Exploration through 1763

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I. Who discovered America?

A. Indians crossed the Bering Straits - successive waves forced settlement south - 14,000-28,000 BC

B. Vikings explored around 1000 AD

1. Leif Ericson - Greenland and Vinland

2. fake finds - Kenningston Rune Stone - Newport buildings

C. Samuel Eliot Morison - “If the Viking had never set foot on North America it wouldn’t have changed U.S. history one bit.”

1. what was its effect on change over time?

2. discovery was not publizied

II. European preconditions necessary for exploration and discovery - The Age of Discovery (15th and 16th Centuries)

A. Crusades - 10th-14th centuries

1. rediscovery of Eastern products needed to meet demands of an increasing population

2. weakening of the spirit of feudal isolation

B. Marco Polo

1. tales of fabulous wealth of Eastern civilizations

2. accessibility - no swamp surrounded the continent

3. tales of adventure popularized and spread throughout Europe

C. economic motives

1. Italian city states monopolized trade with Moslems which led to high prices

2. thus the need for an all-water route to Asia to circumvent this middle man

D. the rise of nation states

1. centralization of power

2. strong rulers could survive by glory and conquest

3. consolidated taxing power of the nation-state greatly expanded the resources available

to leaders - costs of exploration could be borne by the state

4. the rising spirit of nationalism led to an increasingly competitive environment - competition among nations spurred discovery

E. the rise of the middle class

1. as the merchant class emerged taxing potential increased

2. the economic outlook of those involved in commerce was more expansive and outward looking than feudal society

3. continued expansion required the discovery of new markets and raw materials

4. investment capital became available from the merchant class who sought to maximize earnings - rise of joint stock companies

F. technological advances

1. compass, astrolobe, caraval, lateen sail - all made sailing more predictable

2. the printing press -1454 - John Gutenberg

a. greater accessibility to maps and knowledge

b. thus fewer things had to be rediscovered

G. Renaissance spirit

1. intellectual unrest - challenge existing notions

2. spirit of adventure and self-fulfillment

H. missionary zeal

1. Reformation 1517 led to religious competition

2. this combines with nationalism to foster discovery

III. Portuguese were the first great explorers for several reasons

A. geographic location

B. Prince Henry the Navigator 1394-1460)

1. established school of navigation

2. explored the coast of Africa - encountered advanced civilizations

3. trade for gold, slaves

D. Diaz(s) - 1488 - explored the coast of Africa

1. rounded Cape of Good Hope

2. sailors threaten mutiny

E. Vasco da Gama - 1498

1. first all-water voyage to India

2. profits encouraged further exploration

IV. Columbus (Morison) - “America was discovered accidentally by a great seaman who was looking for

something else: when it was discovered it was not wanted; and most of the exploration for the next fifty years was done in hope of getting through or around it. America was named after a man who discovered no part of the New World. History is like that, very chancy.”

A. Italian background

B. shipwrecked in Portugal (why important?)

C. hit upon the idea of sailing West to get East - why did he have trouble selling this idea to the heads of state in Europe - most of whom believed the earth was round?

1. underestimated the size of the earth - Europe to China was 2400 miles instead of 10600 - significant because of food and water if America had not been here Columbus would have died

2. he made excessive demands

a. admiral of the ocean seas

b. viceroy and governor general

c. one tenth of all value extracted, tax free

d. one eighth percentage of all shipping value

3. waited seven years for final approval

D. August 3, 1492 -departure

1. drops to the Canary Islands to pick up the latitude of Chipango

2. picks up Easterlies

3. false log entries to make sailors think they were closer to home

a. kept separate set of actual calculations

b. due to errors the phony set was closer to the truth

E. landfall October 12, 1492 - Watlings Island, San Salvador - probably Samana Cay

F. found very little - but believed he was just off the coast of Asia - named natives Indians -described them as friendly, naked, and timid

1. found small amounts of gold - built up and passed on through generations so that it more impressive than it was

2. explores other islands - crashes the Santa Maria on Christmas Day

3. thus he establishes a trading post with volunteers - Navidad

4. returns to Spain

G. his finding encourage a larger expedition in 1493 - 17 ships - 1200 men

H. returns to Navidad to find it wiped out - Indian women/Indian men problems - had also demanded tribute in gold that Indians couldn’t pay, even with good intentions

1. divided up Indian lands and Indians

2. since gold couldn’t be found Indian slaves were brought back

3. within the first fifty years of discovery 300,000 Indians wiped out (disease)

4. Columbus returns to Spain in 1496

***relate the account of the jawbone of a rat and the tooth of a pig found at Navidad

I. 1498 - Columbus makes a third voyage - more southerly route -explored the coast of South America

1. became convinced of an “otro mundo” concept - a new continent off the coast of Asia

2. describes S.A. coast as a terrestrial paradise - the true Eden

3. mutiny on Hispaneola - 1500 Columbus is returned to Spain in chains

J. 1502 - fourth voyage - explores Central America

1. explores Panama but doesn’t cross the isthmus

2. Morison - “At Sea In A Sieve” - marooned on Jamaica for nearly a year - nearly starves to death

K. returns to Spain in 1504 - Isabel’s death dooms further ventures - dies in 1506 - Admiral of the


L. Columbus’ importance lies in the fact that his discoveries were publicized

V. Bull of Demarcation 1493 - Treaty of Toresilles 1494

A. papal input

B. divides spheres of influence

VI. Types of colonies

A. trading post

B. fringe

C. settlement

VII. Later Spanish exploration

A. Balboa -1513

1. first European to cross isthmus

2. named the Pacific the “South Sea” - why?

B. Magellan - 1519-1522

1. first European to circumnavigate the world

2. 38-day passage through the straits

3. names Pacific

4. 99-day voyage misses every island

a. men reduced to eating rats and roaches

b. chewing on leather strapping for nourishment

5. killed in the Philippines

6. 1 of 5 ships and 18 of 266 men make it back to Spain three years later

7. why is the voyage significant?

a. proves that the world is round

b. shows the extent of the Pacific and the true location of the Western Hemisphere

C. Cortes - 1519-1522

1. conquers the Aztecs with only 600 men

2. burned ships to prevent desertion

3. Montezuma attempted buyout - didn’t work

4. three factors in easy conquest

a. myth - white Gods with horses

b. technology

c. discontent among subject tribes

d. important because of wealth of Aztec civilization

D. Pizarro - 1531-1535

1. conquers Incas of Peru with only 180 men

2. 17 x 12 room 7’ high filled with ransom - removal of it

3. executed leader - strangled rather than burned at the stake

These Spanish conquests were easy because all that had to be done was to replace the leadership at the


VIII. Spanish attempts in the North

A. Ponce de Leon - 1513 - Fountain of Youth - typical of Indian stories

B. Navarez - Cabeza de Vaca - 1527 - ship wrecked - crew eats horses and builds rafts

1. ship wrecked again on the Texas coast

2. lives among Indians for six years

3. stories of seven cities of Cibola and hunchback cows

C. Hernando de Soto - 1539 - 1543

1. 600 men explore the American South

2. led on by stories of golden cities

3. discovers Mississippi River - dies and is thrown in

D. Coronado - 1540 - 1541

1. explores the American Southwest

2. led on by stories but unproductive results

E. why do we discuss these unsuccessful Spanish explorations

1. the effect of these failures coupled with the successes in Mexico and Peru caused Spain to lose interest in North America and direct their attention South opening up the possibility of English exploration (since Spain was the dominant sea power

2. quickly review Spanish administration and immigration policy

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I. Cabot voyage in 1497 - claimed Newfoundland - discovered only cod (Grand Banks) - so great multitudes of certain big fish that they sometimes stayed my ships."

A. why were the English slow to follow up?

1. internal conflict - Tudors attempting to consolidate their hold

2. Spanish sea power was a threat (Fort Caroline)

3. slow development of commercial interest due to Italian monopoly - capital lacking

4. early diplomatic and religious ties with Spain

failure of Cabot to find gold

limited population – until 1641 major attempt to colonize Ireland

B. mid-century changes in the status quo which encouraged exploration

1. Elizabeth’s refusal to marry Philip strained relations

2. Spanish threat to the European balance of power

3. Protestant reformation and the break with the Pope

4. increased sense of English nationalism

5. strengthening of royal power under Elizabeth

6. rise of a commercial middle class and available venture capital

7. evolution of mercantilistic theory

a. a nation’s power is measured by its wealth

b. there is a finite amount of wealth in the world

c. establishment of a favorable balance of trade - the importance of colonies

d. colonies exist for the good of the mother country

1. source of raw materials

2. markets for manufactured goods

3. depository for over population

II. Anti-Spanish acts

A. Netherlands - English support for uprising against Spain in 1566

B. royal encouragement of “sea dog” raids against Spanish shipping (Hawkins and Drake)

1. Drake first Englishman to circumnavigate the world

2. captured a Spanish treasure ship off the coast of Peru

3. explored the west coast of the U.S. as far as San Francisco

4. returned a profit of $9 million -263,000 pounds Elizabeth’s share - 4600% profit

5. effect on exploration

a. positive - encouraged exploration simply by discovery of new territory

b. negative - discouraged settlement colonies when profits like this could be had

C. defeat of the Spanish Armada - 1588

1. Spain attempting to invade England

2. 130 ships - 7000 sailors - 17,000 man invasion army

3. week long engagement

a. one half the Spanish fleet was destroyed (part by Britain - part by hurricane)

b. English had better ships and better guns

c. maneuverability - sinking rather than boarding

d. significance

1. marks the end of Spanish and beginning of English naval domination

2. marks a changing power structure in Europe

3. elimination of Spanish threat encourages the establishment of colonies

III. Early British attempts at exploration

A. Muscovy Company - 1553 - look for a Northeast Passage and open Russian trade

B. Hawkins - 1562 - bring s slaves to the West Indies

A. Martin Frobisher - 1576 - Baffin Land - search for Northwest Passage

IV. French attempts

A. Cartier - 1533-1535 - tale of Sagueanay - “White men mined gold, silver, rubies - were one-

legged - flew like bats and never eat.

1. took chief with him back to France

2. 1541 - 10 ships - take back iron pyrite - and quartz (Canadian diamonds)

B. Both the English and the French were initially interested in establishing trading post colonies

C. French settlement of Fort Caroline off the U.S. coast was destroyed by the Spanish 1562

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1. Motives

A. outlet for overpopulation - inflation and low wages - enclosure movement - "sheep ate men"

B. market for woolens - Indians - cold climate

C. gold

D. raw materials - tie in with mercantilism

E. Northwest Passage - why search after Magellan

F. Missionaries - Protestant v Catholic

1. individual motives

2. adventure - free land

II. Initial attempts

A. Sir Humphrey Gilbert - 1583

1. established trading post on the Penobscot River - raiding station

2. St. Johns, Newfoundland - ordered all fishermen under the Queen’s control

3. abandons attempt after losing a ship - Gilbert on the Squirrel lost at sea

B. Sir Walter Raleigh inherits charter

1. 1585 - 108 women and men settled on Roanoke Island

2. 1586 - Drake sent to check on them - takes them home - actually 15 remain

3. 1587 - 89 men - 7 women - 11 children settle on Roanoke Island

a. lacked support because of Spanish Armada

b. 1590 - lost colony

III. Jamestown - first permanent English settlement - 1607

A. joint-stock company - discuss concept and reasons for development

1. Parliamentary control of money

2. personal financing risky - Raleigh lost more than $100,000

B. London Company formed - divided into Plymouth and Virginia Companies

1. whichever settled its claim first got 100 miles into the other’s grant

2. 12 pounds investment - $62 in gold per share

3. December 1606 - Godspeed, Susan Constant, and Discovery leave England

4. May 14, 1607 - 120 land - 104 settle - Indian attack on 5-26

5. only 38 left alive after the first six months - death rates of 1/2 to 1/3 were not uncommon

in colonizing - settled in a low swampy area

C. John Smith provide the early leadership and discipline necessary to make the colony successful

1. basic problem was the expectation of easy gold

2. no work no eat policy

3. skillful Indian relations

4. periodically resupplied but continued to have problems

a. no private property

b. harsh military discipline - employees of the company marched to and from the fields twice a day to the beat of a drum

c. lack of a cash crop

5. 1-1-08 - two women and five Poles among resupply - why is that important?

D. “starving time” 1609-1610

1. Smith had left the colony

2. reduced to eating dogs, cats, rats, mice, snakes, toadstools, horsehide, and the corpses of dead men (powdered women)

3. 1610 - relief expedition under Gates finds the men so pitiful they load up to go back to England

4. Baron De La Warre (Robert West) intercepts them and forces them back to work - has ample supplies and 300 men

5. continued hard times, but optimistic leadership - “Be not dismayed at all -for scandal cannot do us wrong - God will not let us fail - let England know our willingness - for that our work is good - wee hope to plant a nation - where none before hath stood”

E. what brought the turnaround necessary to make it a permanent settlement?

1. cash crop - John Rolfe successfully cross breeds native and West Indian tobacco

a. Jamestown goes tobacco mad

b. grown on sidewalk and between grave markers

c. stories of fantastic fortunes spur its development

d. used as a medium of exchange

e. James I disapproved of smoking - "loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs"

2. introduction of private property (1617-1618) - effect - “When our people were fed out of a common storehouse and labored jointly together, glad was he who could slip off from his labor, or slumber over his task, he cared not how; Nay,the most honest among them would hardly take so much true pains in a week as now for themselves they will do in a day.”

a. introduction of the headright system

b. for each person brought to America one got 50 acres of land free

c. led to abuses - sea captains kidnapping children, drunks, etc.

d. primary purpose was not land distribution but an adequate supply of labor - U.S.

colonial history is rift with accounts of chronic labor shortages

3. political freedom

a. charters granted English citizens all the rights of Englishmen - English common

law applied in the colonies as well (1624 or earlier)

b. House of Burgesses - 1619 - first representative assembly in U.S.

4. sex - 1619 - the company sought to recruit “fair and uncorrupt maidens”

a. its purpose was to provide a stable environment

b. 150 pounds of tobacco purchased a wife - gave the right to build a house and no

longer live in barracks

F. continued problems

1. labor continues to be in short supply - led to the indentured servant system-sell yourself for a term of labor for passage to America - freedom dues and a headright grant - three quarters of the English migrants to the Chesapeake colonies were indentured servants

2. introduction of slaves (possibly as indentured servants) in 1619 was an indication that

the headright system was ineffective

a. quickly (1640-1660) black Africans became slaves for life

b. still a labor shortage persisted

1. two of five indentured servant died before their term

2. slaves were more expensive then indentured servants

3. by 1680 only 7% of the population was slave

3. continued high death rate - 1619-1621 population decreased from 1000 to 866 -

1051 more arrive in 1621 but by the end of the year only 843 remain

4. 1622 a major Indian attack

5. 1624 - corruption within the company led the King to revoke the charter and Jamestown

becomes a royal colony - directly controlled by the king

G. review types of colonies

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I. Initial Northern attempts

A. Gorges in 1607

B. attempted settlement on the Kennebec River

1. sent back a shipload of goods

2. abandoned after a bad winter

C. English religious setting

1. Protestant/catholic flipflops with monarchs

2. Anglican Church was firmly established under Elizabeth I

3. structure was nationalistic and hierarchical (stress the concept of state religion and the

structure of the church reinforcing the monarchy

4. radical divisions

a. Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican church by moving it farther from

Catholicism - believed in a state church but not this state church

b. Separatists (Pilgrims) - wanted elimination of state religion - congregational

control of individual churches

1. thus opposed hierarchical structure

2. James I felt threatened

3. also call non-conformistists

James - “I will make them conform themselves, or else I will harry them out of the land, or else do worse.”

“a rat to be trapped and tossed away”

D. Pilgrim migration to the Netherlands - enjoyed complete religious freedom

1. economic, religious, and nationalistic motives for a desire to move

2. hard work - low wages - exclusion from the Dutch guild system

3. little chance for the congregation to grow

4. worried about children becoming “dutchified”

E. deal cut with London merchant - transportation for seven years labor

1. outfitted the Mayflower - 101 passengers - over one half not Separatists

2. hard voyage, provisions give out

a. landed November 9 (problem?) 1620

b. scout countryside and settle at Plymouth December 16 (named by John Smith)

c. helped by Indians - Squanto story - captured 1614 returned 1620

d. native American resistence to New England settlement was reduced by bubonic plague 1616-1618 - reduced numbers from 120,000 to 70,000

F. Mayflower Compact - it is not a constitution but an agreement to abide by majority rule

G. they invoked (proclaim) the rights of Englishmen

H. tough times - 4-7-21 Mayflower returns to England - 50 of 101 alive - none go back

I. 1628 the debt was taken over by Plymouth residence - private property was established

J. never dramatically prosperous

K. William Bradford writes the History of Plymouth Plantation

L. Note similarities between Jamestown and Plymouth

1. early introduction of private property

2. early establishment of the “rights of Englishmen” - early acceptance of the “rule of law”

II. Massachusetts Bay colony

A. Charles I (1625) determined to persecute Puritans

1. again they served as a threat to hierarchical control

2. nevertheless, he was willing to extend generous land grants to rid England of them

3. more than 20 granted to settle in New England

B. Puritans gain control of Parliament in 1629 - Charles I dissolves Parliament

C. among charters was one for Massachusetts Bay Company in 1628

1. Puritan merchants favoring emigration gain control of the company

2. send out a party of 400 to explore

3. charter doesn’t specify where the company is to meet

4. they agree to move and take the charter with them - fearing the fate of Jamestown

5. 1630 - 700-1000 set out and settle near Boston

6. more than 200 die within the first year - but no starving time

a. advantages over other colonies

b. proximity to Plymouth - presence of Jamestown

D. the great Puritan migration 1630-1643 (why those years?)

1. by 1634 more than 10000 have left England

2. by 1643 more than 15000 settle in New England

3. presence of women ensures growth

4. Boyer - “In contrast to early Virginia, Massachusetts Bay attracted disciplined, motivated

men and women ..”

E. purpose of Massachusetts Bay was to establish “a city upon a hill” - “a city of God”

1. wished to show that a society based on the teachings of the Bible could flourish

2. wished to shame the Church of England into reform

3. economic motives as well - economy based on agriculture, shipbuilding, and the

selling of foodstuffs to the West Indies - particularly after the Puritan migration stopped

F. government - important that the charter was in the colonies

1. Charles attempts to revoke it and appoints Gorges as governor

2. English Civil War interrupts those plans

3. impact of the English Civil War was that Massachusetts Bay was self-governing during

its formative years 1640-1660

4. established a Bible commonwealth - not a theocracy (define)

5. nevertheless the laws of the state must conform to and reinforce religious teachings -

hence the enactment of blue laws

6. Church and state are therefore not separated church leaders have great influence

7. early leaders had no love of democracy

a. voting is restricted to visible saints or the elect (define)

b. nevertheless the impetus is to extend voting rights to all landowners

1. Winthrop keeps charter locked away to restrict voting rights

2. constant pressure from other Puritan congregation to expand c. establish representative democracy in the General Court

1. prototype for later colonial governments

2. governor, a council, General Court

G. religious intolerance

1. desire for state religion did not favor religious freedom

2. freedom of religion didn’t even extend to all Puritans - particularly when it threatened

established authority

3. Quaker treatment

a. first offense whipped until out of the colony

b. second offense had an ear cut off

c. third offense execution

d. four Quakers executed

H. Puritan philosophy did not believe in equally

1. responsible profit motive is strong

2. private property quickly established

I. key fact to remember is the lack of diversity in the population

1. homogeneous - English and Puritan

2. this breaks down as time goes by

III. Founding of Connecticut

A. historians disagree

1. loosening of church membership requirements sought

2. thus more extensive voting privileges

3. more importantly - fertile farmland

B. Thomas Hooker leads group to Connecticut River valley

1. some settlement already established

2. Dutch trading influence

3. by 1635 three towns established - Hartford, Windsor, and Whethersfield

C. 1639 - Fundamental orders of Connecticut - first constitution

1. General Court with unlimited power

2. no governor’s veto

3. no two term governors

4. note the emphasis on rule of law rather than of men - early suspicion of too much power

in the hands of one person

5. increased church membership and voting rights

D. later John Davenport establishes New Haven - more rigid Puritanism

IV. founding of Rhode Island - 1636

A. settled largely by those who were banished from Massachusetts Bay

B. Roger Williams - loud mouth radical who urged separation of church and state

1. did so not for civil liberty

2. to protect religious philosophy from government officials who he thought corrupt

3. banished from Massachusetts Bay - went to live in Plymouth

4. weird beliefs

a. England had no right to make land grants - Massachusetts charter invalid because

Indian title to the land had not been extinguished

b. Indian religion may be as acceptable in God’s eyes

c. separation of church and state - freedom of conscience

C. Anne Hutchinson

1. critizied sermons and clergy as not having undergone conversion experience

2. Vanes elected governor poses a threat to established authority

3. belief in Antinominalism - converted are not required to obey civil or religious laws that

do not conform to their beliefs

4. banished while pregnant

D. complete religious freedom develops in Rhode Island partially because different leaders have

the desire to protect their philosophy from the state

1. guarantee of religious freedom written into the charter

2. close to universal white male suffrage develops due to separation of church and state

3. Rogues Island - that sewer

4. Hutchinson later killed in an Indian attack in New York - Winthrop - divine retribution

proving her teachings incorrect

Mention the contribution of religious intolerance to religious freedom being establish elsewhere - discuss the

need of intolerant colonies to loosen restrictions rather than lose settlers

V. New Hampshire

A. proprietary grants to John Mason and Ferdinando Gorges

B. settled largely by malcontents from Massachusetts Bay

C. Massachusetts gradually extends control over it

D. what about Maine - part of Massachusetts until 1820

VI. Characteristics of New England

A. religious and ethnic homogeneity

B. Charter colonies

C. self-governing with representative assemblies - impact of the English Civil War

D. direct representation - town meetings - legislative dominance

VII. review types of colonies

A. charter

B. proprietary

C. royal

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The Middle Colonies - Restoration Colonies - payment for support during restoration

I. The founding of Maryland

A. granted as a proprietary colony to George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) - 1634 - after an unsuccessful attempt to establish a colony in Newfoundland

1. George croaks and son takes over the grant - Cecil

2. grant of land extended to the high water mark on Virginia side of Chesapeake Bay

a. challenged by Virginia

b. Oyster War - last death in 1959

B. designed as a money making venture

1. 1000-2000 acres granted for every five people brought to the colony

2. four year indentures for those who were brought

a. 50 acres of land free at the end of the term

b. one year’s supply of corn

c. reason this was created - to prevent the development of landless rabble

3. institution of quitrents designed to make money

a. these were unsuccessful

b. look at the influence of the availability of free land

C. designed as a refuge for Catholics

1. Catholics outnumbered almost from the outset

2. diversity in religion is widespread

3. led to passing the Act of Toleration - 1649 - examine how diversity leads to religious toleration

a. originally designed to protect Catholics

b. religious freedom only for those believing in the trinity - who is excluded?

D. governmental problems

1. grants of power to the proprietor and manor lords were supposed to be absolute -

allowing for the rights of Englishmen

2. in practice the availability of free land forced the granting of political rights

3. chronic labor shortages also extend political rights

4. House of Delegates established in 1635

E. economy - based on farming

1. mixture of tobacco and staple crops

2. breadbasket colonies - wheat and corn

3. mixture of small farms and plantations

4. advantageous trading position

II. The founding of New York (New Netherlands/New Amsterdam

A. settled by the Dutch between 1613-1625

1. Peter Minuit and the bead deal

2. Dutch tended to view it as a trading post early on - why would it be a good one/

B. Dutch made attempts to restore feudalism through the patroonship system

1. for every 50 people brought over grant of 16 miles of riverfront (8 on each side) for as

far as the lord could control

2. indentured farmers would pay quitrent, portion of their crop, and fees for services

(hunting and fishing, grist mill, etc.)

3. failed because of the free land system

C. arbitrary government established

D. very cosmopolitan in nature - this diversity leads to religious freedom

E. 1660 Charles II is restored to the throne

1. 1664 Anglo-Dutch Commercial Wars (really sporadically from the 1650s

2. Charles makes a proprietary grant of the New Netherlands to his brother, the Duke of

York, if he can conquer it

3. August of 1664 English fleet challenges Stuyvesant - says he rather be carried out dead, but settlers refuse to support him

4. surrenders without firing a shot

5. Dutch recapture in 1674 - but it remains English after the war

F. religious freedom and representative government develop due to availability of free land

G. 1685 - duke of York becomes James II - New York becomes a royal colony

H. trade and farming support the economy

III. The founding of New Jersey

A. proprietary grant to John Berkeley and George Carteret by Duke of York - 1664

1. constant squabbling over rule and proprietor sell it

2. divided into East and west Jersey - Southern part purchased by Penn

3. diverse makeup of Dutch, Swedes, English Quakers, and Puritans

4. movement toward religious freedom and representative government

IV. The founding of Pennsylvania - 1681

A. Penn’s father was owed a debt by the crown - easy payoff with last of Virginia Company’s land

B. Penn’s conversion to Quakerism

1. George Fox and the origins of the name

2. social class makeup

3. most despised religious group

a. inner light

b. lack of belief in hierarchy

c. pacificism

C. Penn envisions this as a holy experiment

1. desires a colony with complete religious and political freedom

2. most liberal of the early colonies

D. Penn advertised widely in Europe (money making venture) - particularly in Germany

1. led to numerous small sects settling there - Dunkards, Shakers, Quakers, Mennonites,

Moravians, etc.

2. also English Quakers, Puritans, Irish, Scots

3. Pennsylvania Dutch

4. this obvious diversity had what consequences?

E. flourishes early

1. Philadelphia has a well planned grid system - excellent port

2. inhabited by industrious farmers who were land hungry

3. numerous skilled artisans and craftsmen settle as well - particularly among Quakers

4. led to fears in England that too many were being driven out

F. boundaries and Indian treatment

1. leads to establishment of Mason-Dixon line (Pennsylvania and Maryland)

2. Penn’s treaty with the Indians

a. boundary set as far as a man could walk in a day and a half

b. hires three best runners he can find

1. one quits

2. one falls in a creek and drowns

3. third gains over one million acres

V. The founding of Delaware (New Sweden - 1638)

A. Swedes and Finns settle but Dutch dispute their claim

B. 1655 the Dutch take it over

C. English gain it with the capture of New York

D. Penn buys it from Carteret and Berkeley as a proprietary grant

E. problems with governing diverse population led to representative assembly and separation

from Pennsylvania

VI. Characteristics of the middle colonies - discuss various arrangement of colonies

A. designed as proprietary grants with autocratic governments

1. rapid movement toward representative government

2. impact of free land

B. diverse ethnically and religiously - what is the effect on government and religion?

C. economic diversity as well

1. excellent trade centers - review geographic location

2. fertile farmland - breadbasket colonies

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I. The founding of the Carolinas

A. restoration colonies granted to eight proprietors in 1663

1. founded as payment for support during restoration

2. buffer against Spanish Florida

3. economic advantage

B. three distinct areas of settlement

1. Albemarle

2. Clarendon

3. Port Royal (South Carolina - Charleston)

C. Ablemarle settled by Virginia riffraff, New Englanders, Barbados

1. initially to produce wine, silk, olives, etc.

2. feudal design of the land system - designed to establish three distinct classes

3. reactionary government under Locke’s Fundamental Constitution - 1669

4. doesn’t prosper but typical easing of land and governmental restrictions - partially due

to isolation and the inability to enforce the system

D. Clarendon dies out

E. South Carolina - Charleston develop most completely - Ashley and Cooper

1. there land holdings are larger

2. good harbor results in thriving West Indies trade

3. introduction of slave grown rice and indigo

a. slavery develops because of rice growing expertise

b. immunity of black Africans to malaria

c. West Indian connection

4. strong West Indian flavor, particularly in slave codes

5. most heterogeneous colony after New York and Pennsylvania

a. New Englanders, West Indians, Scots, and Huguenots

b. the effect of a large slave population

1. intensely restrictive

2. fear of slave uprisings - 1739 Stono Rebellion

II. The founding of Georgia

A. Charter granted in 1732 - though proprietary as well

B. reasons for settlement

1. buffer against Spanish Florida

2. asylum for debtors

C. James Oglethorpe - Philanthropist who studied prison system

1. believed many could make good if given a new start

2. strange proprietary grant

a. reverts to royal control after twenty-one years

b. proprietors could not even own land

c. absentee land holding prohibited

3. much ballyhooed in England

a. debtors that came were extensively screened

b. majority of early settlers were neither debtors nor English

c. rum, brandy, and slavery outlawed (rescinded in 1742 and 1749)

d. never does dramatically well

D. characteristics of the Southern colonies

1. relatively large landholdings

2. rapid increase in slavery after 1680

3. limited middle class - control by wealthy landowners

4. reasonably diverse through dominated by English Anglicans

################################################################# #############

SETTLEMENT PATTERNS – (Boyer 102-103 = Etnic breakdown of settlement)

I. Review topography of the U.S.

A. characterize settlement

1. coastal plain along navigable rivers until the first barrier is meant

2. fall line causes settlement to spread out before spilling over

3. Appalachians cause the same spill over effect

B. emphasize the impact of a vast area of free land on the governmental and social structures

1. liberalizing effect

2. land holding is common so suffrage is extended

C. introduce the concept of the frontier and the frontier thesis (Frederick Jackson Turner)

1. democratizing effect in political arena

2. effect on social mobility

3. effect on women

4. effect on religion

5. debunk the theory

D. the extensive influence of Puritanism in U.S. history

1. review the Appalachians as a series of parallel ridges

2. New England was the first section overcrowded

3. Appalachians funnel excess population to the backcountry of the South

E. concept of settlement patterns will focus on population density (define) and the impact of settlement on religion, the economy, and education

1. must understand that these are only generalizations

2. population density is a relative term (comparison of regions)

II. The New England pattern of settlement - the township system - high population density

A. new towns were formed by petitioning the General Court

1. towns were generally six miles square - settled by part of an existing congregation

2. township surveyed and divided up among settlers - much land held by the town

3. individual houses located around a village green - purpose - livestock protection

4. church (meeting house) generally at one end

5. house plots of 3-5 (Boyer says 1) acres for gardens given

6. farmland divided into outlying plots generally 50 acres plus or minus depending on

family size and other needs

a. frequently divided into small separated strips to equalize type

b. thus homesites and farmland was separated - Why?

c. marched out to fields each morning

d. land farmed individually but with a communal spirit

e. always private ownership

7. common woodlands and common meadows

B. the net effect was to establish a tight knit, homogeneous, relatively densely populated area

1. favored by the Puritan clergy because of the ability to monitor and control behavior

2. this will break down as land is subdivided and distributed to heirs

C. New England education - the beginnings of public education (define) Morison - “It is no accident that almost every educational leader and reformer in American history from Benjamin Franklin and John Dewey to James B. Conant, has been a New Englander of Puritan stock.”

1. the purpose of education was to be able to read the Bible

2. the purpose of higher education to train ministers - Harvard established in 1636 (next

college founded in the colonies was in 1693)

3. Massachusetts School Laws of 1642 and 1647 - Old Deluder Satan Law

a. towns with fifty families had to provide a teacher

b. towns with one hundred families had to provide teacher and schoolhouse

4. reasons public education could develop in New England

a. many Puritans were college educated - value of education

b. population density (township system) made it practical

c. religious and ethnic homogeneity made it acceptable

d. economy based on commerce made it necessary

5. apprenticeship frequently used as well

a. to teach a particular trade

b. to meet labor shortages

6. Dame schools also common, though frequently informal

D. New England religion

1. Puritan (Congregational Church) - later Baptist Church as well

2. reflected a limited hierarchy beyond ministers

3. unique feature was congregational rule

4. transfer value between democratically operated church and state

5. thus direct democracy (town meetings) and representative assemblies become dominant 6. church was the most single dominant element in New England society

E. New England economy reinforced by settlement pattern

1. geographic characteristic partially determine economy

a. rocky soil, short growing season discourages agriculture (though most are farmers)

b. multitude of good natural (small) harbors

2. commerce supplants agriculture as the most important economic concern

3. trade and manufacturing will develop much later (late 18th century)

4. industrialization preconditions existing in New England (note: most New Englanders still farm)

a. capital - accumulated through trade and commerce

b. power source - swift flowing rivers located relatively close to the coast

c. concentrated and skilled labor supply - township system creates high pop. den.

d. markets - internal - township system with high pop. den.

e. external markets available - carrying trade in place - numerous harbors

III. The diverse settlement pattern of the middle colonies - medium population density

A. larger farms than in New England - some plantations - some towns and cities

B. fabric of society is close knit homogeneous groups - cosmopolitan cities

C. parochial education develops (define) - why?

1. heterogeneous religious and ethnic makeup

2. language barriers

3. religious scruples about kids being educated with others

4. church often serves as the school with the minister as teacher

5. education - while important - doesn’t have quite the same value as in New England

6. emphasize that this is a generalization - public education will develop in homogeneous

towns - Northern preference for local over state funding

7. apprenticeship and dame schools important here as well

D. religion - intensely felt in small units

1. influence of religion on government is not widespread - why?

a. whose religion in a diverse setting

b. proprietary nature of the colonies

2. religious diversity probably does increase tendency for universal white male suffrage

C. economy is diverse as well

1. agriculture

a. plantations and one crop economy in Maryland

b. diverse smaller units producing foodstuffs elsewhere (wheat, corn, thus, breadbasket colonies)

2. trade and commerce important as well

3. manufacturing somewhat limited to processing foodstuffs

IV. The plantation system of the south - low population density - emphasize that while plantations were the exception rather than the rule, they nonetheless have a dramatic impact on the overall settlement pattern

A. review the impact of the headright system on splitting plantations - emphasize the existence of “retarded, ameoba-scum, grunt, redneck, subsistence farmer, rat-dog dumb, maggot-gagging pukes”

B. education was least valued in the South

1. little value to redneck, subsistence farmers

2. practical education could be learned on the farms

3. labor of children was needed - example of helping with the wash

4. plantation owners saw value in education and a tutor system develops - why did it have

value for them?

5. old field schools and pauper schools develop as well

6. was it in the best interest of plantation owners to educate lower class?

7. apprenticeship not as important as in other sections - why?

8. low population density made public education impractical

C. religion least important as an overall influence in the South

1. Anglican church was the state church in most Southern colonies

2. distance factor made regular meetings impractical - circuit preachers

3. great difficulty in monitoring the moral conduct of a widely scattered population

4. emphasize that it may have been important individually, but not overall

D. economy - dominance of a one crop economy

1. tobacco, rice, indigo

2. problems with reliance on a one crop economy

a. crop failure brings widespread economic distress

b. price fluctuations - external locus of control

c. increasing debt to British merchants

3. problems with industrial development

a. capital - many were land poor

b. labor supply scattered and unskilled

c. power source lacking

d. markets widespread - lack of multitudes of good harbors

E. effect of the plantation system on government

1. had to encompass broader areas - county is the local unit of government

2. only the wealthy had the time to travel

3. this allowed them to dominate the government and therefore all aspects of social and

economic life - review economic theories of history

V. Common factor throughout the colonies



1. voluteerism


C. English law (simplified)

1. locally administered

no lawyers

inheritence- mobility

self-governing institutions (how do these develop in proprietary and royal colonies)

religious toleration (toleration in some colonies forces toleration in others)



################################################################# #############

I. Puritanism

A. Calvinistic in its basic beliefs

1. man is born evil - original sin

2. man is saved by God’s grace alone

3. predestination - since God is all-powerful and all-knowing - thus he knows who is destined for salvation

4. these are distinctive characteristics of Protestant Reformation

B. why then should one behave?

1. only visible saints (the elect) could be admitted to church membership

2. difficult baring of the conversion experience

3. man could not know who was saved - it was assumed that if one was that they would lead a “godly life”

4. peer pressure and social status come with salvation

C. congregational organization of the Puritan church

1. democratic in that all members participate in decision making

2. partially due to desire to eliminate roadblocks between God and believers

3. transfer value of this to the New England town meeting

4. contributes to experience in and expectation of self-government

D. the breakdown of the Puritan order

1. religious intolerance precipitates development of religious toleration elsewhere

2. ethnic and religious diversification of the homogeneity of New England over time

3. decline in conversion experiences

4. increased focus on materialism

5. breakdown of the township system with succeeding generations

6. the Halfway Covenant

a. allowed children of member to be admitted to partial church membership

b. designed to deal with declining church membership

c. results from increased pressure for political participation

E. characteristics of Puritanism - Morison - “God did not require that men wear drab clothes, live

in drab houses, or drink water when something stronger was available. He did require that they refrain from drunkenness, theft, murder, adultery, and breaches of the Sabbath.” - "bundling"

F. 1. living of a Godly life

2. belief in the inequality of man

3. belief in the profit motive - though not excessive

4. belief in the Protestant work ethic - “an hour’s idleness is as bad as an hour’s drunkenness.”

a. the amount one could amass was a sign of God’s grace

b. sanctity of contract - a bargain is a bargain

5. establishment of blue laws - Morison - “no one could make mince pies, dance, play cards, or play any musical instrument except the drum, trumpet, or Jew’s harp on the Sabbath”

II. The Great Awakening

A. resulted from the perceived cooling of religious fervor

B. started by Frelingheusan in New Jersey (Presbyterian) - 1720s

C. New England Puritans led by Jonathan Edwards - “Sinners in the hands of an angry God” -1730s

D. South - George Whitefield - 1739

1. could make hell so vivid one could find it in an atlas

2. spoke to crowds of 20,000

3. 75 day New England revival - traveled 800 miles and gave 175 sermons

C. characteristics

1. appeal to emotion - thus an anti-intellectual movement

2. movement toward personal power in religion

3. appeal to discontent members of society

D. create decisive splits in existing religions

1. New Lights v Old Lights

2. emotionalism v rationality

E. results

1. creates many new denominations

2. stimulated a fresh interest in religion

3. advances education as many colleges are founded to train new ministers

4. spurs the further development of religious toleration

5. gave the common man a new sense of significance - prior church membership had been

the privilege of the elite (anti-intellectualism)

6. brought religion to the frontier - ensured the dominance of Christian values

7. brought about the aggressive questioning of authority (Old Light ministers)

8. movement toward belief in salvation by good works (don’t overemphasize)

9. indirectly helped set the stage for the American Revolution

III. Slavery

A. black African slavery does not take solid hold early

1. indentured servants cheaper than slaves

2. early life expectancy less than seven years

B. change in conditions

1. rising English wages discourage indentured servants

2. around 1650 life expectancy of slaves increases

3. growing fear of indigent freedmen

4. slave for life codification late in 17th century

5. 1697 breakup of Royal African Company’s monopoly on the slave trade

6. thus slaves become more profitable and less dangerous

C. discuss the “middle passage”

task v gang system

characteristics of West Indian slavery v U.S. slavery (South Carolina connection)

III. back country v tidewater tensions - East v West in a broader sense

A. frontier characteristics

1. very heterogeneous

2. nationalistic - had more in common with each other than with others in the colony in

whose political boundaries they resided

3. largely composed of subsistence farmers

4. unimportance of formal education

5. individualistic - freedom loving - generally outside of the ability of the colonies to control

6. great social mobility - little established class structure

B. eastern characteristics

1. class distinction more important

2. more homogeneous

C. problems

1. creditor v debtor

2. political ins v political outs

3. continual controversy over unequal representation and defense against Indians

D. Bacon’s rebellion - 1676

1. Governor Berkeley’s nephew leads raids against Indians

2. Indian defense v fur trade

3. chases Governor from Williamsburg - dies suddenly - 20 hung

4. demonstrates the fear of indigent former indentured servants

5. back country - tidewater controversy

IV. Colonial class structure

A. colonists wished to establish a social hierarchy

1. initially birth less important than in Europe

2. land ownership less important - though distinctions on size of holdings

3. wealth tended to be the most important factor

4. once established elite will try to prevent entry

5. social mobility much easier than in Europe

B. social pyramid - Bailey (17th - p 57)

1. slaves

2. indentured servants and jailbirds

3. lesser tradesmen, manual workers, hired hands

4. yeomen farmers (owning land)

5. lesser professional men

6. aristocrats, leading planters, merchants, lawyers,officials, and clergymen

V. discuss immigration if time permits (Boyer - 102-103)

################################################################# #############

I. Early attempts at colonial unity - Emerson - “We began with freedom.”

A. the New England Confederation - 1643-1684

1. designed to protect Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Plymouth from Indian attacks

and incursions by the French and Dutch

2. also designed to settle boundary disputes

B. King Philip’s War - 1675-1678 - Morison 156 - “All agreed that it was divine punishment on New England - but for what? said the local clergy, retribution for the sins of the younger generation who fidgeted under hour long sermons, let their hair grow, wore fashionable clothes, and drank rum. Quakers believed that war came because Massachusetts Bay has been harsh to the friends. Governor Berkeley of Virginia wrote home that the New England Puritans were being punished for their sympathy with the usurper Cromwell.”

1. it was the first major Indian war in New England since the Pequot War in 1637

2. resulted primarily from encroachments on Indian lands

3. one Indian required twenty times as much land as one colonist to support himself

4. Indian conception of land ownership - cohabitation with repeated rent payments

5. three problem tribes - Nipmuck, Narragansett, Wampanoags (friends of the Pilgrims

6. Metacom (King Philip) has a taste fro clothes and ran up bills in Boston which he could

pay only by selling off more land

7. plans coalition against the colonists - three times hauled into court and fined - this offended his dignity

8. murder of Sassamon, secretary to King Philip, Harvard educated

9. Indian murderers found guilty by a jury (including Indians) and hanged

10. Morison -158 - “That was too much for Philip. Indians thought it alright to kill in a fight, or to torture a prisoner to death; but to hang a man after a trial violated their deepest sense of morality.”

11. launches raids on frontier settlements

12. factors which save New England

a. lack of leadership - Philip lacked a comprehensive plan

b. lack of Indian unity - praying Indians

c. unified action by the New England colonies

13. war ended in 1678 - heads frequently cut off by friendly Indians and brought to the governor as a symbol of loyalty

14. Philips head stood on a pole for twenty years in Salem

15. emphasize the effectiveness of unified action by the colonists

II. Internal turmoil in England and its effect on the colonies

A. effects of the English Civil War on the self-governing aspect of the New England colonies

B. the Protectorate - Cromwell sympathetic to New England

C. the Restoration - 1660

1. desire of both Charles II and James II to establish an absolute monarchy

2. both converted to Catholicism - effect on attitude toward New England

3. Glorious Revolution and the effect on the colonies - 1689 - English Bill of Rights limits the power of the monarchy as a condition of William and Mary’s ascendance

D. these combine to establish periodic salutary neglect - times during which the colonies were largely left to their own devices

III. The Trade and Navigation Acts

A. economic theory of mercantilism and the role of colonies - exist for the good of the mother country

1. provide raw materials that England would have to purchase from competitors

2. provide markets for English manufactured goods

3. thus establish a favorable balance of trade

B. these goals had to be codified into a set of laws which effected these ends - that was the purpose of the Trade and Navigation acts - also to combat Dutch commercial power

C. passed in 1651, 1660, 1696 and were largely successful

1. goods had to be carried in English ships with English crews

2. enumerated commodities could be sent only to England (tobacco, sugar, indigo, rice, and ginger - could then be transshipped to other locations - colonies were given a monopoly on the English market

3. importation of foreign goods had to come through England - why? - English companies were given trade monopolies on certain commodities

4. prohibition against colonial manufacturing of certain items - in return colonies received

bounties for the production of certain raw materials

5. despite the negative tone they were beneficial for both groups - at least early

D. New England, as a commercial carrier, was the least mercantilistic of the colonial sections (thought that was perhaps not the perception)

1. triangular trade routes established

2. manufacturing was encouraged

3. carriers benefit from being free to trade with all nations

4. supported by the Earl of Sandwich 1671 - New Englanders - “A numerous and thriving people..mighty rich and powerful and not at all careful of their dependence on Old England.”

E. the statutes were clearly evaded - smuggling became commonplace - Boyer v Morison

1. tobacco exported directly to Holland between 1667-1672

2. Virginia and Massachusetts benefit

F. sporadic attempts to enforce them complicated by problems at home

1. 1640-1660 English civil War and Restoration

2. 1660s Anglo-Dutch Commercial Wars

3. 1680s Glorious Revolution

G. thus their developed early on a perception of salutary neglect - colonies experienced and

expected independence in economic matters

IV. Restoration brings attempts to reexert control

A. Charles II orders Massachusetts to accept royal officials and enforce the Trade and Navigation

Acts 1676 - appoints military men to key colonial positions - to quell dissent?

B. Massachusetts politely declines - sending Charles 10 barrels of cranberries, two hogshead of

samp, and 3000 hogsheads of fish

C. Massachusetts response - “We humbly conceive that the laws of England are bounded within

the four seas and do not reach America.”

D. continued problems lead to the revocation of the Massachusetts charter - recommended in

1664 and accomplished in 1684 -London fire and plague intervene earlier

E. James II - 1685 - establishes the Dominion of New England - New Jersey to Maine

1. in theory it was to provide effective defense against the French and Dutch

2. in fact it was designed to enforce British colonial policy

3. also designed to increase royal authority generally

F. Edmund Andros (military man) placed in charge - he was efficient and tactless

1. colonial charters were revoked

2. assemblies disbanded

3. town meetings banned

4. arbitrary taxes employed

5. Anglican church established as the state church in all colonies

6. examples of acts

a. deeds had to be redrawn with the authority of the English government

b. quitrents were required

c. new taxes were added which some towns refused to pay

d. only Anglican marriages were legal

e. no one could teach school without royal sanction

f. town meetings limited to once a year

G. Glorious Revolution - James II very unpopular but tolerated because daughters were Anglican

1. believed in the divine right of kings

2. openly contemptuous of Parliament

3. arbitrary treatment of enemies

4. openly favorable to Catholics

H. birth of a son who will be raised as a Catholic is more than the English could tolerate

I. Parliament invites William and Mary to assume the throne

1. councils of safety go into operation in most colonies to support William and Mary

2. ousted officials resume duties

3. open revolts in Massachusetts, New York, Maryland

4. some charters are re-effected

5. Andros is imprisoned in Boston - well organized parade - lighted windows, barrels of wine

6. William and Mary would have liked to continue Dominion of New England but it was not

politically advantageous

J. New York and the Leisler Revolt

1. assumed the governorship initially refuses to hand over control

2. arbitrary as Andros against his enemies

3. royal governor befriends anti-Leisler faction

4. Morison 173 - “On May 16,1691 on the site of City Hall Park, they were hanged by the neck, their bodies cut down while they were still alive, their bowels ripped out and burned before their faces, their heads cut off, and their bodies quartered. The crowd carried off locks of Leisler’s hair and bits of his garments as precious relics

K. the colonists expected return to behaving as they pleased was not as great as they expected

but considerable nonetheless

################################################################# #############I. Colonial Wars and their effect on the colonies

A. King William’s War - 1689-1699 (War of the League of Augsburg) - changes the primary combatants in Europe until 1815 - England and France become primary enemies

B. colonies left pretty much to battle on their own - English concentrate on Europe

1. French plan - incite Indians to attack frontier settlements - why would the Indians side with the French

2. colonial strategy a sound one - capture Port Royal and Quebec

3. three-pronged attack strategy - Canada as a tree - roots, trunk, branches

4. Sir William Phipps - one of 26 children - went treasure hunting and discovered a Spanish

treasure ship - returned profits of 8000% - James II knights him

5. Port Royal captured - Quebec attack botched as overland prong fails to reach Quebec -

helps convince English of colonial military incompetence

6. Treaty of Ryswick returns to antebellum status quo - results

a. no territorial changes

b. convinced England of the need for tighter control over the colonies

c. nevertheless, unfinished business in Europe forced English preoccupation there

d. change in the jury system gives English control over trade - English sponsored courts replace colonial court for trials of violations of the Trade and Navigation Acts

C. Queen Anne’s War - 1702-1713 (War of Spanish Succession) - fear of link between France

and Spain

1. Morison 191 - Anne “plump and amiable, but a glutton” - communion - “Your Highness

must not drink it all.”

2. Prince George - amiable nincompoop - Charles II - “I’ve tried him drunk and I’ve tried him

sober, and there is nothing there.”

3. again the colonies take a back seat to the war in Europe

4. war fought on two fronts in the colonies - which two (French Canada, Spanish Florida)

5. New York remains neutral to profit from the fur trade

6. England captures Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Hudson’s Bay area

7. typical attack on Quebec planned - 4 Indian chiefs sent to beg Anne for more money -a large fleet is outfitted to attack Quebec but turns back because it fears winter is setting in - 9-16

8. importance of navies is realized by colonies - governor of Barbados - “all turns upon the mastery of the sea. If we have it, our islands are safe; if the French have it, we cannot hold one of them.” Morison - “before Queen Anne’s reign, England was a sea power. After 1713, she was the sea power.”

9. Treaty of Utrecht solidifies territorial gains

D. King George’s War 1739-1748 (War of Austrian Succession - War of Jenkins Ear) - relate story

of Edward Jenkins

1. prior to the war French Acadians are removed to Louisiana - Longfellow’s Evangeline

2. odds strongly favor the British - population - British 500,000 / French 36,000 - why the

disparity? - relates to the purpose of the colonies

3. French strategy centered on construction of Louisbourg - walls 12 feet thick

a. attacked by Pepperill - captured in a ninety-day siege - useless fort because of a

weak French navy

b. character of New England militia in war - went fishing when they felt like it - retrieved French cannon balls and shot them back

c. French fleet (100 ships) sent to burn Boston - turned back due to storms and scurvy - loses 3000 men without firing a shot

4. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1848 returns Louisbourg and some western forts for considerations elsewhere - what was the effect of this on the colonies

E. taken as a group what impact do these wars have on the colonies

1. Boyer contends they brought the colonies and England closer together because

the colonies saw the need for English protection

2. colonies may doubt England’s commitment to them

3. fosters negative impression of colonial militia in England

4. prolongs the period of salutary neglect

II. The French and Indian War 1754-1763 (The Seven Years War)

A. atypical because it began in the colonies - conflicts over the Ohio River Valley

B. 1753 Virginia challenges the construction of French forts by sending Washington

1. defeated at Great Meadows - prisoners released

2. Virginia and New England were ready for war but England and France were not

3. England counted on it being a local war

C. 1754 General Braddock sent to dislodge the French

D. relative advantages of each side

1. French - administration, leadership, organization

2. English - population, navy

E. reflect on the concept that America has begun every great war by losing a great battle

F. Albany Plan - attempt to unify the colonies - provided for a President-General and a 48 member Grand Council with specified authority - pattern after the Iroquois Nation

1. negotiate treaties

2. declare war

3. make peace with Indians

4. regulate trade with the Indians

5. jurisdiction over land outside of colonial boundaries

6. make land grants to settlers

7. govern western lands until colonies were formed

a. Britain probably would have vetoed the idea - not wanting colonial unity

b. no colonial assembly ratified it

c. evidence of a lack of colonial nationalism

G. Braddock given the worst two regiments at one half strength to take Fort Duquensne

1. refuse colonial advice to take only pack animals

2. 300 axemen to clear a path - Washington - “halting to level every molehill and erect

bridges over every brook.” - ultimately became major road west

3. 32 days to cover 110 miles

4. Washington comments on the sight of troops crossing the Monongahelia - Indian

failure to attack

5. surprised but not ambushed

a. French have 850 (600 Indians) - British 1458 (2700)

b. Braddock loses 977 killed or wounded

c. they broke and ran as sheep pursued by dogs

d. Washington role in organizing the retreat

H. early loses in 1756 - Louisbourg, Oswego, Wm. Henry, Shenandoah Valley

1. Lord Loudon in charge - “a pen and paper man whose greatest energies were put forth getting ready to begin’

2. Jonathan Edwards - “God indeed is remarkably frowning on us everywhere; our enemies get up above us very high, and we are brought down very low...What will become of us, God only knows.”

I. major turnaround occurs in 1758 - William Pitt takes over (“I am certain that I can save the country, and that only I can.”)

1. major change in strategy

a. concentrate energies on North America

b. hire mercenaries (Frederick of Prussia) to fight in Europe

c. repay the colonies for expenses

d. promote young officers of talent

2. Amherst and Wolfe placed in charge

3. 1758 - “the very bells of London were worn thin from pealing out victories

J. major battle fought at Quebec - Montcalm (14,000 troops ) v Wolfe (4000-9000 troops)

1. invulnerability of Quebec - Wolfe’s plan - forced marches tire Montcalm’s men - fake Eastern flank attack - sails upstream than drifts back down - French expect supply ships - Scotsman’s French

2. Plain of Abraham - Wolfe (4500) v Montcalm (4000) - traditional European style battle -

both commanders killed

K. results of the French and Indian War

1. France is expelled from North America

2. Spain give up Florida and Louisiana

3. myth of British invincibility is shattered

4. English view the colonists as undisciplined, lazy - England won the war in spite of them

5. colonial view is exactly the opposite

6. serious debt problems for England

7. end to salutary neglect

a. England dominant on the continent

b. exposure of British officials to colonies showed how independent minded they were



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