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A-LEVEL PSYCHOLOGYEXAM 1: RESEARCH METHODSNAME:TEACHER NAME:Below you will see the topics which make up ‘Research Methods’TopicFurther detailsAims, variables and hypotheses Research Aim and QuestionVariables and how they are operationalised – IV and DV, and control of extraneous variablesTypes of hypothesis – null, alternative, one-tailed, two-tailedPopulations, Samples and Sampling TechniquesTarget Population and SampleWays to gather participants – random, snowball, opportunity and self-selectedExperimental DesignsWays to group participants - repeated measures, independent measures, and matched participantsHow Science WorksCause and effectFalsificationReplicabilityObjectivityInductionDeductionHypothesis testingManipulation of variablesControl and standardisationQuantifiable measuresExperimentsTypes of experiments – laboratory, field and quasiObservationTypes of observations – structured, unstructured, naturalistic, controlled, participant, non-participant, overt and covertDesigning observations – behavioural categories, coding frames, time sampling and events samplingCorrelationObtaining data for correlational analysis.Types of correlations: positive, negative and no correlationSelf-reportTypes of self-report – questionnaires and interviews (structured, semi-structured and unstructured)Designing self-reports – open questions, closed questions, and rating scales Methodological IssuesRepresentativenessGeneralisabilityDemand characteristicsSocial desirabilityResearcher/observer biasResearcher/observer effect(s)Methodological IssuesReliability InternalExternalInter-raterTest-retestSplit halfMethodological IssuesValidity InternalFace ConstructConcurrentCriterionExternalPopulationEcological Methodological IssuesEthical considerations, including the BPS Code of Ethics and Conduct – Informed consentRight to withdrawCompetenceResponsibilityProtection of participantsDebriefDeceptionReport writingSections and sub-sections of a practical report Abstract IntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesAppendicesReport writingCiting academic references – a familiarity with citing academic research using the Harvard system of referencingPeer reviewRaw DataStandard and decimal form, significant figures, and estimations from data collectedLevels and Types of DataLevels and Types of data – nominal, ordinal and interval data, qualitative and quantitative data, and primary and secondary dataDescriptive statisticsMeasures of Central Tendency – mode, median and meanMeasures of Dispersion – variance, range, and standard deviation. Ratio, percentages, fractions, frequency tables, line graph, pie charts, bar charts, histograms, and scatter diagramsInferential statisticsDistribution curves – normal, skewed positively, skewed negativelySignificant levelsUsing statistical tables of critical valuesCriteria for using a parametric testCriteria for using nonparametric tests (Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon, Chi-Squared, Binomial Sign Test and Spearman’s Rho)Understanding the use of specific non-parametric tests (as above) including how to calculate eachType 1 errorsType 2 errorsSymbols: =. <, <<, >, >>,~Topic: Aims, variables and hypotheses Research aims and questions5674360134667300Before a psychologist starts their research study, they must come up with a research aim and a research question.A research aim identifies the purpose of an investigation. For example: To investigate how one factor (music) affects another factor (memory).5742940203025700A research question transforms their aim into a question.For example: Does listening to music when memorising a list of objects reduce your ability to recall objects from the list?Activity: Think of two topics you are interested in. For each topic, you should come up with a research aim and a research ic 1Research aim:Research question:Topic 2 Research aim:Research question:Exam questions:Outline the difference between a research aim and research question (2 marks)Scenario 1: Do like me. The extent to which people mimic each other’s behavior (e.g. fold arms at the same time) is often regarded as an indicator of how well they are getting on together, especially if in a romantic relationship. A psychologist wants to conduct a study using the observation method to investigate this by studying the behavior of couples having a drink in a bar. Behavior was observed every 10 minutes during a period from 8 pm to 10 pm.2a) Write an appropriate research question for this study. (2 marks)b) Write an appropriate research aim for this study (2 marks)Scenario 2: Psychologists want to investigate if there is a correlation between a person’s ratings of how ugly snakes are and how much they fear them. They used an opportunity sample.3 a) Write an appropriate research question for this study. (2 marks)b) Write an appropriate research aim for this study (2 marks)VariablesIndependent variable (IV) is the factor in an experiment that is manipulated, changed, or compared by the researcher. It is expected to have an influence on the DV. The cause.5028831173002000Dependent variable (DV) is the factor in an experiment that is measured by the researcher. Changes in this factor are predicted to be caused by the IV. The effect. Activity: For all three examples on the previous page, identify the IV and the DV in each. Extraneous variablesExtraneous variables are variables which could influence the DV but are not the IV. These are factors could incorrectly show a cause-and-effect relationship between the IV and the DV. Whilst these variables only have the potential to influence the DV, it is very important to control extraneous variables. Extraneous variables may influence the DV in any study.Examples of extraneous variables include:The situation: Noise, lighting, weather, time of day, day of the week, etc.Participant variables: Age, memory, intelligence, anxiety, nerves, concentration etc.Confounding variablesConfounding variables are variables which will influence the DV but are not the IV. Again, it is important to control for these variables.The influence of confounding variables will depend on the focus of the study. For example, if a study is looking at the difference in the memory recall between males and females. A confounding variable for this study will be age. Age does influence memory recall. Operationalising variablesWhen writing a research aim, question, or hypotheses, you must always operationalize the variables. Operationalizing variables is when you fully explain how each variable (IV + DV) will be measured.right906526000For example: ‘Studying makes students smarter’ is too vague. What does ‘studying’ mean? What does ‘smarter’ mean? You must be specific and clear – this is operationalizing. For example, ‘The regular and focused revision of notes (studying) will increase a student’s knowledge of the subject (smarter)’Activity: Using the examples on page 1, operationalize each research aimRead each of the scenarios provided below. Within each box, you should…Identify the IV and DV for eachHighlight how each of the variables are operationalized 1. An experiment investigates the effect of lack of sleep on intelligence. One group of participants is told to sleep for 8 hours a night for a week and another group is told to sleep for 3 hours a night for a week. At the end of the week both groups take an intelligence test.IV:DV:2. An experiment investigates if eating pizza makes people happier. A group of participants is told to eat pizza six times in a week. They then complete a questionnaire assessing their happiness. The next week they are told to eat no pizza for a week and then to complete the same questionnaire afterwards.IV:DV:A memory test looks to find out if people remember words or pictures better. A group of participants in Year 4 of primary school is told they have one minute to look at a list of 20 short words. They then have three minutes to recall as many words as they can from the list. Another class of participants in Year 4 completes a similar task, only they have to memorise 20 colourful pictures instead.IV:DV:An experiment investigates if playing video games can improve your reflexes. A group of students who study PE are told to play a sports video game for 2 hours a night for three nights. At the end of the three nights they are taken to the gym, where their reflexes are tested by playing a game of dodgeball. Participants are timed to see how long they can stay in the game. A group of students at another college (who also study PE) are told not to play any video games for three nights. They also take the reflexes test at the end.IV:DV:Activity: Read each of the scenarios below. You should identify the IV, the DV and any extraneous and confounding variables. The first question has been completed for you.1.Eating cheese causes nightmares.IV: whether or not a group had cheese (preferably a measured amount)DV: how many nightmares they hadExtraneous/confounding variables: they may be prone to nightmares anyway; they may hate cheese.2. Children with fewer than 20 hours a week of day-care provision will be more sociable than those attending 20 hours or more a week.IV:DV:Extraneous/confounding variables:3. Context affects recall of a list of words: more words will be recalled in the same context.IV:DV:Extraneous/confounding variables:4. Those who have more than 90% attendance will achieve better AS grades than those who have less than this.IV:DV:Extraneous/confounding variables:HypothesisA hypothesis is a prediction based on an educated guess. A psychologist will make a prediction on whether the IV will have an influence on the DV. For example: Students who are asked to remember the words from an organised list will have a better memory recall than those asked to remember from the non-organised list.5219700171450000There are three different hypotheses:NullAlternative – one-tailedAlternative – two-tailed1. Null hypothesis A null hypothesis predicts that there will be no significant difference between the IV and the DV. The psychologist would suggest that any difference would be due to chance.For example: There will be no significant difference in the memory recall (out of 10 items) between those who listen to music of their own choice and those who did not listen to music. Any difference found will be due to chance.Example structure: There will be no significant difference between participants who [do something] at [something] than participants who [do something else]. Any difference found will be due to chance.2. Alternative hypothesis – one tailedAlternative hypothesis suggests that there will be a significant difference. A one-tailed alternative hypothesis suggests that one group will be better than another group. This type of hypothesis predicts a direction.For example, Individuals who go to the gym everyday will be faster at running than participants who do not go to the gym every day.Example structure: Participants who [do something] will be significantly [faster/better/quicker etc] at [something] than participants who [do something else].3. Alternative hypothesis – two tailedAlternative hypothesis suggests that there will be a significant difference. A two-tailed alternative hypothesis suggests that there will be a difference between the two groups but does not state which group will be better. This type of hypothesis does not predict a direction.For example, there will be a significant difference in fitness between individuals who go to the gym every day and individuals who do not. Example structure: There will be a significant difference between participants who [do something] and those who [do something else]. Activity: Read each of the examples provided. You should identify if the example illustrates a Null hypothesis or an Alternative. Your answer should be accompanied by an explanation.ExampleNull or Alternative?Why?Children who watch violent videos will hit a Bobo doll more often than children who have not watched violent videos.There will be no correlation between the number of people in a group and the level of conformity shown by an average individual, and any correlation observed will be due to chance. When given a choice of seating, males are more likely to sit next to another person, but females are more likely to sit opposite another person. There will be no difference in the number of words recalled after 18 seconds compared to the number recalled after 3 seconds.The number of hours spent in day care as a child is negatively related to scores on pro-social behaviour. Activity: Read each of the following statements. You should write a hypothesis for each. Your hypothesis could be a null hypothesis, a one-tailed alternative hypothesis, or a two-tailed alternative hypothesis. You should identify which type of hypothesis you have chosen.1.Eating cheese causes nightmares.2. Children with fewer than 20 hours a week of day-care provision will be more sociable than those attending 20 hours or more a week.3. Context affects recall of a list of words: more words will be recalled in the same context.4. Those who have more than 90% attendance will achieve better AS grades than those who have less than thisTopic: Populations, samples, and sampling techniquesPopulations and samplesTo conduct a study, a psychologist needs participants. Participants are people who take part in a study. A group of participants is known as a sample. There are a number of ways in which you can gather participants, these are known as sampling methods.Before selecting a sampling method, a psychologist must decide who their target population is. For example, if you are conducting a study which looks at the influence of age on a person’s memory, your target population may be young adults and the elderly. You would want your sample to include people who are typical of your target population. This means you will want your participants to be either a young adult or an elderly person. You will also want your participants to represent a range of genders, ages, religions, cultural backgrounds, demographic areas, characteristics etc. If your sample contains participants which represent that target population, your sample is called representative. This means that even if you only have 10 young adult participants and 10 elderly participants, if these people have a range of the characteristics mentioned previously, it is assumed that this small group represent the larger group. This means you can assume that how the 20 participants respond to the study, so too would the target population. 4773797442286400Sampling methods1. Opportunity sampleThis consists of selecting people to take part who are:Available at the timeWho fit the criteria you are looking forThe psychologist will ask each potential participant if they want to take part. They will either say yes or no.For example, students in the library being asked.Evaluation5241851154763002. Self-selected/volunteer sampleThis is when individuals will approach the psychologist and volunteer to take partTypically involves responding to an advert (Milgram’s study)For example, seeing a poster in the newspaper and phoning the company requesting to be a participant.Evaluation3. Stratified sampling5198376501800600This involves splitting your target population into categories. These categories are typically of importance to your study. For example, gender, age, race, intelligence, etc. For example, a research study looking at the influence of gender on sporting ability at a local school. You would identify the gender split within this target population. In the school gender breakdown was 60% female and 40% male, then your sample should reflect this. Meaning you may wish to have 6 females and 4 male participants.Evaluation 4825601321103Snowball sample464588218655700This is when a participant takes part in a study, and the psychologists asks the participant if they have any friends who would like to take part in the study too.47929805698800For example, your friend takes part in a study. After the study, he tells you that you should take part in the study too, so you do.Evaluation5. Random sampleThis is when everyone in the target population is identified and each person has an equal chance of being selected. The selection process is random and has no logical process to it. 45161205447030It is similar to writing everyone’s name and placing them all in a hat. The psychologist would then select the number of participants they need in order to gather participants. There are technological ways to do this.For example, the psychologist may use the electoral register to gather names of all individuals in Lewes over the age of 18. The psychologist then selects 10 at random to be participants. Evaluation570350440145100Sampling methods & Skittles: Skittles report that they “ensure you have a good grape-to-lemon-to-green apple-to-orange-to-strawberry ratio in each serving”. There are 371,292 potential flavour combinations in every single bag.Activity: You have been given a packet of Skittles. Using these skittles as ‘participants’, try out each sampling method:How would you conduct an opportunity sample using Skittles? How would you choose a random sample using Skittles?How do you get a stratified sample using Skittles?How would you get a self-selected sample using Skittles?How would you get a snowball sample using Skittles?According to Skittles, there are 16 skittles in each packet. How many does yours have?Is there an equal number of each colour? Write down how many you have of each colourIs your packet representative of the whole Skittles population? Explain whyCentral tendency refers to the mean, the mode, and the median. Calculate the central tendency for our classes Skittles. Exam question:A psychologist conducted an experiment to see if the promise of chocolate made A level psychology students work faster at a task. She conducted her experiment in a sixth form college and used two different psychology classes. In the first class she told them that there would be a reward of a bar of chocolate for every student who successfully completed a series of multiple-choice questions about a topic they had recently studied. The students in the other group were not told about any reward and were simply asked to complete the multiple-choice questions. The time it took each student to complete the multiple-choice task was recorded.Identify the sampling method used in this study Suggest one strength of the sampling method used in this study Suggest one weakness of the sampling method used in this study Topic: Experimental designs5058888143635300Once a psychologist has their participants, they must decide how their participants will be split into groups. There are three ways in which participants can be grouped. These are called experimental designs.641833216979410047555151804670001. Independent measures design (IMD)This involves the group of participants being split into two separate groupsThese two groups are independent of each other = unrelatedEach group does one task onlyFor example, group 1 listens to music whilst memorising a list of words, whereas group 2 do not listen to music whilst memorising a list of words. It is assumed that each group can act as comparison for the other groupEvaluation 632333063176150055986556317615002. Repeated measures design (RMD)This involves the group of participants staying as one groupAll participants take part in all tasksFor example, participants listen to music whilst memorising a list of words. After this, they then do not listen to music whilst memorising a list of words.It is assumed that they can act as their own baseline for comparison. One major issue with RMD is order effects. This is when a participant’s performance improves through practice (practice effects) or worsens through boredom/tiredness (fatigue effects). Because of this, participants often perform poorly on task B, leading to incorrect results. One way to overcome this is to counterbalance. This is when half of the participants complete task A then task B, and the other half of the participants complete task B then task A (ABBA). This eliminates the likelihood that all participants will perform poorly on task B as it is not always presented second.Evaluation5434775330517500641279933331150060619003211195005292725332396900Matched pairs design (MPD)This is a version of IMD as the participants are split into two groupsEach participant in group 1 is matched specifically to someone in group 2Participants are matched on relevant variables to the study. For example, if you were looking at the influence of music and memory, you would match an 18-year-old participant in group 1 with an 18-year-old participant in group 2. The variable which is relevant here is their age. You can be as specific as you want to. EvaluationActivity: Explain how you would use each experimental design for the following scenario. ‘A psychologist wants to measure if there is any difference in the performance of English tests and Maths tests amongst Year 10 students’.right129012Topic: How Science WorksIs psychology a science?When investigating research questions, it is important that psychologists use scientific methods. This allows for the data collected to be based on careful, constructed experiments and observations (rather than relying on attitudes and beliefs). Scientific methods of measurement should allow for objective, unbiased results. In order for psychology to be considered a science, the methods must be rigorous. To do so, the following basic scientific principles should be followed.-12705448300Hypothesis testingAll hypothesis should be able to be clearly tested. For example, ‘Children will be significantly more intelligent after reading books’ is not a clearly testable hypothesis. One way to make a hypothesis clearly testable is to operationalise the variables.For example, ‘Children will score significantly higher on a standard IQ test after having read at least five books in a year when compared to children who have read four books or fewer in a year.’ Because this hypothesis has its variables clearly operationalised, it could be tested to see if it is true. 00Hypothesis testingAll hypothesis should be able to be clearly tested. For example, ‘Children will be significantly more intelligent after reading books’ is not a clearly testable hypothesis. One way to make a hypothesis clearly testable is to operationalise the variables.For example, ‘Children will score significantly higher on a standard IQ test after having read at least five books in a year when compared to children who have read four books or fewer in a year.’ Because this hypothesis has its variables clearly operationalised, it could be tested to see if it is true. right2933700FalsificationPsychological ideas and hypotheses must be falsifiable. This means that you should be able to conduct a test to see if the research aim and question can be proved false. For example, a research question like ‘Are all swans white?’ is falsifiable as you could test this to see if it was true or false. However, a research question like ‘Does God exist?’ is not falsifiable as you cannot scientifically prove if this is right or wrong.00FalsificationPsychological ideas and hypotheses must be falsifiable. This means that you should be able to conduct a test to see if the research aim and question can be proved false. For example, a research question like ‘Are all swans white?’ is falsifiable as you could test this to see if it was true or false. However, a research question like ‘Does God exist?’ is not falsifiable as you cannot scientifically prove if this is right or wrong.10795137160Cause and EffectCause and effect refers to how one variable (IV) has an effect on another variable (DV). There are two ways to ensure cause and effect.One: Control and standardisationControl all extraneous variables to ensure the IV caused the effect on the DV. If variables are not controlled for, extraneous or confounding variables may cause the effect on the DV, not the IV.Control means making sure the study is identical for each participant who takes part. Often this includes being given the same set of instructions, time limits for tasks, same time of day etc. If this is the case, the study can be considered standardised, meaning it should be easy for anyone to read the instructions and repeat the study identically.Two: Manipulation of variablesThe psychologist should manipulate/be in control of two or more conditions. For example, one group eat vegetables everyday (IV 1)and the other group do not (IV 2). Then measuring their fitness levels (DV).00Cause and EffectCause and effect refers to how one variable (IV) has an effect on another variable (DV). There are two ways to ensure cause and effect.One: Control and standardisationControl all extraneous variables to ensure the IV caused the effect on the DV. If variables are not controlled for, extraneous or confounding variables may cause the effect on the DV, not the IV.Control means making sure the study is identical for each participant who takes part. Often this includes being given the same set of instructions, time limits for tasks, same time of day etc. If this is the case, the study can be considered standardised, meaning it should be easy for anyone to read the instructions and repeat the study identically.Two: Manipulation of variablesThe psychologist should manipulate/be in control of two or more conditions. For example, one group eat vegetables everyday (IV 1)and the other group do not (IV 2). Then measuring their fitness levels (DV).right5044292ReplicabilityThe aim of manipulating variables, controlling, and standardising a study is so that it can be repeated. If the study is precise and detailed, different researchers should be able to repeat the study and obtain the same results. If this occurs, the study can be considered reliable. 00ReplicabilityThe aim of manipulating variables, controlling, and standardising a study is so that it can be repeated. If the study is precise and detailed, different researchers should be able to repeat the study and obtain the same results. If this occurs, the study can be considered reliable. -996957291543Quantifiable measuresPsychologists often study concepts which are difficult to scientifically measure. For example, memories and emotions.Scientific results are usually quantitative (numbers). This allows for comparison and analysis. In psychology, we often have to take human concepts like memory and make them quantifiable (turn them into numbers).How could you take a concept like memory and make it measurable through numbers? You could use a memory test where participants look at a list of 30 words and write down as many as they can remember. 00Quantifiable measuresPsychologists often study concepts which are difficult to scientifically measure. For example, memories and emotions.Scientific results are usually quantitative (numbers). This allows for comparison and analysis. In psychology, we often have to take human concepts like memory and make them quantifiable (turn them into numbers).How could you take a concept like memory and make it measurable through numbers? You could use a memory test where participants look at a list of 30 words and write down as many as they can remember. -25402367280Types of reasoningThere are two ways in which a psychologist may come up with their research study.The first way is through induction. This starts with your experience of the world and you propose an explanation for this behaviour/action based on these. Simply put, you generalise a limited finding to a larger idea.For example, the cost of chocolate bars in the local shops has increased. You remember hearing about the governments initiative on the radio so you think that the explanation for this is that the government have increased prices to promote healthy diets.The second way is through deduction. This starts with two statements and you try to use your logic to reach a conclusion.For example, nothing electrical works in your house.Premise 1: there has been a power cutPremise 2: there is a serial killer who has broken into your house and has cut the electrical cords so you cannot call 999Once a psychologist has selected their explanation for whatever phenomena they are investigating, they must find a way of assessing how good an explanation this is. They will use the hypothetic-deductive method. This is as follows:Identify the issueThere is no electricity in your houseProvide an explanation for this There has been a power cutMake a predictionWhen asked, an electrician would confirm there has been a power cutTest the predictionCall British Gas and ask them if there hasbeen a power cut00Types of reasoningThere are two ways in which a psychologist may come up with their research study.The first way is through induction. This starts with your experience of the world and you propose an explanation for this behaviour/action based on these. Simply put, you generalise a limited finding to a larger idea.For example, the cost of chocolate bars in the local shops has increased. You remember hearing about the governments initiative on the radio so you think that the explanation for this is that the government have increased prices to promote healthy diets.The second way is through deduction. This starts with two statements and you try to use your logic to reach a conclusion.For example, nothing electrical works in your house.Premise 1: there has been a power cutPremise 2: there is a serial killer who has broken into your house and has cut the electrical cords so you cannot call 999Once a psychologist has selected their explanation for whatever phenomena they are investigating, they must find a way of assessing how good an explanation this is. They will use the hypothetic-deductive method. This is as follows:Identify the issueThere is no electricity in your houseProvide an explanation for this There has been a power cutMake a predictionWhen asked, an electrician would confirm there has been a power cutTest the predictionCall British Gas and ask them if there hasbeen a power cutright5715ObjectiveStudying human behaviour is personal. It is easy for psychologists to observe and explain from their own point of view or be influenced by their own personal experiences, morals and beliefs. If a psychologist is influenced, their research would be subjective. If they are not influenced, their research is objective.Ways to improve objectivity is to use researchers who are blind to the purpose of the research or conditions.00ObjectiveStudying human behaviour is personal. It is easy for psychologists to observe and explain from their own point of view or be influenced by their own personal experiences, morals and beliefs. If a psychologist is influenced, their research would be subjective. If they are not influenced, their research is objective.Ways to improve objectivity is to use researchers who are blind to the purpose of the research or conditions.Activity: Write a description of how you would measure each of these variables in a way that is quantifiableConcentrationAppetiteMaths abilityMemory of historical eventsSociabilityAddiction to cigarettesActivity: On a separate piece of paper, go through the stages of the Hypothetic-deductive method to explain the following:1. I have failed my driving test three times2. My computer is not working3. I am lost during a visit with my friend in the town that they liveExam questions:What is meant by the term falsification? (2)Explain what is meant by the term cause and effect. (2)How can a psychologist ensure their research can establish cause and effect? (2)Why is it important for psychological research to be replicable? (2)What is meant by the term objectivity? (2) What is meant by quantifiable measures in psychological research? (2)Explain the process of induction. (4)Explain the process of deduction. (4)Explain how hypothesis testing works in experiments. (3)Why is the manipulation of variables important in psychological research? (2)How can psychologists ensure control in their research? (2)Topic: Experiments570545985487500An experiment is an investigation where a psychologist can scientifically test their hypothesis. In an experiment, the psychologist can manipulate one variable (IV) to see its effect on another variable (DV). Importantly, in experiments, extraneous variables can be controlled for. By doing this, this allows a cause-and-effect relationship to be seen between the IV and DV. In experiments the psychologist can allocate participants into their groups (experimental designs). There are three types of experiments.1. Laboratory experimentsA laboratory experiment takes place in a highly controlled environment (not necessarily a real laboratory). The psychologist has control over most variables. The psychologist will manipulate the IV and measure the effect on the DV. For example, an A-Level student is brought into a university lecture hall. The hall has 20 other people in the hall who, unknown to the student, are all actors. When the university lecturer says a key word, all actors stand up and turn around (IV). The psychologist wants to see if the A-Level student will copy others (DV). High control over exextraneous variablesHighly controlled which allows causal relationships to be seenStandardised procedures which allow for repetitionDue to the high control, it is likely that a cause-and-effect relationship between the variables can be identified. X A highly controlled environment cannot reflect that of real life. And so, you cannot assume that how individuals act in the laboratory experiment is similar to how they would act in real life. This means the psychologist may have false results. XDemand characteristics may occur. This is when the participant may act in a certain way or give answers which they think the researcher wants to hear. This typically happens more when repetition is involved too.X Social desirability may occur. This is when participants will act in a certain way or give answers which they think are more socially acceptable, than their own real beliefs.X Researcher bias may occur. This is when the psychologist purposely looks for something they wish to find.XResearcher effects may occur. This is when the mere presence of a researcher influences the individual to act differently to their normal behaviour.2. Field experimentsA field experiment is conducted in a real-life environment (not necessarily in a field). This environment is more natural than a laboratory experiment. The psychologist still manipulates the IV but as the setting is real-life, they have less control over extraneous variables. Typically, participants do not know that they are in a study.For example, a teacher rewards one class with chocolate after each correct answer and does not with the other (IV). The teacher wants to know if students who receive the reward will perform better in the test compared to the other group (DV).This environment is real-life and would be ‘normal’ for participants. It is likely they would behave ‘normally’. Participants typically are not aware they are in a study, and so are less likely to display demand characteristics, social desirability or researcher effects.Less problematic than laboratory experimentsXLess control over extraneous variables which could bias resultsXLittle control over variables minimises accuracy of experiment repetitionXIf participants are unaware they are in a study, this raises ethical issues.3. Quasi/natural experimentsA quasi experiment occurs in real life, similar to a field experiment. The main difference is that the psychologist has no control over the IV. In quasi experiments the IV is naturally occurring. The psychologist also has no control over any other variable, nor do they select any experimental designs. Quasi experiments are great when it would be ethical or immoral to manipulate the IV.For example, research which looks at the long-term effect of smoking (IV) on individual’s health (DV).Another example, the long-term effect (DV) of deprivation during childhood (IV).Naturally occurring IV means quasi experiments can be used to measure real-world issuesUsed to investigate variables which are not practical, unethical or immoralNatural environment, natural IV = natural behaviourParticipants are sometimes unaware they are being studied so less demand characteristics, social desirability and observer bias.XNaturally occurring IV’s means that no causal relationship can be found between the IV and DV.XLittle control over variables makes it difficult to repeatExam questionsScenario 1: A researcher has conducted an independent measures design experiment to investigate whether chewing gum influences concentration. She recorded how many changes were detected in a ‘spot-the-difference’ puzzle by people chewing gum when completing the task, compared to those who were not. The results are in the table below.Write a one tailed hypothesis for this study. (3 marks)Write a null hypothesis for this study (3 marks)Outline one strength and one weakness of using a lab experiment. (4 marks)Explain the difference between a lab experiment and a field experiment. (4 marks)What is a quasi-experiment? (2 marks)Why would a quasi-experiment not be appropriate for this study? (2 marks)State a strength and a weakness of using quasi experiments. (4 marks)Scenario 2: Researchers conducted an independent measures design experiment in a local coffee bar, investigating whether receiving physical contact from someone increases their rating on friendliness. The experiment took place between 11am and 2pm on a Wednesday. As members of the public left the coffee bar after paying, some were touched lightly on the upper arm by the cashier, whereas others were not. Outside the coffee bar, members of the public were asked how friendly they thought the staff were on a scale of 1 (‘not very friendly’) to 10 (‘extremely friendly’).What is the independent variable (IV) in this study and how has it been operationalised? (2 marks)Evaluate the way the dependent variable has been measured this study. (4 marks)Write a two tailed hypothesis for this study. (3 marks)Write a null hypothesis for this study (3 marks)Describe how you would control one variable in this study. (2)567690017145000Topic: ObservationAn observation is a method where we simply observe and record naturally occurring behaviour. In an observation, no IV is manipulated. This is a non-experimental method. Observation can also be used as a technique within an experiment, in order to collect data.There are five key questions which must be answered before conducting an observation. 240284030318Who – Who will you observe? 0Who – Who will you observe? center498250052411146931How – How will you observe?0How – How will you observe?4423144118184What – What behaviour(s) are you looking for? 0What – What behaviour(s) are you looking for? 59887914974Where –Where will the observation be?0Where –Where will the observation be?386279415269When – Day, time, how long will you observe for?0When – Day, time, how long will you observe for?1. Who to observeTo conduct an observation, the psychologist must select a target population. This may be based on what they want to observe, a particular age group or a location.If a psychologist wants to observe the behaviour of football fans, the target population would be football fans.2. What to focus on in the observationUnstructured observationStructured observationThe psychologists go into the observation open minded. They will observe and make note of anything and everything.The psychologist goes into the observation with a behaviour trait(s) in mind to find. They will observe and make notes of these behaviour trait(s) only.This generates descriptive data (qualitative)This generates quantitative data as the observation is focused on specific behavioural trait(s). A coding scheme is used in unstructured observations.Coding schemesA coding scheme is a behavioural checklist. The psychologist(s) will agree beforehand on what these behaviours are. The aim is for each behaviour to be very clear so that there is no overlap. This will eliminate bias or interpretation. An example of a coding scheme for a psychologist looking at aggressive behaviours amongst children:BiteHitChasePushPullWrestleIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIActivity: Read through the following statements. You must identify if the observation is structured or unstructured.You watch a group of friends and write down everything they say. You watch a group of friends and record their compliments and insults.You go to a zoo and record the quantity and type of food that each animal eats.You sit in a cafe and people-watch, writing down anything that interests you.Activity: Select one structured observation from above and create a coding scheme. 3. When to observeSelecting when to conduct an observation is very important. This could include the time of day, which day of the week, a month of the year or a season.Activity: Read through the following scenarios. You should identify when would be the best time to conduct these observations.An observation looking at the differences between suntan lotion usage in men and women.Christmas shopping behaviour in a local supermarket.Social interactions between new university students.Interactions between couples on a date.Event samplingTime samplingThe psychologist keeps an account of each time a particular behaviour (event) occursThe psychologist(s) decides on set time intervals to observe. Behaviours are only recorded during these set intervals.4. Where to observeNaturalistic observationControlled observationBehaviour is studied in a natural environment, where everything has been left as it normally is.For example, observing people walking down the streetSome variables have been controlled by a researcher (potentially in a controlled environment). This reduces the likelihood of natural behaviours being studied.For example, observing if a student conforms to other students (actors)5. How to observeOvert observationCovert observationThis is when the participant is fully aware they are being observed (obvious)This is when the participant is not aware they are being observed (under-cover)Participant observationNon-participant observationThis is when the psychologist is involved within the group of people being observed.This is when the psychologists observes from the outside.Activity: For each of the following questions, identify which of the above four types of observation fit best. There may be more than one answer.Which one allows you to see behaviours usually hidden from the public?In which one is it easier to record data?Which is likely to be easier to replicate?Which is more likely to be ethical?Which one is likely to provide greater depth and reasoning for behaviours?In which one are we having no impact on the behaviours?Is there any risk of bias? If so, how?Key term: Inter-rater reliability. This is the extent to which two raters (observers) provide consistent or similar responses. Exam questions:Scenario 1: Researchers want to conduct an observation study of shopping behaviour at a large local supermarket. The table below shows the number of times different behaviours were observed.Reading a magazineTalking to friendsQuietly shoppingUsing a mobile phoneArguing with friend101118272Explain what is meant by inter-rater reliability in observational research. (2 marks)Suggest how the researchers could ensure that this observation has inter-rater reliability. (4 marks)Explain how observer bias may influence the results in this study. (2 marks)Scenario 2: A researcher wanted to covertly observe how mums at a play and stay interacted with each other. He planned to use a naturalistic structured observation.Outline one strength and one weakness of conducting a covert observation. (4 marks)Explain how you would make this observation overt and what problems this might arise. (2 marks)Explain the difference between a participant and non-participant observation. (4 marks)What is a structured observation? (2 marks)State a strength and a weakness of using a naturalistic observation in this study. (4 marks)Identify one strength and one weakness of using a controlled observation in this study. (4 marks)right1199368Activity: Your task is to design an observation. There are some examples below which you can choose or create your own.Aggressive behaviour in tigers (live stream of zoo’s available online)Football supporters at a local football match.Students behaviour in a libraryYou are expected to outline who, what, when, where and how you will conduct this observation. Including a coding scheme.00Activity: Your task is to design an observation. There are some examples below which you can choose or create your own.Aggressive behaviour in tigers (live stream of zoo’s available online)Football supporters at a local football match.Students behaviour in a libraryYou are expected to outline who, what, when, where and how you will conduct this observation. Including a coding ic: CorrelationPsychologists investigate the influence of one variable (IV) on another variable (DV). In an experiment, a psychologist can manipulate the IV allowing a cause-and-effect relationship to be seen between the two variables.In correlations, there is no manipulation of variables so no cause-and-effect relationship can be found. All variables in a correlation are naturally occurring and so only an association can be found.A correlation may look at the association between:Handspan and intelligenceStress at work and number of sick daysSchool absences and final grades48056803696808Positive correlation (1+)A psychologist may look at the association between the temperature and ice-cream sales. They may find that the warmer the temperature, the more ice-cream is sold. As one variable increases, so too does the otherA positive correlation will appear to increase /500684213228700Negative correlation (1-)A psychologist may want to look at the association between attendance and exam grade. They may find that the more days absent from school, the lower their exam grade is.As one variable increases, the other decreases.A negative correlation will appear to decrease \No correlation (0)right8293144A psychologist may want to look at the association between owning a cat and being struck by lightning. They may find no association between these two variables. Correlation coefficient scaleAs a correlation identifies an association (not a cause-and-effect), it is important to know the strength of the association. A correlation is measured from +1 to -1.Strong Moderate Weak No Weak Moderate Strong _______________________________________________________________________10-1Activity: Based on the correlation coefficient scale, interpret the strength of the following correlations0.870.650.901-0.09-0.79-0.2Linear correlations Curvilinear correlation left5187728004393757494403600Strengths of correlationsWeaknesses of correlationsMeasures the strength of the relationship, allowing for a precise quantitative measureImpossible to identify cause-and-effectAllows experimenters to analyse statistically where it might be unethical to conduct an experimentCannot take outside variables into account (extraneous or confounding variables may be the reason for the association, not the IV)Exam questionsExplain what is meant by a negative correlation. (2 marks)Explain what is meant by a positive correlation. (2 marks)Explain what is meant by no correlation. (2 marks)Identify one strength and one weakness of the correlational method. (4 marks)right64770000Topic: Self-reportA self-report is a direct way of gathering data. It involves directly asking participants their opinions, rather than the researcher measuring aspects of the participant’s behaviour (which can reflect their thoughts or feelings). Self-report is often the most valid way of assessing a participant’s thoughts, feelings and beliefs. There are two types of self-report:Questionnaires – These are written methods of gathering data. They do not necessarily require a researcher to be present.Interviews – These involve direct verbal questioning by the researcher and vary in terms of how structured the questions are. QuestionnairesThe researcher will present the participants with questions. In a questionnaire, these will be on paper or on a computer, whereby the participant fills them in. StrengthsWeaknessesThey are relatively easy to administer and can be sent or emailed to participants, making them time and cost efficientRespondents might be more truthful than in an interview, especially if their answers are more personal or socially sensitiveData is easy to analyse, as they are usually quantitative.Response biases – such as tending always to answer no or always ticking the box on the left, can lead to invalid resultsThey are limited because there is no flexibility to allow for the collection of useful but unexpected data, as new questions cannot be added.5842635-18739100Types of questions:Evaluate the below questions:How many times did you shop here in 2010? 05, 510, 1015, 1520, 2025, 2530, 3035, 3540, 4045, 4550, 5055, 5560, 6570, 7580, 8085, 8590, 9095,95100.What is your annual income? Have you ever shoplifted?Do you have a busy life? YES/NODo you think socioeconomic and political factors are militating against centralising forces in the retailmerchandising sector?One: Closed questions:Require a fixed response You must select one answer onlyExample: Do you work in a legal or police-related occupation YesNoGenerates quantitative data (numbers) allowing easy comparisonsActivity: Write your own closed question belowStrengthsWeaknessesEasy for participants to respond to. So large amounts of data can be collected quickly, making the data more reliable, and if a wide sample is found, more generalizableThey produce quantitative data which are easy to analyse e.g. to find modes, medians and plot graphs for many questionsThey only produce quantitative data which means they lack detail and meaning. So, participants cannot fully express opinions thus lowering validityThere is a risk of response bias (such as consistently saying yes)Two: Open questions:Do not require a fixed responseGives the participant the opportunity to extend their answerExample: How does your child respond to positive feedback?This type of question gathers much more information, than it would be to tick a box.Unlike closed questions, the results generated by open questions are qualitative (detailed and descriptive)They are more likely to give explanations to behavioursActivity: Write your own open question belowStrengthsWeaknessesOpen questions produce qualitative data, which provides detail. So, participants can express opinions fully, raising validityAnalysis retains details of participants answers, so information such as variation in responses is not lost through averagesThey produce qualitative data, which are time consuming to analyse as these themes need to be identified and extractedInterpretation of qualitative data can be subjective leading to bias from individual researchers and potentially reducing inter-rater reliabilityFindings are individual and difficult to generalise Rating scalesRating scales are used to gauge a participant’s opinion, indicating the extent to which (or the strength) of the participants opinions. They generate quantitative data. Examples of these could include:To what extent are you likely to do something on a scale of 1-10(1 being very likely, 10 being very unlikely)State your preference from the choice 1, 2, 3, 4Very happyhappy unhappyvery unhappyTo be valid, a rating scale should discriminate between different responses. Participant’s responses might tend to cluster in the middle. To avoid this, the scale must offer a range of values (e.g. having a scale of an odd number – 5 – eliminates participants from choosing a middle option). StrengthsWeaknessesThey are easy for participants to respond to, so large amounts of data can be collected quickly, making the data more reliable and if a wide sample, more generalizable.They produce quantitative data, which are easy to analyse (e.g. to find modes, medians and to plot graphs).They can be tested for reliability (by test re-test) and improved by changing or removing unreliable items. They produce only quantitative data, which lack detail, so participants cannot express opinions fully, thus lowering validity.There is a risk of response biases, such as consistently giving answers in the middle of the scale or at one extreme end.The points on the scale are only relative (i.e. the points are not equal). This means that the data should not be used to calculate a mean, standard deviation or in parametric tests.They cannot be used to measure complex variables that require more than a simple numerical response, such as attitudes.Likert scalesLikert scales can produce quantitative date. It involves a statement and the participant must respond by saying how much they agree with it. Hancock et al. (2011) study on the language of psychopaths included the following questions“I think I could beat a lie detector”“I always plan out my weekly activities”“I have tricked someone into giving me money”(1) Strongly agree (2) Agree (3) Do not know (4) Disagree (5) Strongly disagreePhrases should be ‘reversed’ to counterbalance participant’s responses. The responses should be ‘reversed’ too. For example:“I think an unnecessary fuss is made over the effect of violent TV”“Violent TV is to blame for the rise in crime”(1) Strongly disagree (2) Disagree (3) Do not know (4) Agree (5)AgreeStrengthsWeaknessesThey are easy for participants to respond to, so large amounts of data can be collected quickly, making the data more reliable and if a wide sample is found, more generalizableThey produce quantitative data, which are easy to analyseThey can be tested for reliability (by test re-test) and improved by changing or removing unreliable items.They allow the measurement of more complex attitudes than rating scales canThey produce only quantitative data, which lacks detail. This means participants cannot express their opinions fully.There is a risk of response biases, such as consistently giving answers in the middle of the scale or at one extreme end.The points on the scale are only relative (the gaps between points are not equal). This means the data should not be used to calculate means.The meaning of the middle value is ambiguous. Semantic DifferentialsA different type of rating scale allows participants to choose on a scale between two extremes. In a semantic differential, the participant rates their response between an opposing pair of descriptive words (such as ‘weak’ or ‘strong’). These are typically used to measure attitudes. For example: “How fun do you think school is?”Boring -------------------excitingStrengthsWeaknessesThey are easy for participants to respond to, so large amounts of data can be collected quickly, making the data more reliable and if a wide sample is found, more generalizableThey can be tested for reliability (by test re-test) and improved by changing or removing unreliable items.There is a risk of response biases, such as consistently giving answers in the middle of the scale or at one extreme end.The points on the scale are only relative (the gaps between points are not equal). This means the data should not be used to calculate means.The meaning of each value is ambiguous. 5127749566420InterviewsThe researcher will present the participants with questions. In an interview, these can be face-to-face or over the phone. Unstructured interviewBegins with a standard question for all participants but from there on, questions depend on the respondent’s answers. There might be a list of topics to cover.Structured interviewAsks closed questions in a fixed orderThe questions will be scripted so they are standardisedSemi-structured interviewUses a fixed list of open and closed questions, although the interviewer can introduce additional questions if requiredStrengthsWeaknessesStructured interview data is easy to analyse as it is quantitativeSemi structured and unstructured interviews enable the researcher to gain specific and detailed information from the respondent that could be missed in structured techniquesFace to face, an interviewer can respond more flexibly to gain useful, detailed information when this is difficult to obtain.Structured interviews are limited by fixed questionsInvestigator bias can be a problem, as the expectations of the interviewer can either alter the way in which they ask questions, thus consciously affecting the respondent’s answers, or affect the way in which the responses are interpretedExam questionsExplain what a questionnaire is (2 marks)Explain what an interview is (2 marks)How does a questionnaire differ from an interview? (2 marks)Outline the three types of interviews (6 marks)Scenario 1: Psychologists are interested in helping people overcome their fears, anxieties, and phobias. One way about finding out about these is to ask people to fill out a questionnaire. In this way they can write about their fears, anxieties, and phobias and how they can overcome them without having to talk about them.Outline one advantage and one disadvantage of using a questionnaire in this study. (4 marks)Give a strength and a weakness of using an interview instead of a questionnaire in this study. (4 marks)What is a strength of using a semi structured interview over a structured interview? (2 marks)Scenario 2: A psychologist is interested in investigating people’s beliefs in the paranormal (e.g. ghosts, telepathy, unidentified flying objects) and decides to use a self-report measure to conduct their study.Define an open question and give an example for this scenario (2 marks)Outline one strength and one weakness of using open questions in the study of people’s beliefs in the paranormal (4 marks)Define a closed question and give an example for this scenario (2 marks)Outline one strength and one weakness of using closed questions in the study of people’s beliefs in the paranormal (4 marks)Using a rating scale, give an example question which may be used in the above scenario (1 mark)Outline one strength and one weakness of using rating scales in the study of people’s beliefs in the paranormal (4 marks)Activity1. You should select a topic which you wish to find out some information on. You will create a questionnaire on this topic. It should include a range of closed questions, open questions, and scales. You should aim to have 6 questions.You will distribute this to your peers. Upon return, you should assess whether this questionnaire was effective at finding out the information. You should identify the strengths and weaknesses.2. You should select a different topic which you wish to find out information on. You should carefully select a type of interview. You should plan and conduct at least two interviews. You should assess whether this interview was effective at finding out the information. You should identify the strengths and weaknesses.right43815000Topic: Methodological issuesMethodological issues regard to problems which may occur in a psychological study based on the methods selected. These are as follows:RepresentativenessDo the results found reflect (represent)?that of the?target?population?GeneralisabilityCan the results found be assumed to be the same of the?whole?population?Demand characteristics When participants act in a certain way or give answers which they think the researcher?wants to hearSocial DesirabilityWhen participants act in a certain way or give answers which?they think are more socially acceptableResearcher/observer biasWhen the individual observing or researching a phenomenon?look for things they wish to findResearcher/observer effectsWhen the?presence?of a researcher or observer influence the way individuals actValidityValidity refers to the extent to which the test measures what it claims to. For example, does an IQ test actually measure intelligence?2232350129983Population – Is the sample representative of the wider target population of the study?00Population – Is the sample representative of the wider target population of the study?4645970257855External – this looks at factors outside of the study. Who is the study meant to be representative of? Can it be generalised?00External – this looks at factors outside of the study. Who is the study meant to be representative of? Can it be generalised?There are 7 types of validity:left70190Face – does the test appear to test what it aims to test? (EG. Does IQ testing really measure intelligence?)00Face – does the test appear to test what it aims to test? (EG. Does IQ testing really measure intelligence?)224583395885Construct – does the test relate to underlying theoretical concepts?00Construct – does the test relate to underlying theoretical concepts?left238199Ecological – does the task/experiment reflect that of real life?00Ecological – does the task/experiment reflect that of real life?46355599042371Internal – does the test measure what is intended to or has other extraneous factors influencing?00Internal – does the test measure what is intended to or has other extraneous factors influencing?2259965201768Concurrent – does the test relate to an already existing measurement?00Concurrent – does the test relate to an already existing measurement?Reliability:Reliability refers to how controlled and consistent a study is. Can it be repeated?For example, a friend who is consistently late can be seen as reliable with lateness.36559830480Internal - whether a procedure in a study is standardised and can be replicated E.g. Can the tools used to measure behaviour be used again?00Internal - whether a procedure in a study is standardised and can be replicated E.g. Can the tools used to measure behaviour be used again?383820635102External - if the procedure can be repeated, do they receive similar or the same results?00External - if the procedure can be repeated, do they receive similar or the same results?454072343180Test-retest – When a participant sample complete the study then a short period later they complete the study again. This will see if they get similar results00Test-retest – When a participant sample complete the study then a short period later they complete the study again. This will see if they get similar results225441243180Split-half – this links to experimental designs. This is when group 1 complete task A then task B, and group 2 complete task B then task A00Split-half – this links to experimental designs. This is when group 1 complete task A then task B, and group 2 complete task B then task Aleft42413Inter-rater - two or more individuals have a high agreement on a score and therefore the measurement of behaviour is reliable 00Inter-rater - two or more individuals have a high agreement on a score and therefore the measurement of behaviour is reliable Exam questions:If a study is ‘representative’, what does this mean?If a study has ‘generalisability’ what does this mean?Define the term ‘demand characteristics’Provide an example of a demand characteristic Outline what social desirability is Provide an example of social desirabilityExplain what researcher/observer bias isProvide an example of researcher/observer biasExplain what researcher/observer effects areProvide an example of researcher/observer biasTopic: Ethical guidelinesEthical guidelines are a checklist which psychologists must adhere to. According to the British Psychological Society (BPS), ethical guidelines deem whether a study is acceptable or unacceptable.The aim of the guidelines are to ensure that all participants leave the study in the same state they entered – physically, emotionally, psychologically.The cost-benefit analysisThis is where psychologists will ‘weight up’ the benefits to society that may be gained from conducting an ‘unacceptable’ study. For example, all ethical guidelines may be broken, and all 10 participants could be traumatised for the rest of their lives, but what the researcher found changes how we see behaviours forever. The ultimate question is: is the trauma worth the findings?4576267396562000Three Identical StrangersRobert, David, and Eddy – triplets separated at birth.The boys, including their parents, did not know they were subject to study. The purpose of the study was never explained to anyone, they never received an apology and the researchers did not try to support them after they were found out.The effects of this deception could be severe; loss of identity, confusion, lack of trust, poor future relationships, the feeling of being used and lied to. It could have directly or indirectly led to the suicide of one of the brothers.Activity:Do you think what the researchers done in ‘Three Identical Strangers’ was wrong? Explain your answerShould the researchers be punished for their study or praised? Explain your answer In ‘Three Identical Strangers’, was the trauma worth the findings? (Cost-benefit analysis)Case of David ReimerIn 1965, two twin boys named David and Brian were born. At eight months old, both boys were circumcised. Unfortunately, something went wrong. During the procedure, David’s penis was accidentally burned off.The parents visited a psychologist John Money who said he had a ‘simple solution to a complex problem’. John suggested that following David’s injuries, they should give David a sex change. John encouraged the parents and told them this would be best for David. So, they did.4209696125303300David was renamed to Brenda. During her life, she acted like stereotypical boy. She often reported feeling ‘confused’ about being female and wished she were like her twin brother. Brenda’s parents resorted to alcohol as a means to cope with what they had done. During her teenage years, Brenda’s parents told her the truth. At 15, she reported that ‘it all made sense’ and she decided to transition back to male, back to David. During adulthood, David reported lack of trust, loss of identity, confusion at who he really was.At 38 years old, David committed suicide.Unknown to the family, John Money encouraged the Reimer family into their decision because he wanted to assess whether gender was down to nature or nurture. He used David/Brenda’s story as his own private case study. He published the story, claiming he identified “how gender is formed” and became recognised worldwide for his research. Activity:Do you think what John Money did was wrong? Or did he ‘make the most’ of an opportunity?Should he be punished for his study or praised?Consider the cost-benefit analysis for his research – was it worth it?The ethical guidelines The ethical guidelines as produced by BPS are based on four key principles.1.Respect. Psychologists should respect the individual regardless of age, gender, education, disability, national origin, sexual orientation, marital status, etc. They should aim to avoid practices which are unfair or prejudice. 2. Competence. Psychologists should maintain high levels of competence in their professional work and not work if they are not competent. 3. Responsibility. Psychologists have a responsibility to protect the general public and their profession. They should avoid harm and prevent abuse to society. 4. Integrity. Psychologists should ensure they are honest, accurate, clear, and fair with all interactions.Deception (links to integrity)Participants cannot be lied to or misled about what the study is about or entailsDebrief (links to responsibility)At the end of study, researcher should check that participant is OK and follow-up psychological care could be offeredRight to withdraw (links to respect)It must be very clear that the participant can leave study at any pointInformed consent (links to respect)Participants should be told the nature, purpose, and anticipated consequences of the study before they take part. If participant is under 16 years old, consent is required from parent or guardian.Protection of participants (links to responsibility)There should be no physical or psychological effects on participantsPrivacy and confidentiality (links to respect)Any information which could indicate personal details must be kept confidential. Observations of people can only take place in public. Activity:1. In the case of David Reimer, what ethical guidelines were broken?2. In ‘Three Identical Strangers’, what ethical guidelines were broken?Activity: Read through the following scenarios and identify which ethical guidelines were broken and which were upheld.Scenario 1:A psychologist wanted to test whether those who are well-hydrated will outperform those who are thirsty. The psychologist puts out an ad for participants which says she is conducting a math test which should last an hour. When the participants turn up, she puts them into two groups: thirsty and non-thirsty. The non-thirsty participants are given two glasses of water and made to wait in a room for one hour before doing the twenty-minute math test. This is slightly longer than expected however participants are not too upset by this. The thirsty group are forced to stay in a room, without water, for five hours before taking the twenty-minute test. The psychologist notices participants are showing signs of discomfort and while waiting tells them they can leave if they want. After the experiment is over the participants are told that the experiment wanted to look at the effect of thirst on math performanceScenario 2:A trainee teacher decides to look at the importance of group work on students learning. She does this as part of her dissertation, where she will identify students A-H from school X have taken part. She decides to implement group work in each lesson with one of her classes. In the other, she does not. As the teacher decides how each lesson should run, she does not tell students of the experiment she is doing. Scenario 3:A newspaper wanted to find out young people’s views on underage drinking. They sent a reporter out to speak to those under the age of 18. The reporter asked a series of questions with regards to individuals’ beliefs and attitudes. Many of these questions made the youths feel uncomfortable. When asked if their parents would know their responses the reporter said, “At our newspaper, we always use real names so that the story seems real”. When this was said, many asked the reporter to forget the answers they had provided. The reporter refused. Despite this, the reporter spoke with the youths for a considerable length of time after the interviews ended to make sure they were OK.Scenario 4:Conducting research, a psychologist wanted to look at the effect of smoking on men’s health. He put up posters in local health centres looking for men with ‘good health’. The poster outlined that the study would involve heavy smoking for 6 months. He recruited 100 males from Brighton. He got each participant to take a fitness test before the study began. He split the participants into two groups. He instructed the first group to smoke 20 cigarettes a day for 6 months. He also instructed the second group to not smoke anything for 6 months. Both groups were sent emails at interval periods reminding participants they could stop taking part whenever they wanted. The participants completed the same fitness test after the 6 months. The psychologist explained the purpose of the study to each participant, before comparing the data and publishing the results without names or locations.Scenario 5: An A-level Psychology class are asked to conduct a psychological research study. Two students decide to conduct an observation on one of their peers: Charlotte. They tell Charlotte her behaviour is being monitored in the lesson and around school that day. She agrees to taking part. What Charlotte does not know is the students are not interested in any behaviour – they are interested in the gossip within her friend group. They also do not tell Charlotte that they will continue their observation as she walks home. The next day, the two-participant’s return to class. As Charlotte thinks it is her behaviour which was being observed, when asked if she is OK with the results being told she agrees. And so, the students report back all the gossip Charlotte and her friends discussed. Charlotte appears visibly upset and the two students do nothing to improve the situation.Scenario 6:A local dentist has contracted a contagious disease. He loves his job and decides to not tell anyone about this disease. He wears gloves and a mask so doubts the disease will spread. He continues to work at the surgery for 8 months before being found out. A letter is sent out to the patients apologising for the risk they have been presented with. The surgery offered free counselling sessions to those who feel they have been affected. The story hits the newspapers who quickly publish the names of all patients who attend the surgery, in abide to prevent the spread of the disease further. Topic: Report writing A piece of writing which presents specific information and evidence which has been analysed and applied to a specific issue or topic. A report is highly structured using a series of sections and heading. It should be easy to locate and follow.Section 1 of a report: The Abstract5332346208421700This is the short, paragraph-long section at the very beginning It is basically a brief overview of the article. It should summarise the aims, the hypothesis, the method, the results, and the conclusion.Reading the abstract allows the reader to know what the article will cover so they can decide whether it is relevant to their topic of interest. The abstract should be no more than 200 words and should be written lastSection 2 of a report: The introduction6128016485823700Start off very general by discussing the topic you are looking at. You should include what previous researchers have looked at and what they would suggest about that topic. You should include previous research findings and statisticsThis should slowly become more specific as you continue through, allowing you to introduce the topic you have studied. This should appear as the end result of a process and logical.You should then introduce what you will be looking atWhat is your aimWhat are your variables (operationalise them)?What does your research hope to achieve? Section 3 of a report: The methodologyThis section contains a detailed description of what the researcher did, providing enough information for replication of the study. You need to include the following:4805680850900Experimental methodExperimental designSampling method Details of participantsMaterials used (E.g. Consent form, questionnaire etc)Where the study was conductedWhen the study was conductedHow the study carried out (step by step)Ethical considerationsAny controlsSection 4 of a report: The resultsHere you will display the data you have collected. You must display the data as a table or a graph.4983967186055000Your data will not be raw. You should present the mean, mode, median, range and SDYour table or graph should be labelled (E.g. Source 1: The mean number of speeds categorised by verb used). You will also display any qualitative data here tooYou will not explain any results hereSection 5 of a report: The discussionIn this section, you will:Explain what the results meanState if the results support your hypothesisExplain what the results mean in terms of previous research. You must compare your findings to all the literature mentioned in your introduction. For example, Barkley (2004) suggested that leading questions influenced eyewitness’s memory. This study supports this. Research by Johnson (1977) suggested that EWT was only affected by emotions. This piece of research contradicts this by suggesting that EWT was affected by the verbs usedSuggest implications for future researchSuggest real world applications based on the resultsSection 6 of a report: The conclusionReiterate what your study looked atReiterate what you found (no numbers or statistics)State what this means for future research and/or future researchersSection 7 of a report: The referencesYour reference list must be presented in alphabetical order and must follow the same structure. Harvard style Article author Publication year in brackets Article title with no capitals apart from the first word Journal title in italics Volume & issue / part number (in brackets) Page numbercenter3279628For example, Loftus, L. F. & Palmer, J. C. (1974) Reconstruction of Automobile Destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behaviour, 13, 585-589In text referencesUse in-text references any time you mention factors written by someone else or someone else’s ideas.Write the surname of the author and date of publication in brackets.For example, there was a positive correlation between two variables in the study (Maguire, 2000).Or you could place the author at the beginning of the sentence. For example, Maguire (2000) found that there was a positive correlation between the two variables in the studyOne researcher reference is simple. If there are two researchers, you must mention both names in the way they are presented. For example, Loftus & Palmer (1974).However, three or more references is tricky. For the first time you mention the researchers you must list all names regardless of how many there are.For example, Berman, Snyder, Levett-Jones, Dwyer, Hales, Harvey and Stanley (2012) suggest….Any other time you mention this study, you will use the first name followed by ‘et al’ plus the year.For example, Berman et al., (2012)Section 8 of a report: The appendicesThis is the very last section of your report. Here you will include all the resources you provided to participants (Posters, consent forms, debrief script). They must be blank. You will also place your inferential statistical analysis data here. This is so that anyone can go and check your results and see if they really are scientific or not. You will not post raw data. Only analysed data.Key term: Peer review. Before a piece of research can be published it must be peer reviewed. This is when the paper is sent to experts in the field and checked over. Peer review involves similar professionals to the author ensuring the standards are high as is the credibility of the paper. Exam questionsBelow you will find the components of a psychological report. a) You should re-write the components in order in which they are presented in a report. Abstract, Appendices, Conclusions, Introduction, Method, References, ResultsYou should then identify examples of information which would fall under each componentBriefly outline what is meant by peer review in psychological research. (2)What is the purpose of an abstract in psychological research? (2)What style of referencing should be used in psychological research? (1)Name three things that are always included in an academic reference. (3)Name the section on a psychological report where a graph would be presented. (1)Topic: Raw dataParticipant (N)Maths (out of 10)English (out of 10)189241313469Psychologists conduct research studies which typically collect quantitative data. Raw data is unprocessed data, in its purest form, as it was collected (see table).5366961208293300Psychologists may wish to present raw data in a number of ways: standard form, decimal form, and significant figures. Note: These are not tests. These are ways of presenting data.Standard formA way of representing a very small or very large numberIt shows how many ‘times ten’ the number is multiplied byEquation: A x 10nA is the number greater than or equal to 1, but less than 10n tells us how many places to move the decimal pointBecause the number cannot be more than 10, count how many digits come after the first digit and this is how many the power is to.Example 1: Write 30, 000 as standard form = 30, 000= 3 x 104This would be said ‘10 to the power of 4’Example 2: Write 15, 000, 000 as standard form= 15, 000, 000 = 1.5 x 10, 000, 000= 1.5 x (10x10x 10x 10 x 10x10x10)= 1.5 x 107Activity: Write the following numbers in standard form189, 000, 000, 000, 0008,000,00033,00044,000,000Standard form works the same backwards. Example 1: To write 3x104 as an ordinary number 3 X (10x10x10x10)= 3 X 10, 000= 30, 000Example 2: To write 1 x 10-6 as an ordinary number= 1 x (-10 x -10 x -10 x -10 x -10 x -10)= 0.000001 Activity: Write the following as ordinary numbers (work backwards)3x1099x1011x10-8Decimal formOnce analysis of data begins, decimal form is often used in psychology. Each digit after the decimal point is 1/10 the size of the one before. In simple terms, however many zeros there are in the first number (0.9) add this after the 1 on the fraction (10)For example:0.9 = 9/100.09 = 9/100 Activity: Complete the following:a) 0.009 = 9/ b) 0.0009 = 9/ Significant figuresWhen we have lots of data, we tend to round numbers. Depending on the value of the digit after the one you want to keep you may either have to round up or down. If the next digit is 5 or above, we round up. If it is below 5, we round down. Rounding to two significant figuresThe second number in is of importance. That is the number which you will round up or down. Your decision is based on the third number.Example 1: 43, 6000 = 44, 000Example 2: 1, 143, 552 = 1, 100, 000Activity: Round the following numbers to two significant figures635, 013, 559, 559569820.0030490Topic: Levels and types of dataThere are three levels of data: Nominal, Ordinal and Interval.There are four types of data: Qualitative, Quantitative, Primary, Secondary.Levels of dataNominal dataUsed for labelling variables without any quantitative valueExample: Jersey numbers in basketball are measures at the nominal level. A player with number 30 is not more of anything than a player with number 15 and is certainly not twice whatever number 15 is.right303908500Notice in the example, all scales are mutually exclusive (no overlap) and none have a numerical significantNominal = nameOrdinal dataOrdinal = Order of the values which is important36944304886798However, the differences between each is not knownWe do not know and cannot quantify how much better happy is from OK. We also cannot say the difference between very unsatisfied is the same as between somewhat unsatisfied Interval dataNumeric scales in which we know the order and the exact differences between the valuesExample: Celsius temperature – intervals between 50 and 60 degrees is 10 degrees. This is the same difference between 10 and 20 degrees.Interval = space in-between5515610777811500However, interval scales have no “true zero” e.g. there no such thing as ‘no temperature’ You can add with interval data… 10 degrees + 10 degrees = 20 degreesYou cannot multiple or divide with interval data… 20 degrees is not twice as hot as 10 degrees. A size 16 is not twice as big as a size 8 in clothing.Types of dataQualitative dataProduces wordsLooks at the personTypically found in self-reportsStrengthsWeaknessesData can provide meaning and explanation behind response or behaviour Often very specific to person and cannot be generalised to populationLess open to bias as psychologist is not providing leading questionsProvides insight into personOpen to interpretationDoes not ‘pigeonhole’ people. Meaning individuals can give their own explanation and response, rather than selecting one which is already providedQuantitative dataProduces numerical data Looks at overall pictureTypically found in experiments StrengthsWeaknessesAllows for comparisons to be made between specific people and groupsNumerical data does not provide explanations behind behaviour Results can be generalised to populationStatistics can be conducted on the data for deeper analysisPsychologist need to interpret data and provide their own explanation. This may distort the truthAllows for patterns and trends to be foundPrimary dataResearcher (you) conducts studyFirst-hand experienceStrengthsWeaknessesYou have conducted the research so you can be confident on validity of dataCostly and time consumingResearcher biasSecondary dataSomeone else conducts the study and you use itStrengthsWeaknessesEasy to obtainYou may not know true validity of dataCheap and non-obstructiveOriginal data could be biasExam questions:Types of data: Primary vs SecondaryDefine primary data. You should give an example of this. (2 marks)Identify one strength of primary data (2 marks)Identify one weakness of primary data (2 marks)Define secondary data. You should give an example of this. (2 marks)Identify one strength of secondary data (2 marks)Identify one weakness of secondary data (2 marks)Multiple choice:Which is an example of secondary data? (1 mark)Autobiography of a serial killerObservation notes on the behaviours of a serial killerReadings from the brain scan of a serial killerRecordings of an interview with a serial killerTypes of data: Qualitative vs QuantitativeDefine qualitative data. You should give an example of this. (2 marks)Identify one strength of qualitative data (2 marks)Identify one weakness of qualitative data (2 marks)Define quantitative data. You should give an example of this. (2 marks)Identify one strength of quantitative data (2 marks)Identify one weakness of quantitate data (2 marks)Types of data: Nominal, ordinal, intervalDefine nominal data. Give an example of this (2 marks)Define ordinal data. Give an example of this (2 marks)Define interval data. Give an example of this (2 marks)Explain which type of data is better to use in psychology and why (2 marks)Identify the type of data the following would collect:The use of a stopwatch to record reaction timeClassifying participants as ‘good’, ‘average’, or ‘poor’Ratings by an independent observer on a scale of 1 (very good) to 10 (very poor)Self-ratings by a participant on a scale of 1 (very good) to 10 (very poor)Topic: Descriptive statisticsDescriptive statistics is the analysis of data which helps describe, show, or summarise the data in a meaningful way.Measures of central tendency There are three measures of central tendency: the mean, the mode, and the median.The meanUsually called the 'average’. The mean is calculated by adding up all the scores in the data set by dividing the total number of scores. This does include any 0’sSummary: THE AVERAGE? Makes use of all the values in the data set? If extreme values are included, it can distort results? Mean may not be present in the data set? Can only be used when data is intervalThe mode The mode is the most frequent score in a set of resultsFor example: 1 5 6 7 7 7 11 18Note: you should always write the numbers in order to see the most frequent number with easeIf two or more scores are equally common there will be two or more modesFor example: 1 1 1 2 5 7 7 7 11 11 11Activity: A researched asks participants to decide whether their last dream was active, inactive, or mixed. The researcher found out of 50 people 12 said active, 36 said inactive, and 2 said mixed. Find the mode.Summary: MOST COMMON? Effective when using nominal data. Can be used for all data? Categorises only – does not accurately describe when there is more than one more? Unrepresentative of dataThe medianTo calculate the median, you need to present the data in order from smallest to largest. You then select data in the middle of the listScores with an even number of data? There will be two middle numbers. These should be added together and divided by twoExampleBus drivers: 11 12 13 20 22 25 26 28 3020+22=42 42/2=21 so the median is 21Non bus drivers: 1 4 9 15 20 24 25 30 37 3920+24=44. 44/2=22 so the median is 22Both medians are similar. This suggest there is no difference between intelligence of bus drivers and non bus driversSummary: MIDDLE MOST NUMBERNot affected by extreme scoresValue may not actually appear in data setMore tedious than mode and meanCannot be used for nominal dataMeasures of dispersion There are three measures of dispersion: the range, the variance and standard deviation.The rangeIdentify the largest and smallest valueSubtract the smallest value from the largest valueThen add 1ExampleBus drivers: 11 12 13 20 22 25 26 28 3030 – 11 = 19, 19+1 = 20… Range = 20Non bus drivers: 1 4 9 15 20 24 25 30 37 3939 – 1 = 38, 38+1 = 39…. Range = 39Remember with this example the medians were similar. In this case, the ranges are quite different. This tells us about the diversity of ability amongst bus drivers.Not representative of data set when there are extreme scores – one really large number or really small number (i.e. an outlier)Fails to consider quantity of numbers involvedThe variance4800718189977300Just as the mean can tell us more than the mode, the measurement ‘variance’ tells us more than the rangeRather than looking only at extreme scores of the data set, the variance considers the difference between each data point and the mean – this is called the deviationBefore we begin to calculate, note you always do the parts of the sum in brackets firstEXAMPLE DATA SET - BUS DRIVERS: 2, 15, 6, 8, 14, 19, 9, 4, 8, 13XX - (x?)(X-x?)?Step 1: calculate the mean (x?)Add all the numbers together: 98Divide the total by the total number in data set: 1098+10 = 9.8Therefore, mean (x?) = 9.8Step 2: Write down the number of scores (n)In this case n=10Step 3: Draw a table with 3 column and write the scores (values of X) down in the first columnStep 4: Work out the difference between each scoreRemember: X-x?2-9.8 = 7.815- 9.8 =5.2Step 5: Square each of these differences 4422775110505The variance tells us about the dispersion of a group (how varied the results are)00The variance tells us about the dispersion of a group (how varied the results are)Step 6: Add together the column of differencesStep 7: Take the total (253.6) and divide this by n-1 (10-1)253.6 + 9 = 28.18Standard deviation The variance is always written squared. To find the standard deviation, you simply find the square root of the variance. √28.18 = 5.31This means that each data point is on average 5.31 away from the mean (9.8).Exam question: Using the table above, answer the following questions:What conclusion can be reached by interpreting the range for each test? [4 marks]Suggest one advantage of using standard deviation instead of the range to analyse the data from each test.?[3 marks]RatioAllows easy comparison of values from different categories. Ensure that you write your ratio in the order it has been asked for. You should always simplify your ratio. For example: A sports club has 3 trainers and 27 players. What is the trainer: player ratio?The trainer: player ratio is 3:27 (divide by 3) = 1:9You want your ratio to be as small a number as you can, and so you find a number which goes into both numbers. You may do this several times.Activity: Simplify the following ratios16:1230:2415:2056:64Activity: Find the following ratiosA jar of pinto beans and black beans in a ratio of 1:1. 300 of the beans are pinto beans. How many of the beans in total are there?Jayden and Caden share a reward of ?140 in a ratio of 2:5. How much of the total does Jayden get?Gavin has nickels, dimes, and quarters in the ratio of 8:1:2. If 30 of Gavin’s coins are quarters, how many nickels and how many dimes does Gavin have?The ratio of girls to boys in a swimming club was 2:4. There were 14 girls. How many total members were there in the club?Sophia and Isabella share a reward of ?126, in a ratio of 1:8. How much of the total reward does Isabella get?PercentagesTo calculate percentages, you need to divide by 100. So, to find 32%, you divide 32 by 100 (32/100)To calculate 18% of 40Find out what 18% is 18/100 = 0.18Then multiply 0.18 (18%) by 40 = 7.2What is 45% of 70?45/100=0.450.45 x 70 = 31.50Activity: Answer the following16% of 3024% of 9040% of 72FractionsFractions are a way of representing portions of a whole number. The top number is how many we have of something and the bottom number is the total number for that something. For example, participant 1’s rating of maths was 8/10 and their rating for English was 9/10.To turn the fraction into decimal number form take the top number (the numerator) and divided it by the bottom (the denominator).For example, 8 divided by 10 = 0.8 9 divided by 10 = 0.9Activity: What would the decimal number be for the following:1/23/910/1004/14Exam questions:What is the collective term for the mean, median and mode?A measures of central dispersionB measures of central rangeC measures of central significanceD measures of central tendencyWhich of these is not a measure of dispersion?A meanB rangeC standard deviationD variance Which of these descriptive statistics would it be possible to use with nominal data?A meanB medianC modeD rangeWhich of these best describes what the variance is?A measure of central tendencyB measure of dispersion around the meanC measure of proportionalityD measure of quantifiable dataWhen would it be best to use the median rather than the mean?A when there are a few scores much higher than the restB when there are few scores similar to the restC when there are lots of high scoresD when there are lots of low scoresA psychologist conducted a study investigating reaction times of a group of young and old people to press a key on a keyboard in response to a specific stimuli (e.g. a smiley face).(a) The mean reaction time for young people was 0.7245 seconds. What is this written to two decimal places?A 0.7B 0.72C 0.73D 0.74(b)The mean reaction time for old people was 1.1834 seconds. What is this written to two significant figures?A 1.1B 1.18C 1.2D 1.9A psychologist conducted a survey assessing beliefs in the paranormal with a sample of 144 people.(a) 25% of people said they believe in ghosts. How many people is this?A 25B 36C 40D 72(b) 24 people said they believe aliens exist. What fraction of the sample is this?A 1/3B 1/4C 1/6D 2/3(c) What is the ratio of people who believe in ghosts to aliens?A 1:4B 2:3C 3:2D 4:1What is 7.864 written to two significant figures?A 7.8B 7.86C 7.9D 8.0What is the median for this set of data 10, 12, 6, 5, 14, 3?A 6.5B 7.5C 8.0D 16.0A newspaper includes 12 pages of sport and eight pages of TV. What is the ratio of sport to TV?Give your answer in its simplest form.A 2:3B 3:2C 8:12D 12:8What is 2,830 written in standard form?A 2.83 x 102B 2.83 x 103C 2.83 x 104D 2.83 x 105The following scores were obtained in a memory test from one group of participants:10, 18, 24, 9, 11, 14, 23, 8, 19, 17, 14, 20423799026225500Using the formula, what would the value of ‘n’ be when calculating the standard deviation for this set of scoresA 10B 11C 12D 13Using the formula, calculate the standard deviation using the above data.What is the median of this set of scores?What is the mean of this set of scores?What is the mode of this set or scores? A researcher asked 50 people what their favourite type of food was and obtained the following results:Type of food No. of people reporting food as their ‘favourite’meat 10fish 18fruit 8cereals 5Vegetables 9What percentage of people reported fruit as their favourite?A 4%B 8%C 16%D 20%(b) What kind of data is this?A intervalB nominalC ordinalD qualitativeTablesPsychologist will present their data using any of the following tables:Frequency tablesA frequency table is often referred to as a tally chart. Frequency tables are used for counting things. They are used in observations. They record the number of times a behaviour is seen. Observations of a new-born babyTallyTotalFeedingIIII4CryingII2SleepingIIIII III7Bar chartsBar charts are used to represent data from frequency tables, mean or total scores. Height represents the frequency. The most important factor about bar charts is that the bars are separate from each other. The bars are separate because the data is not linked. The data is different categories.HistogramsIn histograms the bars are not separate from each other. This is because the columns represent a continuous data set. The data is linked. Height represents the frequency.Line graphA line graph is often used instead of a histogram. These are used to show the results from two or more conditions at the same time.Pie chartPie charts are most commonly used when the data collected are percentages. Each segment of the pie chart represents a percentage of the total.Scatter diagramsScatter diagrams are most commonly used with correlations. Scatter diagrams easily show positive, negative or no correlations.The rules of drawing tables:Appropriate scalesAccurate plotting of dataLabelled X axis with ‘X’ and a title (apart from pie chart)Labelled Y axis with ‘Y’ and a title (apart from pie chart)Detailed titleExam questionsCreate an appropriate graph using the data below. Create an appropriate graph using the data below. Create an appropriate graph using the data below. Create an appropriate graph using the data below. Create an appropriate graph using the data below. Topic: Inferential statisticsDistribution curvesDistribution curves are used to display the data gathered from a research study. This usually involves the mean mode and median. There are three types of distribution curves: 1) Symmetrical 2) Positive 3) NegativeSignificant levelsWhen conducting a piece of research, you would want to be confident on the results you find. You do not want for any extraneous variables to have influenced the results. Instead, you want to be 100% sure the IV caused the effect on the DV. However, 100% is not always possible. Psychologists, instead, use 95%. This means, they want there to be 95% certainty that the IV influenced the DV and only 5% that the results were due to chance. Psychologists look at the probability of the results being due to chance (5%). 5% = 0.05. This is the number psychologists refer to when conducting their statistical test. This is called the level of significanceIf the results are higher than 0.05 then they do not have 95% certainty that the IV caused the effect on the DV. And thus, the results are not statistically significant.If the results are lower than 0.05 then they do have a 95% (or more) certainty that the IV caused the effect on the DV. And thus, the results are statistically significant.ResultsAre the results higher or lower than level of significance? Use < or >Are the results statistically significant or not?0.20.670.040.0010.050.005Statistical testsThere are two types of statistical tests: parametric and non-parametric tests1) Parametric testsThere are a number of parametric tests that can be used. These are paired t-test and unpaired t-test.You do not need to know how to calculate parametric test. Instead, you must know criteria for using parametric tests. Assumptions of parametric tests:56142974911400Populations drawn from should be normally distributed.Variances of populations should be approximately equal.Should have at least interval or ratio data.Should be no extreme scores. 2) Non-parametric testsThere are several non-parametric tests that can be used. These are: Mann-Whitney U TestWilcoxon Signed Ranks testChi-SquareBinomial Sign TestSpearman’s Rho.You must be able to identify which inferential statistical test should be used for scenarios. You must also be able to carry out each inferential statistical test.When selecting which inferential statistical test to use, you must know 1) the type of experimental design used within the experiment and 2) the type of data collected within the study.275883456515Type of design00Type of design-3778031643796Type of data0Type of dataIndependent Measures Design95758023622000IRepeated Measures DesignREALLY10750559017000Relationship between two variables. Correlations and ordinal/ interval dataNominalChi-SquareCANBinominal Sign TestBADInterval/Ordinal976630-15113000Mann Whitney UMAKE1084580-9779000Wilcoxon Signed ranks testWINESpearman’s Rho CorrelationSAUCEActivity: Read through the following scenarios and answer each questionScenario 1: A secondary teacher conducted a piece of research to see the effect of chewing gum on concentration levels. The teacher used his maths class as the sample. He noted whether children were chewing gum or not (yes or no) during a test. He then asked the students to complete another class test, this time, those who were chewing gum were asked not to, and those who were not, were asked to. He then compared the test scores to see the influence of chewing gum on intelligence. If students performed better with gum he noted ‘yes’ next to their name, if they performed worse, he noted ‘no’. For some, their performance stayed the same in both conditions.What type of data is found in the study above?What experimental design is used in the study above?What statistical test should be used in the study above?Scenario 2: Some studies have suggested that there may be an association between two variables: intelligence and happiness. For example, the more intelligent you are, the happier you will be. To investigate this claim, a psychologist used a standardised test to measure intelligence in a sample of 30 children aged 11 years. He also asked the children to complete a self-report questionnaire designed to measure happiness. The score from the intelligence test was compared with the score from the happiness questionnaire. What type of data is found in the study above?What experimental design is used in the study above?What statistical test should be used in the study above?Scenario 3: A matched pairs design was used to assess the effectiveness of an anger management programme. 12 offenders were matched on anger score at the beginning of the investigation and one from each pair was allocated to either the treatment condition (eight sessions of anger management) or the control condition (no treatment). Anger scores were reassessed at the end of the investigation using government official assessment guidelines. (Grades 1-7 shows no improvement has been made; grades 8-14 shows improvement has been made).What type of data is found in the study above?What experimental design is used in the study above?What statistical test should be used in the study above?Scenario 4: Two psychologists investigated the relationship between age and recall of medical advice. The study was conducted at a doctor’s surgery and involved a sample of 10 patients aged between 18 and 78 years. One psychologist interviewed each of the patients after they had visited their doctor. The psychologist asked each patient a set of questions about what the doctor had said about their diagnosis and treatment. The patients’ responses were recorded. Then, the other psychologist gave the patient a self-report questionnaire, allowing them to rate how they think their memory recall is. The doctor then compared the patients recall with his own notes, then looked at how accurate the patient felt their recall was. Data collected on a scale of 1 (very accurate) – 10 (very inaccurate). What type of data is found in the study above?What experimental design is used in the study above?What statistical test should be used in the study above?Scenario 5: A psychologist wanted to see if verbal fluency is affected by whether people think they are presenting information to a small group of people or to a large group of people. A sample of 20 ppts were told that they would be placed in a booth where they would read out an article about the life of a famous author to an audience. Participants were also told that the audience would only be able to hear them and would not be able to interact with them. There were two conditions in the study, Condition A and Condition B. Condition A: 10 participants were told the audience consisted of 5 listeners. Condition B: the other 10 participants were told the audience consisted of 100 listeners. Each participant completed the study individually. The psychologist recorded each presentation and then counted the number of verbal errors made by each participant. The psychologist then concluded which condition was affected by the audience more, condition A or condition B.What type of data is found in the study above?What experimental design is used in the study above?What statistical test should be used in the study above?Test 1: Mann Whitney U testChecklist for using this test is: Scenario: A psychology teacher wanted to compare the effectiveness of two A Level textbook in making psychology easy and fun to study. The teacher decided to conduct research with students on the course to decide which new books to choose. On a piece of paper, students had to rate (out of 10, with 10 being “We love this textbook – BUY BUY BUY”) the overall likelihood of choosing the student-centred psychology textbook. Out of 12 participants, 6 of the participants gave ratings for one of the textbooks (Textbook A), and the other 6 participants gave ratings for the other textbook (Textbook B). Raw data table (1): Overall Rating Scores of Textbook PreferenceTextbook (A)Textbook (B)ParticipantRatingParticipantRating137924873295461010521166512 8Step 1: Ranking the dataRanking is an important step in a number of tests. In order to rank the data, you must combine the ratings from condition A and condition B into one column. You should write the lowest numbers first and work your way through the data set (see column two below). In the first column, you should write 1, 2, 3 etc. This should go up to 12 as there are 12 participants in total. Rank orderRating scores of each participant (from lowest to highest)1222334455657686971081191210You will notice in the second column there are some multiples (2, 5 and 6). In the Mann Whitney U test, this is not OK. You must take each multiple and create a new number. You will do so by looking at the rank for each multiple.For example, the rating score ‘2’ has the rank order of 1 and 2. You should add 1 plus 2 =3You should then divide this number by the amount of multiples there are (2) 3 divided by 2 = 1.5You should now do the same for the other multiples (5 and 6).Step 2: Entering the rank numbers Below you will see the original data set. There are two new columns which have been added. Start with the multiples which you have now got a new number for. Whenever there is a 2 in the original data you will now put the new rank of 1.5. Do the same for 5 and 6.When it comes to the data which remained the same, rather than writing the original number, you will write the rank number in (look in the left column above). Rating score 3 has a rank number of 3 – this is coincidence. Rating score 8 has a rank number of 10. Whenever you see an 8 below, you will write 10.Textbook (A)Textbook (B)ParticipantRatingRankParticipantRatingRank1319242732354641052566568R1R2Step 3: Add up the ranksAt the bottom of the second column, you will see R1. This means the total rank for condition 1. You should add up all of the ranks for condition 1.At the bottom of the fifth column, you will see R2. This means the total rank for condition 2. You should add up all of the ranks for condition 2.Step 4: Select the formulaThere are two formulas you can use for a Mann Whitney U test. You must select the correct formula. The correct formula is based on the total of R1 and R2. You must use the smallest total value, and the associated formula. 0721360039408107216031R1/R2 = the total ranksN1/N2 = the number of participants in that conditionStep 5: Calculate the formulaR1 – n1(n1+1)/2 23 – 6(6+1)/2 = 2This is your observed valueStep 6: Critical valueYou have your final calculation – your observed value (2). You must now compare this against the table below. The table below is called the table of critical values. N1 is the participants from condition 1 and N2 is the participants from condition 2.The critical value is 5Step 7: Comparing valuesYou should compare your observed value (2) and the critical value (5).In Mann Whitney U, if the observed value is smaller than the critical value, the results are statistically significant. This means the null hypothesis has been rejected. Activity: Using the data below, calculate a Mann Whitney U test.A matched pairs design was used to assess the effectiveness of an anger management programme. 12 offenders were matched on anger score at the beginning of the investigation and one from each pair was allocated to either the treatment condition (eight sessions of anger management) or the control condition (no treatment). Anger scores were reassessed at the end of the investigation using government official assessment guidelines. (Grades 1-7 shows no improvement has been made; grades 8-14 shows improvement has been made).Treatment condition (A)Control condition (B)113732118638984710258113610124Test 2: Wilcoxon signed ranksChecklist for using this test is: Scenario: Psychologists were interested in knowing whether a group of students’ abilities to memorise words was because of the ear that they used to hear the words during listening tasks. In order to investigate this, participants were individually presented with an audio recording of a list of words. These were randomly presented to the left or right ear. Participants gave two sets of scores – words remembered correctly from the left ear and words remember correctly from the right ear. When the mean and standard deviation were calculated, it was found that the data was positively skewed which suggested that the data was not normally distributed. As a result, a Wilcoxon’s was used to examine the difference between each ear and to see if the difference did not occur by chance. Table 1: Raw scores of numbers of words recalled by participantsParticipantLeft earRight ear1533210263313242032532326273072578272091510Step 1: Finding the differenceYou will start this inferential statistical test by adding a 4th column to the above table. You will minus column three from column 2 for each participant.For example, 5-33= -2810-26 = -16 etc.Step 2: Ranking the difference Below you will see the original table with two columns added. Column four has been added from step 1. Column five is for step 2. In this step you must rank the data. Importantly, you should ignore any 0’s. You should also ignore the negative symbols. This means that even through -28 is the lowest number, it does not rank 1 because the negative symbol is ignored. Meaning -1 is ranked 1.ParticipantLeft earRight earDifference (d)Ranked order of difference (d)1533-28821026-16633132-1142032-125532320Ignore62730-32725718782720749151053Step 3: Positive or negative?You should look at the difference column. How many negative figures are there? How many positives?The least frequent sign will be used. In this case, positive is the least frequent sign (see blue shading).You should add up the ranked differences… 7+4+3=14 This is your observed value.Step 4: Calculating the NN in most inferential statistical tests refers to the number of participants. In this test, you should identify the number of differences. Remember, you must exclude the ‘ignored’ difference.9 participants – 1, ignore = 8.Step 5: Critical tableBelow you will see the critical value table. You must go down the N column to 8. The critical value number is 4. N0.0560728496108Step 6: Comparing valuesIn the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, if the observed value is higher than the critical value, the results are not statistically significant. This means the null hypothesis has been accepted. Observed value = 14Critical value = 4Not significantActivity: Using the data below, calculate a Wilcoxon test.Scenario:Two psychologists investigated the relationship between age and recall of medical advice. The study was conducted at a doctor’s surgery and involved a sample of 10 patients aged between 18 and 78 years. One psychologist interviewed each of the patients after they had visited their doctor. The psychologist asked each patient a set of questions about what the doctor had said about their diagnosis and treatment. The patients’ responses were recorded. Then, the other psychologist gave the patient a self-report questionnaire, allowing them to rate how they think their memory recall is. The doctor then compared the patients recall with his own notes, then looked at how accurate the patient felt their recall was. Data collected on a scale of 1 (very accurate) – 10 (very inaccurate). ParticipantRecall of informationEstimate of accuracy of recall1722443364955596137101081019441068Test 3: Chi-Squared Checklist for using this test is: Scenario: On a recent trip to London, a research psychologist could not help but notice the number of people walking in streets with earphones. Surprised by this one afternoon, the research psychologist decided to conduct an observation. She observed the number of people with earphones in their ears and to see if there was a difference in the frequency between male and females.Below are is the frequency table of people wearing or not wearing earphones.Column: MaleColumn: FemaleRaw TotalEarphones in Ears1615No earphones in ears66Earphones dangling around neck43Column total Step 1: Adding the rows and columnsAdd the totals for each column. For example, total males … 16+6+4 = 26. Add the totals for each row. For example, earphones in ear… 16+15 = 31Importantly, the column total (male + female) and the raw total (all three conditions) is the same = 50.Step 2: Expected frequencyYou must calculate the expected frequency for each cell using the formula: Raw total x column total/overall totalFor example, males with earphones in earsRaw total = 31Column total = 26 Overall total = 5031 x 26 / 50 = 16.12You must do this for all 6 cells. You should then write the expected frequency in the table, alongside the original data.Step 3: FormulaFor each cell, the observed value is the original data (for example 16) and the expected number is what you calculated in step 2 (for example 16.12). You should insert this data into the formula below.For example,(16-16.12) squared / 16.12 = 0.00089 This is your observed value3827605837259Again, you must do this for all 6 cells. Make note of the other 5 observed values below. Step 4: Adding the totalsOnce you have all 6 observed values, add all values together for the total chi square number.Step 5: Degrees of freedomThe formula below allows you to calculate degrees of freedom(number of rows -1) x (number of columns -1)(3-1) x (2-1)2x1= 22780643644761500Step 6: Critical value Using the degrees of freedom found in step 5 (2), go along to the level of significance which is always used in psychology (0.05). You will see that the critical value found is 5.99Step 7: Significant or not significant?The final observed value was 0.0952The critical value was 5.99In Chi-Square, for a statistically significant result the observed value must be greater than the critical value. As the observed value was smaller than the critical value, the results are not significant. Activity: Using the data below, calculate a Chi-Square test.Scenario: A psychologist wanted to see if verbal fluency is affected by whether people think they are presenting information to a small group of people or to a large group of people. A sample of 20 ppts were told that they would be placed in a booth where they would read out an article about the life of a famous author to an audience. Participants were also told that the audience would only be able to hear them and would not be able to interact with them. There were two conditions in the study, Condition A and Condition B. Condition A: 10 participants were told the audience consisted of 5 listeners. Condition B: the other 10 participants were told the audience consisted of 100 listeners. Each participant completed the study individually. The psychologist recorded each presentation and then counted the number of verbal errors made by each participant. The psychologist then concluded which condition was affected by the audience more, condition A or condition B.Condition ACondition BTotalLess than 5 mistakes made83More than 5 mistakes made27Column totalTest 4: Binomial signed testChecklist for using this test is: Scenario: Two students wanted to examine whether their peers would be willing to share their French fries when in the school refectory. The two students wanted to know if a celebrity were sitting on their table or if students from another school were sitting on their table, would their peers be willing to share their French Fries. They hypothesised that students would be more likely to share with a celebrity. Table (1) to show participants willingness to share their French fries with a celebrity ParticipantShare French fries with celebrity (Condition A)Share French fries with students from another school(Condition B)1yesno2noyes3yesyes4yesno5noyes6nono7yesno8noyes9noyes10yesnoStep 1: Flow of directionAdd a fourth column to the table above named ‘Flow of direction’. If condition A is yes and condition B is a no write a plus, if condition A is no and condition B is yes, add a negative. If condition A and condition B are the same write ignore.Step 2: Positives and negativesCount how many positives there are = 3Count how many negatives there are = 4Step 3:In this test, you will use the smallest of total direction scores (3). The observed value is 3.Step 4:Count the number of participants (be careful with participants who have ‘ignore’) = 8. As always, we use 0.05. N0.050.0150600700810911101111211222133214321533The critical value table is 1Step 5: Significant or non-significantFor a Binomial test to be considered significant, the observed value must be smaller than the critical value.Observed value (3) is higher than the critical value (1) which means it is not significant.Activity: Using the data below, calculate a Binomial sign testA secondary teacher conducted a piece of research to see the effect of chewing gum on concentration levels. The teacher used his maths class as the sample. He noted whether children were chewing gum or not (yes or no) during a test. He then asked the students to complete another class test, this time, those who were chewing gum were asked not to, and those who were not, were asked to. He then compared the test scores to see the influence of chewing gum on intelligence. If students performed better with gum he noted ‘yes’ next to their name, if they performed worse, he noted ‘no’. For some, their performance stayed the same in both conditions.Participant AChewing gumNot chewing gum1YESNO2NOYES3YESNO4YESYES5NONO6YESYES7NONO8YESNO9NOYES10NOYESTest 5: Spearman’s RhoChecklist for using this test is: Scenario: Fifteen students in a Psychology undergraduate course, where asked how long they have had their Social Media profile and were asked to rate, on a 5 point scale from 1= not at all to 5 = definitely, their beliefs about whether Facebook is an effective social media tool to connect with their friends.Table (1) – to show raw data of findings collected:ParticipantYears with a social media accountRating of whether social media profile is an effective tool for connecting with friends111233323442555622711843934106511321211132214431535Step 1: RankingRanking is the first step in this test. Importantly, you should not rank both conditions together. Rank each condition individually.Step 2: Replacing the original dataPlace the ranked numbers in the table below alongside the original data. ParticipantYears with a Social Media accountRank of years dataRating of whether Social Media profile is an effective tool for connecting with friendsRank of ratings data111233323442555622711843934106511321211132214431535Step 3: What is the difference between ranks?For this step, you should find the difference between the ranks for each dataset.RANK of years dataRANK of ratings dataDifference between RANK of years and RANK of ratings228.59.559.5125.5141455.522129.58.51215148.55.52255.5129.58.514Step 4:Add a fourth column to the above table named ‘difference squared (d2)’. In this column you should square the difference for each dataset.Step 5:Add up all of the squared differences. This becomes ‘ d2’Step 6:For the formula, N = the number of participants4272073-6317929 d2 = the total squared differences=1-(6×129)15(225-1)3544356271615Reminder: If the value of rho is:Near -1 = Negative CorrelationNear 0 = no correlationNear +1 = Positive correlation00Reminder: If the value of rho is:Near -1 = Negative CorrelationNear 0 = no correlationNear +1 = Positive correlation=1-(774)3360 =1-0.2303= + 0.7697Rho = +0.7697This suggests there is a strong positive correlation Step 7: Critical valuesFind the correct value for comparison. Number of pairs p = .05 p = .01 p = .001 5 1.000 —— —— 6 0.886 1.000 —— 7 0.786 0.929 1.000 8 0.738 0.881 0.976 9 0.700 0.833 0.933 10 0.648 0.794 0.903 11 0.618 0.755 0.873 12 0.587 0.727 0.846 13 0.560 0.703 0.824 14 0.538 0.679 0.802 15 0.521 0.654 0.779 16 0.503 0.635 0.762 17 0.488 0.618 0.743 18 0.472 0.600 0.725 19 0.460 0.584 0.709 20 0.447 0.570 0.693 Step 8: Significant or non-significantFor the Spearmans Rho to be considered statistically significant the critical value must be less than the observed value.Critical value (0.521) is less than the observed value (0.7697) and therefore suggests a significant correlation.Activity: Using the data below, calculate a Spearmans Rho.Some studies have suggested that there may be an association between two variables: intelligence and happiness. For example, the more intelligent you are, the happier you will be. To investigate this claim, a psychologist used a standardised test to measure intelligence in a sample of 30 children aged 11 years. He also asked the children to complete a self-report questionnaire designed to measure happiness. The score from the intelligence test was compared with the score from the happiness questionnaire.ParticipantIntelligence scoreHappiness rating118268371495538662744826995106211341286136214411522Activity: Answer the following exam questionsState the level of significance psychologists always aim to have (1 mark)Explain what an observed value is (2 marks)Explain what a critical value is (2 marks)Explain how data would be ranked in an inferential statistical test (5 marks)Explain what the letter ‘N’ means in inferential statistics (2 marks)Explain what ‘R2’ stands for in inferential statistics (2 marks)What inferential statistical test would you be asked to calculate the expected frequency? (1 mark)Explain how to calculate the expected frequency (2 marks)Explain how to calculate the degrees of freedom (df) (2 marks)Explain what the degrees of freedom (df) tell us? (2 marks)The observed values and critical values in a statistical test are compared. These tell us if the results are statistically significant or not. Circle the correct term in the statements below:Mann Whitney U: If the observed value is less than/more than the critical value, the results are statistically significantWilcoxon: If the observed value is less than/more than the critical value, the results are statistically significantBinomial: If the observed value is less than/more than the critical value, the results are statistically significantChi-square: If the observed value must be less than/more than the critical value, the results are statistically significantSpearmans Rho Correlations: If the critical value is less than/more than the observed value, the results are statistically significantTypes of errorsWhen analysing statistical results, mistakes can be made. These mistakes always involve the null hypothesis. Remember, a null hypothesis suggests that any relationship between the IV and the DV will be due to chance.Type 1 errorA type one errors occurs when someone incorrectly rejects the null hypothesis. By rejecting the null hypothesis (which suggests the effects are due to chance), the researcher is suggesting that there is a cause and effect relationship between the IV and the DV. This is an error because there is not a relationship. In essence, the researcher is saying that there is something present, when it is not. For example, a doctor tells a patient that they have a life-threatening illness, when they do not.Type One Rejects Null (TORN)Type 2 error A type two error occurs when someone incorrectly accepts the null hypothesis. By accepting the null hypothesis (which suggests the effects are due to chance), the researcher is suggesting that there is no relationship between the IV and the DV. This is an error because there is a relationship. In essence, the researcher is saying there is nothing present, when there is.For example, a doctor tells a patient they do not have a life-threatening illness, when they do.Type Two Accepts Null (TTAN) Scenario question:A primary school teacher wants to look at the influence the school holidays have on children’s handwriting. During school time, every two weeks the teacher rates the children’s handwriting on a scale of 1 – perfectly neat to 5 – illegible. The teacher does this over the school year. She compares each child’s handwriting the week before each holiday and the week they return. She gathered all of her data and conducted statistical tests.Explain what a type one error is in this situationExplain what a type two error is in this situationSymbolsIn the table below there are seven symbols commonly used in psychology. Using the definitions in the box below, complete the grid.SymbolWhat the symbol meansExample using the symbolYour explanation of the example=X = Y/=X /= Y>X > Y>>X >> Y<X < Y<<X << Y~X ~ YMuch less thanGreater thanEqual toEquivalent toLess thanNot equal toMuch greater thanTopic: Designing a psychological study-85725111760This type of exam question will come up once in every research methods exam. In order to achieve high bands, you must follow a strict structure:You will achieve one mark for referring to own experience “In my college, we conducted a similar study looking at X. Based on this study, I would suggest using Y.” You should start off your essay with this statementDiscuss the topic of each bullet point (4 bullet points each worth 3 marks each). Aim to have one paragraph per bullet pointYou must justify. You will explain why your choice is better than another choice. “I would suggest using repeated measures design. Repeated measures allows for one sample to be used multiple times, using themselves as a baseline for comparison. Whereas the alternative option (independent measures design) requires there to be two groups of ppts (which is requires more time) and ignores the possibility of individual differences where results from different participants cannot be compared accurately.”Context. Here is where you will refer to the names, topic, variables, hypothesis, sample (etc) mentioned within the scenario. (2 marks)00This type of exam question will come up once in every research methods exam. In order to achieve high bands, you must follow a strict structure:You will achieve one mark for referring to own experience “In my college, we conducted a similar study looking at X. Based on this study, I would suggest using Y.” You should start off your essay with this statementDiscuss the topic of each bullet point (4 bullet points each worth 3 marks each). Aim to have one paragraph per bullet pointYou must justify. You will explain why your choice is better than another choice. “I would suggest using repeated measures design. Repeated measures allows for one sample to be used multiple times, using themselves as a baseline for comparison. Whereas the alternative option (independent measures design) requires there to be two groups of ppts (which is requires more time) and ignores the possibility of individual differences where results from different participants cannot be compared accurately.”Context. Here is where you will refer to the names, topic, variables, hypothesis, sample (etc) mentioned within the scenario. (2 marks)Scenario 1: Psychologists wanted to investigate the effect that colour has on our mood. Previous research suggests that the colour blue would make people feel calm and the colour red would make people feel agitated.Question 1: Explain how you would conduct a study using the laboratory experiment method to investigate the effect of colour on mood. Justify your decisions as part of your explanation. You must refer to:Repeated measures design or matched pairs designHow the variables are operationalisedSampling method usedControl for individual differencesYou should use your own experience of carrying out an experiment to inform your response. (15 marks)Scenario 2: Previous research suggests a positive correlation between high intensity movies with the intake of foods. A psychologist wanted to see if there was a link between action movies and the level of popcorn and candy eaten during the movie. Question 2: Explain how you would carry out an experiment to see the effect of action movies on food intake. Justify your decisions as part of your explanation, you must refer to:Field or lab experimentsOperationalise variablesAt least one control you would useCollection of dataYou should use your own experience of carrying out an experiment to inform your response. (15 marks)Scenario 3: How likely are people to conform in groups? Imagine that you are in a math class and the instructor asks a basic math question. What is 8 x 4? The teacher begins asking individual students in the room for the answer. You are surprised when the first student answers 27. Then the next student answers 27. And the next! When the teacher finally comes to you, do you trust your own math skills and say 32? Or do you go along with what the rest of the group seems to believe is the correct answer? Question 3: Explain how you would conduct an experiment into the conformity of social situations. Justify your decisions as part of your explanation, you must refer to:Independent measures designReliabilityQuantitative and Qualitative dataControlling for individual differencesYou should use your own experience of carrying out an experiment to inform your response. (15 marks)Scenario 4: Research suggests we as humans are able to tell if someone is watching us.Question 4: Explain how you would further this experiment by finding out whether people are able to ‘feel’ as though someone is watching them. Justify your decisions as part of your explanation, you must refer to:Hypothesis (alternative and null)Coding schemeMethod of collecting dataEthical guidelinesYou should use your own experience of carrying out an experiment to inform your response. (15 marks) ................
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