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Introduction to Social Psychology: Test 3 Review

Each of the question stems below represents a potential multiple-choice question on the test. If you can answer the questions below or if you understand the relevant theory or concept discussed in the question, you will be well prepared for the test questions. In addition, there may be multiple choice test questions covering material in the videos we watched during this part of the class. Remember, there will also be short answer questions related to the in-class activities we have completed. Best of luck with your studying!

Chapter 7

1. In the experience sampling method, people _______, which reduces the occurrence of _______.

2. Barbara is highly agreeable and very submissive. Which of the following types of people is she likely to want to associate with?

3. The reinforcement-affect model of affiliative behavior is based on the premise that

4. The fact that people seek the multiple goals of social support, status, material benefits, and information when they affiliate with others supports a _________________ model.

5. Joe is an elderly gentleman who lives alone. His friend Jake is the same age, and is also single, but Jake has a pet dog. Who is likely to be healthier and to live longer?

6. You are a research participant, and are told you will have to dress in a bikini or Speedo to take a body fat test. You are given the choice to wait with others or to wait alone. Which choice are you likely to make and why?

7. In class, we discussed several studies in which Schachter was studying the impact of fear (anxiety) on affiliative behavior. Results of these studies showed that participants who were going to receive painful shocks preferred to __________, when the other people were _________.

8. Consider your answer to the question above. Why did people respond in this way to threat of painful shock?

9. Who is most likely to want to be with others in times of stress?

10. Teresa just moved to a new town and feels lonely. She feels uncomfortable around people and starts to avoid them entirely. She decides that she has no friends because everyone dislikes her. She gets depressed and talks only about negative topics. People begin to actively avoid her, and she feels even lonelier. Teresa is experiencing

11. According to longitudinal research on attachment, infants who are securely attached to their caregivers tend to

12. In times when the situation is uncertain or when information is difficult to obtain, what happens to our desire for social comparison?

13. According to the study by Kulik and Mahler (1990), which of the following people would individuals awaiting coronary bypass surgery prefer to share a room with?

14. Why didn't some participants in the Snyder et al. study (1986) want to wear the "blue badge" representing their team?

15. Brent is a friend of Amanda. Based on what your textbook concludes about cross-sex friendships, who would you suspect finds the friendship more rewarding, and why?

16. In a/an ___________________ relationship, all members of a group take things as they need them and depend upon one another completely.

17. An equality matching relationship is one in which

18. A relationship where individuals trade according to self-interest and take according to how much they contribute has a(n) __________________ form of social exchange.

19. The tendency to feel positively toward people simply because we have seen them many times is the

Chapter 12

20. The text defines a group, in the broadest sense, as two or more individuals who

21. Social facilitation is the process

22. Johnson is an accomplished high school basketball player, and Franklin is still learning basketball. Where Johnson usually hits 75% of his free throws during practice, Franklin makes only 25% of his. However, during the last big game, Johnson made 85% of his free throws and Franklin made only 15% of his. This finding is explained by the concept of

23. According to the theory of deindividuation, when people are in a group they are more likely to

24. According to the text, interdependence, group identity, and structured relations contribute to

25. Whereas ______________ are expectations for how all group members should behave, _________ are expectations for how particular group members should behave.

26. The text defines social loafing as

27. Imagine you are an efficiency consultant with social psychological training and the local pickle company asks you to help it increase individual pickle packing productivity. Considering the phenomenon of social loafing, you should recommend

28. Dave is working on a problem-solving task with 5 other students from his class. Most of the members on this team are very sociable and they get along very well. They are considering including a new person, Steve, on their team. Steve, although conscientious, is not very sociable. Using your knowledge about social groups, what would you advise this team?

29. With additive tasks, it is generally TRUE that

30. On which of the following types of tasks are small groups likely to perform better than large groups?

31. In disjunctive tasks, success is determined by

32. In class and in your text, a study was described that compared ethnically homogeneous versus ethnically heterogeneous classroom groups. The study found that

33. Group discussion is likely to lead members to make decisions that are

34. Whereas ______ helps groups to make better decisions than individuals alone, _______ can make groups susceptible to poor decision making.

35. Imagine that you are the CEO and respected leader of a large, successful firm. You want your employees to be able to discover and reject bad ideas during an important meeting. Because you know social psychology, you decide to

36. According to the text, which of the following people best matches the image of a leader?

37. Compared to an autocratic leadership style, a democratic style is particularly effective

38. Representative Rankins is a successful leader who is charismatic, creates openness to new ways of thinking, inspires others to strive for a better future, and recognizes individual strengths and weaknesses. Representative Rankins is displaying characteristics of a(n)

Chapter 9

39. _________ benefits another intentionally; _________ benefits another intentionally for no external reward; and _________ benefits another intentionally for no external or internal reward.

40. If Kevin jumped onto a railroad track to save a stranger's child, but did it mainly to impress his friends, this would best describe

41. The concept of _________ refers to the likelihood that one's genetic makeup will be preserved not just in one's life but in future generations.

42. According to Hamilton's concept of inclusive fitness, aid should be most frequently given to

43. How does evolutionary theory explain helping among nonrelatives?

44. Which of the following is true of individuals who have grown up in diverse home environments?

45. According to evolutionary theory, people are more likely to help those to whom they are genetically related. Which of the following cues do people use to determine genetic relatedness?

46. According to your text, fund-raisers have discovered that people are more willing to help victims of a disorder if

47. People are especially likely to come to the aid of a relative (as compared to a nonrelative) when

48. The social responsibility norm states that

49. Which of the following explains the fact that Catherine Genovese was killed while 38 neighbors observed and none of them helped?

50. Imagine that you are part of an experiment and you are in a private cubical from which you communicate with other students over an intercom. Suddenly you hear over the intercom that the student who is talking is starting to have an epileptic seizure. According to research, you will be most likely to leave your cubical and try to help if

51. Sometimes onlookers might suppress emergency assistance because each person in the group decides that because nobody is concerned nothing is wrong. This phenomenon is known as

52. Your text gives practical advice for a woman who is physically confronted by a man in a public place. In order to receive help, it's recommended that the woman shout

53. Regarding the effect of social approval on helping behavior, research has shown that

54. Men were found to be more helpful than women when

55. Who is likely to help more, women or men?

56. Studies on labeling effects have shown that children are more likely to donate anonymously to other children when the researchers had

57. After posing for a photograph, Sarah would be _________ likely to help a student who dropped her papers because posing for the photograph would have made Sarah _________.

58. Self-focus is LESS likely to increase helping when

59. In a study by Tesser and Smith, participants who did poorly on a task were given a chance to give clues to help a friend and a stranger performing the same task. The results of the study indicated that participants gave better clues to

60. Imagine that your boss has just told you how disappointed he/she is at your performance over the past few weeks, and warns you to get your act together. As you sadly drag yourself home, a reasonably well-dressed homeless man and his child ask you if there is any work they can do for a few bucks. They don't look dangerous, and your lawn needs to be cut. According to the mood management hypothesis

61. Which of the following individuals will be more selective in choosing helping opportunities with low costs and high rewards?

62. According to Batson's model of pure altruism, altruism is enhanced by

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