Chapter 2 - Paul corrects Peter.Galatians 1:8-9 - “But even if we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to you a gospel contrary to what we have preached to you, he is accursed!...”Justification (Chs. 3-4) - “Being right with God” (How saved?)Liberty (Chs. 5-6) - How live?Romans 10/25Orderly Presentation of Christian TheologyThe wrath of GodThe righteousness of GodThe Glory of GodThe people of GodThe Church of GodBible is like the constitution of the Church.Christianity is…Universal religionGrace religionResurrection religionExclusive - Jesus alone is the way!Inclusive - Open to all who believe!1 Peter 10/30Pliny’s Letter 10/30Martyrdom of Perpetua 10/30Nicene Creed 10/30325 AD“Begotten not Made”-must be eternalTrinity-1 being, 3 personsDiscusses divinity of ChristChalcedonian Creed 10/30Definition of Chalcedon-451 ADIncarnation-1 person, 2 natures-hypostatic unionApollinarius-1 person, 1 nature-no human mindNestorius-2 person, 2 naturesFour Fences-2 natures without…Confusion, Change, Division, Separation Can't explain incarnationAthanasian Creed 10/30Athanasius of AlexandriaArian ControversyArius: “There was a time when he (Jesus) was not”Nicene Creed“Begotten, not made”-must be eternalArian Persecution-Athanasius exiled 5 timesConstantine baptized by ArianCappadocian settlementLike the Father in all things-consubstantialOn the incarnation - Athanasius 11/1- - 11/33 eras in Church HistoryPatristics-70 ADNero-begins Roman persecutionConstantine-ends persecutionBarbarians-Rome sackedMedieval-600 ADPope Gregory IMohammedCharlemagne-coronated, became king, Dec 25 800-promoted educationModern-1517 AdErasmus-published New Testament “Laid the egg Luther hatched”Luther, CalvinCouncil of Trent-Catholic response to reformationOn the IncarnationTradition-sign of the crossConfessions - Augustine 11/6AugustineUniquely western writerCould there have been a reformation without Augustine?Writings:ConfessionsCity of GodOn the TrinityPelagian Controversy“Could not live without a woman”-LustConfessionsDefinition-confess sins to GodHumility-Chief initial virtueLove-result of humility, chief goal for AugustineBody soul GodUse vs. Enjoy-use created things to enjoy God, not vice versaFound Beauty in GodDevelopments in ChristianityBishopsGuarantee of OrthodoxyPatriarchs vs Primacy of RomeAlexandria, Antioch--Rome, Constantinople--JerusalemRitualsInfant baptism?--original sinIf babies don't have sin, why do we baptize them?Saints and Icons--relicsHonor or Worship? Honor can lead to idolatry and worshipIconoclasm- “Battle against the Icons”--removing of statues, paintings, etc.MaryTheotokos- “God bearer”- “Mother of God”Lex Orandi-Lex Credendi? Other way aroundLegitimate doctrinal development?Imperial Impulse in western christianity Gregory I (540-604) first medieval Pope/Political leaderGovernmentalExpansive-expands Rome’s dominance over EuropePaternalistic-writes the mass-Father over all ChristiansConfessions - Patrick 11/8Patrick of Ireland (390-460)Evangelical impulse in western christianity Hagiography vs. Confession-Many legends about PatrickPersonal TraitsLegacyThe Great CommissionWestern Civilization“Man of one book”-BibleBelieved he was fulfilling the Great CommissionOn Free Will - Anselm 11/10Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages - Gilson 11/10Development of the PapacyGospel goal-freedomUnity vs uniformityUnity-ok with differences-ex. Dress code as guidelinesUniformity-everyone must be the same-ex. Dress code as what you must wearPolity-Decentralized government12 Apostles & PaulLeadership-representative on earth?Human tendency: visible king-Christ like figureIs this necessary/allowed?Test: Office? Man?Criteria: Doctrinal & Moral “Fruit”-evaluated theology with moralityChallenge: Jesus Himself fulfills role of David; Holy Spirit is His Vicar on earthImperial Papacy-Trend toward temporal powerGregory I-PurgatoryGregory III-ImagesAdrian I-Excommunicated a KingLeo III-Right to judge everyoneNicholas I-Princes over all the earthPapal States-Vatican political stateCapitulary of Saxony-Charlemagne forces saxons to convertPseudo Isidorian Decretals- Proven falsePornocracy-Prostitutes involved with PopeCluny ReformsIssuesIncontinence with PriestsSimonyLay InvestitureGregory VII (1073-1085)Innocent III (1198-1216)Lateran Council (1102)Paschal II (1116)ResultsAuthority-Lateran council (authority to Rome), Paschal II (Indulgences)Crusades (use of sword)Inquisition (use of sword)Islam and Scholastic Theology 11/13Assessment of the “A” teamBible ExplorationAthanasiusAugustineLogical ExplorationAnslemAquinasDiscovery leads to scholasticismFaith vs. ReasonAugustine-Faith seeking understandingAquinas-reason seeking faithFreedom of a Christian - Luther 11/15The Indulgence Controversy3 componentsMartin Luther (1483-1546)Augustinian MonkDoctor of Sacred ScriptureParish PriestCalls for reform2 waysCouncil-externalMysticism-internal/personalExample: Lateran vs. council (1512-1517)New wayPico della mirandola-Humanism, improve morals by educationPiety and Paideia (Classical education)Erasmus-published Greek New Testament (1516)“Laid egg Luther hatched”Protestant way: RadicalIndependent of PapacyWant doctrinal changeLate Medieval scholastic theologySynthesis: Augustine & AquinasSacramental theology: ex opere operatoSum:Grace: a powerSalvation: a process of meritProcess: no certainty of heavenMerit: Depends on us (our will)Church: salvation in the church, on authority of traditionKey difference: Change/Full acceptanceReformation Debate - Calvin and Sadoleto 11/17, 11/2011/17Reformed Christianity3 eras, 3 groups, 3 protestant groupsLutheran-GermanReformed-Scotland, Dutch, English PuritansAnglican-Church of England, Episcopalians---methodistsBeginnings: SwitzerlandZurich: Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)Covenant Baptism-replaced circumcisionMemorial supper (communion)-not literal body and blood of Jesus-no transubstantiation “Bibliocracy”-Bible is KingAnabaptists-Ana=againGeneva: John Calvin (1509-1564)Humanist and sudden conversionInstitutes of the Christians religion2 curses threatened if Calvin didn't stay to preach in GenevaHow did these groups relate to each other?Reformed and LutheranMarburg Colloquy (1529)Agreed on everything but communion-transubstantiationProtestant and CatholicAugsburg (1530)-first confession from protestants to catholicsRegensburg (1541)- “Double Justification”-protestant and catholic view combinedLuther:Too vagueConsequencesCatholicismCatholic reform or counter reformation?Council of Trent (1545-1563): confessionJacopo SadoletoMotive- salvationPrincipal-value of your soulCharge-schism-break up with church (pride)Principle- unity of the one churchJohn CalvinMotive-glory to GodPrinciple- authorized worshipCharge-spirit without wordPrinciple- ministry of word11/20The Justification Controversy“The main hinge on which religion turns”Challenges:Different than former controversiesNot over God but salvationNot over subtractions, but apparent additionsSame terminology but different meaningsJustify: “To make Righteous” declared-status/transformed-inner changeCalvin: reckoned righteous--forensic definition/courtroomTrent: be made just--medical/healingGraceCalvin: Personal Favor (freely given)Trent: EmpowermentComparisonCalvinDescription of Justification: acceptance reconciled Forgiveness of sinsImputation of Christ’s righteousnessMode of Justification: Imputation (reckoning)What is received: Christ is receivedBoth as righteousness and sanctification--guaranteedWhat result: Certainty of HeavenTrentDescription of Justification: Forgiveness of sinsSanctification and inner renewal--PROCESSMode of justificationFaith, hope, and loveInfusionWhat is received: graceMakes process possible, but not guaranteedWhat result: possibility of heaven11/27Protestant DevelopmentsBenefits of ReformationGospel ClarityJustification by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ aloneVernacular BibleVulgate Bible-Luther/German BibleCongregational SingingLuther-Hymns-normative principle-not prohibited=okReformed-Psalter-regulative principle-”only offer to God what He has prescribed”Protestant DenominationsFormsCreed-confession of faithLiturgy-Form of worshipPolity-form of governanceDevelopments in EnglandBible before reformationWilliam Tyndale-English BibleHenry VIIIThomas Cranmer“Bloody” Mary-Foxe’s book of martyrsQueen Elizabeth I-compromise: Elizabeth settlement-protestant doctrine, catholic formGenevan Influence: Marian ExilesJohn Knox-Scottish PresbyterianEnglish Puritans-purify church of england from PopeStepsCongregational-no bishopSeparatists- no state church/separate church and state-pilgrimsBaptists-no infant baptismResults: Presbyterian vs Baptists Hermeneutics-End of ChristianityHermeneutics=interpretation of BiblePresbyterian-if it's ok in Old Testament and no cancelled in New Testament, its OKCircumcised young--Baptize youngBaptists-If in New Testament, its okNo infant baptism, no heretical punishmentReligious liberty Resolutions - Edwards 11/29Pietism and the Evangelical Revivals *review of theological principlesRoman Catholic vs ProtestantNatureGrace continuum (catholic) vs grace alone (protestant)ChristChurch continuum (catholic) vs Faith alone (Protestant)Lutheran vs ReformedReal Presence (lutheran) vs Spiritual presence (reformed)Normative principle (lutheran) vs Regulative principle (reformed)Presbyterian vs BaptistCovenant Baptism vs Believers BaptismOld Testament abrogated? Vs New Testament commandPietists vs Anabaptists (formalism)Philipp Jakob SpenerHeart only vs form onlyLiberalism: separation of head and heartEvangelicalism: A renewal movement in protestantismIllustrations: John 2:23-3:8--NicodemusKey idea:must be born again in Jesus2 rootsPuritans-Form is importantRegenerate Church membership-BaptistsPietism-form doesn't matter as long as heart is in right placeChurch within a church-methodistsFirst Great Awakening (1740s)Puritan: Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)Theologian on revival: religious affectionsPietist: George Whitefield (1714-1770)Grand ItinerantEnd of Parish SystemReal American Dream - Delbanco 12/1, 12/4, 12/612/1Delbanco-The Real American DreamSecularization throughout American historyMelancholy-suspicion that life is meaninglessEcclesiastes-everything is vanityDelbanco believes everyone needs hopeStory that transcends “little self” and gives hopeAmerican Colonist story-ChristianityPragmatism-doesn't matter if it is true as long as it works for youDelbanco was negative towards the PuritansSomething has to make you live for something more than yourself12/4Delbanco-Real American DreamAmerican always has object of hopeFirst God, but turns into NationFirst story-PuritansGod at center-reason for hopeSecond story-what it means to be an AmericanNation becomes center/reason for hopeMen become more concerned w/ discover/progressPracticing deconstruction-cycle of construction/destructionBuilds up story then tears it downThe Modern Missions MovementThe Great CommissionAbrahamIsaiah 49:6 & Psalm 2:8 (messiah)MatthewThe Great OmissionRoman EmpirePatrick and the IrishPost Reformation DevelopmentJesuitsMoravians-radical lutheransAmerican PuritansThe Theological Impasse1700’s British CalvinismIf God requires you to do it, you have the abilityNo obligation because no abilitySolutionJonathan Edwards: Natural ability (as created) - Moral ability (as fallen)George Whitfield: Power of the wordAndrew Fuller: Duty FaithWilliam Carey: “Expect great things from God, Attempt great things for God”Result: A missions century (1800)12/6Delbanco Ch. 3Reason for faith-not just what you believe but WHY you believe itsigns/experience draw conclusionsHuman testimonyDivine testimonySaving faithbelieve in God/God’s wordI believe in JesusPietism and Liberalism Heart vs. FormSpirit vs WordsInfluence of LiberalismGerman Liberalism-Ph. D.-Wilhelm HerrmanAmerican Denominations-FundamentalistsInerrancyBible without error/Biblical LiteralismNorthern Presbyterian (liberal)Northern baptist(liberal)Southern Baptist(not liberal)Lutheran Missouri Synod(not liberal)Roman Catholicism-Vatican II (1962-65)Aggiornamento-modernizeResourcement- new resourcesDoctrinal development-new doctrinePastoral style-no anathemas (curses)Q. How are Puritans and Pietists similar/different?Write essay on final.Reformation - essay The catholics justify authority with the cannon Protestant just have inspiration through God and the Bible Important Concepts: Fact/Value Split - leap of faith Isaiah and Habakkuk Questions - led to documentary hypothesis Ecclesiastes and vanity Land and Seed - Father Abraham Promise, Law and Gospel (Good news)Fiat - God’s spoken word, Fall- going one way and then changes processes Flood- wiped out restarts (sin cant be traced back) - prevents extrapolation and historicity Scientific Naturalism- Ten CommandmentsName of God - I AMModernism Apostles (God to Jesus to Holy Spirit, apostles work through the later)Main issue in theology (Authority, Justification, Liberty) Begotten not made Consubstantial with the father - the same substance as, Eucharist Question of authority - scripture, tradition, creedView of trinity - Eastern vs Western Poetry (Habakkuk, Job 3-41, Psalms) vs. Prose (Genesis, Job 1-2, 42, 1 Samuel, Daniel, Exodus) Lay InvestiturePiety - heart vs. form and spirit vs. words Gnosticism - knowledge, spark of God in man, demiurge (God of matter and matter is evil) dualistic religion spirit vs. body (divine logos became flesh to restore body from decay and corruption and the restore the image of God) Gideon - sign Hezekiah - reformation from Idols Sampson - worst judge Judges: need king because unruled, necessary evil, battle Samuel : king like david not saul, loving and Godlike Covenant: promise or oath Irreducible Complex and irregular - random event, - too many pieces that all function together Irreducible Complex and regular - language, DNA, flagellum Specific complexity and regular - natural causes C.S. Lewis truck analogy Three’s - Patristics, Medieval, Modern Catholic, protestant, orthodox Lutheran, reformed and anglicanCreed, liturgy, polity Reasons for faith - Signs/Experience, Human Testimony, and Divine Testimony Difference between: Lutheran and reformed Presby and Baptist Pietist (form doesn’t Matter) vs Puritan and Anabaptist Calvin and Luther Roman v Protestant Methodists Creeds!!! - Baptismal, Apostles, Nicene Impulses of Western Christianity:Imperial: Gregory IPolitical leader/temporal powerExpanded Rome’s dominanceCame up with the concept of purgatoryEvangelical: Patrick Great CommissionImportant People in order:Matthew - gospel to JewsMark - Romans (Gospel) - Christ = both David and Abraham Luke - Greek (Gospel) John - universal (Gospel) Jesus 1. Spoke God’s words 2. Did God’s works Arius: a time when God was not, 3 beings and 3 persons, lead to Jehovah’s witnessAthanasiusAugustinePatrick of Ireland: @ end of world, uneducated, missions, kidnapped as boy Gregory I - Pope that sent out missionaries Charlemagne - King that began the Holy Roman EmpireAnselmAquinasErasmus - Humanist, classical education movement Martin Luther - Augustinian Monk, against indulgences, felt the church needed to be remodeled, indulgences don’t promote charity, pope is the antichrist, spiritual abuse, should be a priesthood of all believers, keys given to congregationCalvin - Geneva, French humanist, much more reserved, analytical/logical, ON/OFF status of justification - certainty of Heaven, receive Grace one time event, sanctification guaranteed, motive of christians = glory to God with authorized worship, claims church has spirit w/o word needs ministry of wordWilliam Tyndale- translates Bible from Greek/Latin to English (humanists against this and wanted classical and Greek) Henry VIII wanted annulment, declares himself head of church of England, separate from Pope. Thomas Cranmer - grants annulment, Mary kills him Queen “Bloody” mary - daughter of catherine, mary kills him Queen Elizabeth: moderate, protestant, catholic form to protestant doctrine, daughter of Ann John Knox: Scottish Presbyterian Jonathan Edwards: Puritan, theologian of revival, born again, natural ability as created and moral inability as fallenGeorge Whitefield: pietist preacher, end of parish system, power of the word, born again John Wesley: Oxford Holy club, moravians - pietism Machen - Amr. theology, studied in Germany, wrote about Liberalism Dates:800 A.D. Christmas Day - Charlemagne October 31st 1517 - 99 theses Reformation 70 A.D. Temple Destroyed 1054 Great Schism Pietist under Lutheran - church within a church Puritans under Reformed follow the BibleReformed = Regulative, only do what’s said (Psalms)Pietists = Normative, if it doesn’t prohibit you can do it (Hymns) ................
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