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November 2009




Course Number: 5242

Semesters Hours: 1.5

Prerequisites: None

Limitation on Enrollment 15

Catalog Description:

Comprehensive overview for speech-language clinicians of assessment and intervention issues for deaf and hard of hearing students. Special emphasis on the needs of students with hearing loss in public school programs with regard to speech, language, and audition.

N.B. In order to ensure full class participation, any students with a disabling condition requiring special accommodations (e.g., tape recorders, special adaptive equipment, special note-taking or test-taking procedures, or interpreters) will be strongly encouraged to contact the professor at the beginning of the course. For the student’s convenience, both the professor’s office hours and telephone number will be listed on the syllabus.



Speech, Language, and Auditory Assessment and Habilitation of Hearing Loss in Children

I. Course Objectives:

Students will achieve growth toward becoming informed, dynamic professionals, as evidenced by demonstration of proficiencies in knowledge comprehension, disposition development and skill application. Students will:

A. Compare and contrast degrees of hearing loss and its commensurate effects on the development of auditory, language, and speech skills of deaf/hard of hearing students. (K)

B. Examine issues related to cochlear implant technology; critique its impact on the expected outcomes for students with profound deafness. (K, D)

C. Administer assessment tools that evaluate the auditory skills of students with hearing loss. (S)

D. Identify appropriate habilitative goals for systematic auditory skill development (K, S)

E. Analyze the relationship between segmental and suprasegmental aspects of speech production and their role in assessing speech intelligibility of students with hearing loss. (K,S)

F. Perform speech assessments using tools developed specifically for use with the deaf/hard of hearing population. (K,S)

G. Develop speech goals that reflect the highest priority needs of a child with hearing loss; incorporate speech software programs as appropriate for intervention (K,D, S)

H. Outline the language/communication continuum that exists for deaf/hard of hearing students. (K, D)

I. Select appropriate language assessment protocols to evaluate the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of the language of a child with hearing loss. (K,S)

J. Plan language intervention programs that address form, content, and use issues. (K,S)

K. Design habilitation activities that integrate auditory, language, and speech objectives and that are content-based. (K,S,D)

II. Course Content:

A. Degrees of hearing loss/impact on speech, language, and audition

1. Hearing loss

a. Mild

b. Moderate

c. Moderately severe

d. Severe

e. Profound

2. Speech effects

a. Articulation errors

b. Voice problems

c. Intelligibility in running speech

3. Language impact

a. Omission of certain bound morphemes

b. Constraints in breadth and depth of vocabulary

c. Limitations on receptive and expressive form

d. Conversational competence at risk

4. Audition

a. Vulnerability to extraneous noise

b. Auditory comprehension compromised

c. Performance limitations of hearing aid technology

B. Cochlear implant technology

1. Candidacy issues

2. Surgery and hardware

3. Performance outcomes

a. Auditory skill continuum

b. Effects on speech production

c. Language effects

4. Controversy from within the Deaf Community

C. Assessment of auditory skills

1. Hierarchy of auditory skill development

2. Glendonald Auditory Screening Protocol (GASP)

3. Speech Perception and Instruction, Curriculum & Evaluation (SPICE)

D. Selection of auditory goals

1. Identify current level of performance

2. Expand linguistic context of acquired skills

3. Develop new skill using known language and vocabulary

4. Generalize emerging auditory skills to new linguistic contexts

E. Segmental and suprasegmental aspects of speech production

1. Review basic speech acoustics

2. Analyze aided audiograms

3. Identify segmental aspects of speech at risk for misarticulation

4. Outline effects of coarticulation

5. Categorize suprasegmental errors as rhythm-, rate-, or prosody-related

F. Performing speech evaluations

1. Evaluating articulation and overall intelligibility

2. Assessments designed for children with hearing loss

a. Speech Intelligibility Evaluation (SPINE)

b. CID Picture SPINE

G. Selecting high-priority speech goals

1. Improving overall intelligibility

2. Selecting speech targets based on stimulability and potential to be developed auditorially

3. Include targets that are visible through speech reading/lipreading cues

4. Consider developmental norms

H. Language and communication continuum

1. American Sign Language (ASL)

2. Pidgin Signed English (PSE)

3. Manual codes of English

a. SEE 1

b. SEE 2

4. Oral English

a. Cued speech

I. Language assessment tools

1. Language sampling procedures

2. Grammatical analysis of elicited language

a. Simple sentence level

b. Complex sentence level

3. Teacher assessment of grammatical structure

J. Language intervention

1. Developing language form

a. Complex structure

b. Pronoun system

c. Passive voice

d. Figurative language

2. Expanding vocabulary

a. Increase breadth

b. Develop depth

c. Synonyms and antonyms

3. Facilitating conversational competence

a. Initiating

b. Turn-taking

c. Negotiating topics

K. Content-based activities integrating speech, language, and audition

1. Collaborate with classroom teacher

a. Identify content vocabulary

b. Overlay auditory, speech, and language goals on content-reinforcing activity

2. Review reading materials and other content textbooks from the classroom

a. Create friendly definitions for unfamiliar vocabulary

b. Restate figurative or idiomatic language

c. Parse complex syntactic structure for instruction

III. Methods of Instruction

Lectures (on- and off-site), supported by PowerPoint

A. Case presentations and discussions

B. Interview of teacher of the deaf

C. Reading assignments

D. Collaborative projects

E. Personal research study

IV. Methods of Evaluation

A. Quality and quantity of participation in the distance discussion (K, S)

B. On-line “library search” (K, S)

C. Abstracts/reflection of research reading (K, S, D)

D. Report of interview process (K, S, D)

E. Submission of therapy plan (K, S, D)

V. Suggested Texts:

Tye-Murray, N. (2009). Foundations of aural rehabilitation: Children, adults, and their families (2nd ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.

Johnson, C. D., Benson, P. V., and Seaton, J. B. (1997). Educational audiology handbook. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing.

VI. Bibliography

Current Works

Bess, F. H., & Humes, L. E. (2008). Audiology: The fundamentals. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

DeBonis, D., & Donohue, C. (2008). Survey of audiology: Fundamentals for audiologists and health professionals. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Fitzpatrick, E., Coyle, D. E., Durieux-Smith, A., Graham, I. D., Angus, D. E., Gaboury, I. (2007). Parents’ preferences for services for children with hearing loss: A conjoint analysis study. Ear & Hearing, 28, 842-849.

Huttunen, K., Rimmanen, S., Vikman, S., Virokannas, N., Sorri, M., Archbold, S., & Lutman, M. E. (2009). Parents’ views on the quality of life of their children 2-3 years after cochlear implantation. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 73(12), 1786-1794.

Madell, J., & Flexer, C. (Eds.). (2008). Pediatric audiology: Diagnosis, Technology, and management. New York: Thieme.

Martin, F., & Clark, J. (2009). Introduction to audiology (10th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Moeller, M. P. (2007). Current state of knowledge: Psychosocial development in children with hearing impairment. Ear & Hearing, 28, 729-739.

Moeller, M. P., Hoover, B., Peterson, B., & Stelmachowicz, P. (2009). Consistency of hearing aid use in infants with early-identified hearing loss. American Journal of Audiology, 18, 14-23.

Moeller, M. P., Tomblin, J. B., Yoshinaga-Itano, C., McDonald Connor, C., & Jerger, S. (2007). Current state of knowledge: Language and literacy of children with hearing impairment. Ear & Hearing, 28, 740-753.

Nittrouer, S., & Chapman, C. (2009). The effects of bilateral electric and bimodal electric-acoustic stimulation on language development. Trends in Amplification, 13(3), 190-205.

Nott, P., Cowan, R., Brown, P. M., & Wigglesworth, G. (2009a). Early language development in children with profound hearing loss fitted with a device at a young age: Part I—The time period taken to acquire first words and first word combinations. Ear & Hearing, 30, 526-540.

Nott, P., Cowan, R., Brown, P. M., & Wigglesworth, G. (2009b). Early language development in children with profound hearing loss fitted with a device at a young age: Part II—Content of the first lexicon. Ear & Hearing, 30, 541-551.

Seikel, A., King, D., & Drumright, D. (2010). Anatomy and physiology for speech, language and hearing. Florence, KY: Cengage Leaning.

Spenser, L. J., & Oleson, J. J. (2008). Early listening and speaking skills predict later reading proficiency in pediatric cochlear implant users. Ear & Hearing, 29, 270-280.

Stach, B. (2008). Clinical audiology: An introduction (2nd ed.). San Diego: Singular Publishing Co.

Seminal Works

Allum, D. (1996). Cochlear implant rehabilitation in children and adults. London: Whurr.

Brown, P., Prescott, S., Rickards, F., & Paterson, M. (1997). Communicating about pretend play: A comparison of the utterances of four-year-old normally hearing and deaf or hard of hearing children in an integrated kindergarten. Volta Review, 99, 5-17.

Caissie, R., & Wilson, E. (1995). Communication breakdown management during cooperative learning activities by mainstreamed students with hearing loss. Volta Review, 97, 105-121.

Calvert, D., & Silverman, S. R. (1983). Speech and deafness (revised). Washington, DC: AG Bell Association.

Clarke Curriculum series. (1995). Speech development and improvement. Northampton, MA: Clarke School for the Deaf & Center for Oral Education.

Duncan, J. (1999). Conversational skills of children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing in an integrated setting. Volta Review, 101, 193-211.

Erber, N. (1982). Auditory training. Washington, DC: AG Bell Association.

Flexer, C. (1999). Facilitating hearing and listening in young children (2nd ed.). San Diego: Singular Publications, Inc.

Hall, H., Oyer, W., & Haas, B. (2001). Speech, language, and hearing disorders: A guide for the teacher. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Hyde, M. B., & Power, D. J. (1996). Teachers’ ratings of the communication abilities of their deaf students. American Annals of the Deaf, 141, 5-10.

Gagne, J. P., Querengeusser, C., Folkeard, P., Manhale, K., & Masterson, V. (1995). Auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech intelligibility for sentence-length stimuli: An investigation of conversational and clear speech. Volta Review, 97, 33-51.

Keetay, V. (1996). The effect of visual distraction on speech perception in children. Volta Review, 98, 43-54.

Kopun, J. (1995). New technologies in amplification: Application to the pediatric population. Volta Review, 97, 175-182.

Lederberg, A. R., & Everhart, V. S. (1998). Communication between deaf children and their hearing mothers: The role of language, gesture, and vocalizations. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 41, 887-899.

Ling, D. (1976). Speech and the hearing-impaired child: Theory and practices. Washington, DC: AG Bell Association.

Lippke, B., Dickey, S., Selmar, J., & Sodor, A. (1997). Photo Articulation Test (3rd ed.). Communication Skillbuilders.

Luetke-Stahlman, B. (1999). Language issues in deaf education. Hillsboro, OR: Butte Publications.

Luetke-Stahlman, B. (2000). Language across the curriculum. Hillsboro, OR: Butte Publications.

Meyer, T. A., Svirsky, M. A., Kirk, K. I., & Miyamoto, R. (1998). Improvements in speech perception by children with profound prelingual hearing loss: Effects of device, communication mode, and chronological age. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 41, 846-858.

Monsen, R. (1981). A usable test for the speech intelligibility of deaf talkers. American Annals of the Deaf, 127, 845-852.

Moog, J. S., & Geers, A. E. (1991). Educational management of children with cochlear implants. American Annals of the Deaf, 136, 69-76.

Most, T. (1996). Speech intelligibility and the evaluation of personal qualities by experienced and inexperienced listeners. Volta Review, 98, 181-191.

Most, T. (1999). Production and perception of syllable stress by children with normal hearing and children with hearing impairments. Volta Review, 101, 51-70.

O’Halpin, R. (1997). Contrastive stress in the speech of profoundly deaf children: A preliminary investigation. Volta Review, 99, 89-105.

Plant, G. (1999). Analysis of the most frequently occurring words in spoken American English. Volta Review, 101, 71-99.

Plant, G., & Spens, K. E. (1995). Profound deafness and speech communication. San Diego: Singular Publications, Inc.

Robinshaw, H. M. (1996). Acquisition of speech, pre- and post-cochlear implantation: Longitudinal studies of a congenitally deaf infant. Early Child Development & Care, 126, 121-140.

Ryalls, J., LeDorze, G., Boulanger, H., & Laroche, B. (1995). Speech therapy for lowering vocal fundamental frequency in two adolescents with hearing impairment: A comparison with and without Speech Viewer. Volta Review, 97, 243-249.

Seal, B. C., Rosse, P., & Henderson, C. (1998). Speech-language pathologists in schools for the deaf: A survey of scope of practice, service delivery, caseload, and program features. American Annals of the Deaf, 143, 277-283.

Secord, W., & Shine, R. (1997). Secord-Contextualized Articulation Tests. Psychological Corporation.

Tye-Murray, N., Spenser, L., Bedia, E. G., & Woodworth, G. (1996). Differences in children’s sound production when speaking with a cochlear implant turned on and turned off. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 39, 604-607.

Vold, F. C., & Kinsella-Meier, M. A. (2001). Signing with your clients. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Classic Assessment Instruments

Engen, E., & Engen, T. (1983). Rhode Island Test of Language Structure. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.

Fudala, J., & Reynolds, W. (1986). Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale (2nd ed.). Western Psychological Services.

Goldman, R., & Fristoe, M. (1986). Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation. American Guidance Service.

Moog, J. S., & Geers, A. E. (1980). Grammatical Analysis of Elicited Language. St. Louis, MO: Central Institute for the Deaf.

Moog, J. S., & Kozak, V. (1983). Teacher Assessment of Grammatical Structures. St. Louis, MO: Central Institute for the Deaf.

Non-Print Materials

Subtelny, J., Orlando, N., & Whithead, R. (1981). Speech and voice characteristics of the deaf (audiotapes). Washington, DC: AG Bell Association.

IBM Speech Viewer III: Multimedia Speech Therapy Software. (2000). Lab Resources, Pewaukee, WI.

On-line Resources


AG Bell Association for the Deaf

Auditory Verbal International

Boystown Center for Hearing Loss

John Tracy Clinic

League for the Hard of Hearing

Oral Deaf Education

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities

Cued Speech



For Parents

BEGINNINGS for Parents of Children Who Are Deaf/Hard of Hearing

General Deaf Education


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