Managing the challenges of secondary school learning ...
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Managing the challenges of secondary school learning environments for students with an ASD
“My daughter Sarah is 16 and goes to the local high school. She was diagnosed with High Functioning Autism when she was 5. She still likes things to be pretty much the same each day, hates surprises and change and worries about fitting in at school. Last Tuesday she was really reluctant to go to school, she was slow to get up, have breakfast and said she couldn’t find her school uniform and felt sick. I was on the verge of getting really cross with her when I stopped and asked myself “Why is she like this today?” I asked her if there was anything different happening at school today and she told me that she was really worried because there were auditions for the school concert and she wanted to try out. She thought that if she sang one of her favourite operatic arias that everyone would laugh. She still doesn’t understand that it is OK to have different interests from the other kids and that it is actually pretty cool to be able to do some of the things she can do. I was able to email the music teacher who said she would talk to Sarah and encourage her to audition. She said she knew the aria and would accompany Sarah on the piano. I had one very happy daughter! It is good that the teachers and I have a communication plan for times like these.” Parent
Does this sound familiar to you? Do you have a teenage son or daughter or is there a student at your school who behaves like this?
The core features of Autism and Asperger’s Disorder (we call it Autism Spectrum Disorder now, ASD for short) don’t go away but may look different as kids get older. To really help them you need to be familiar with how their ASD is affecting them each and every day at home, school and when they are out and about socially.
The following fact sheet Managing the challenges of secondary school learning environments for students with an ASD gives information about ASD and answers questions such as-
• Why is going to secondary school difficult for some students with an ASD?
• What are some of the challenges for secondary school staff, students with an ASD and their parents?
• How we can help students with an ASD manage better at secondary school?
• What else can I read to find out more?
Managing the challenges of secondary school learning environments for students with an ASD
Dr Avril V. Brereton
Most students with an ASD find school challenging at some time or other. This can be the case no matter what the type of school; specialist or mainstream, primary or secondary. The continuing challenges of having an ASD (difficulties with communication and social skills, emotional and behavioural difficulties) combined with the added demands of secondary school mean that these students need ongoing support.
When students leave primary school and enter secondary school, they are faced with many changes. Being mindful that students with an ASD have difficulty adjusting to change, it is not surprising that they can be unsettled and anxious in this new environment. Although adolescents with an ASD share common core features, no two individuals are the same. The pattern and extent of difficulties change with development so it is important to combine what we know about the core features of ASD and also think about the current specific interests, abilities, interpersonal skills and mental health status of each student.
What do we know about the challenges of secondary school for students with an ASD, their teachers and parents?
We need to remember that we still don’t have a definite answer to what interventions or treatments ensure a positive outcome for adolescents with an ASD. A recent US healthcare research and quality report (Lounds Taylor et al., 2012) that investigated interventions for adolescents and young adults with an ASD stated:
“Given the number of individuals affected by ASD, there is a dramatic lack of evidence on best approaches to therapies for adolescents and young adults with these conditions. Few studies addressing educational interventions in the adolescent and young adult population have been conducted….” (2012, p. 15).
In Australia, there have been several studies to find out more about how students with an ASD and their parents, and teachers are managing at secondary school. Two studies in particular interviewed students with Asperger Syndrome (AS), and High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD), their parents, and teachers at mainstream secondary schools (Hay and Winn. 2005, 2012). Everyone interviewed supported the philosophy of inclusion but all found it a challenge in some ways. There was general agreement that when a student has an ASD that their behaviour and social interaction is noticeably different to their peers. The students themselves commented on this as well. In other words, if a student has an ASD, it shows.
Teachers were challenged by what they described as the less predictable and at times inflexible social behaviour of the students and the level of additional in-class attention required to effectively teach the students in a group context. As a consequence they were dealing with issues of feeling that they lacked confidence and skills, motivation, time, resources and strategies to effectively teach students with an ASD.
The students commented that they wanted help to build social relationships and friendships. They wanted friends but were unsure of how to go about making and keeping friends. They worried about their learning environments. For example, some felt that they would learn better if they had the opportunity to work in small student groups or by themselves rather than in large classes all the time.
Parents, teachers and the students were keen to get discussions going on how to work through these issues together. Everyone agreed that:
i) there is a need to build individual relationships between teachers and their aides, students and parents
ii) individual assessment of each student’s abilities and optimal learning context are necessary to ensure that the teacher knows how to effectively teach the student
iii) there should be open collaboration between staff, students and their parents
A different approach to finding out more about how students are managing at secondary school was through a study that interviewed students with an ASD attending mainstream secondary school to listen to the “student voice” (Saggers et al, (2011). They listed six areas that emerged as having either a positive or negative effect on the students’ participation and learning at school.
• teacher characteristics (personality, teaching style, attitude to students with a disability)
• curriculum related issues (workload, demand for handwriting, solutions to difficulties)
• support mechanisms (attitudes to specialist support, types and ways of receiving support)
• friendships (perceptions of friends/friendships, attitudes to socialising and solitude)
• environmental considerations
• teasing and bullying
Students with an ASD will behave and react differently. The student with an ASD has been given this diagnosis because he or she, since birth, has had difficulty with communication skills, social relationships, and particular focused preoccupations and repetitive aspects to their play and behaviour, all of which can impede learning and managing in an educational setting. On top of these difficulties, many adolescents with an ASD are struggling with emotional and mental health issues that interfere with their enjoyment of daily life and affect their performance at school.
If teachers are unaware that a student has an ASD, they may expect the student to behave like everyone else, for example, to follow the school rules, always act in a socially appropriate manner, have a friendship group, be respectful and in tune with what is going on around them in and outside the classroom and be reasonably well organized. We expect these things of typical secondary school students, even taking into account that they are adolescents who think and act like adolescents! Students with an ASD at mainstream secondary school, usually experience difficulties because of their impaired social skills. They are required to interact with teachers and students throughout the day and their response to these social and emotional demands may fluctuate between coping, to being overwhelmed. They may clash with teachers or get into trouble for behaving in a way that seems rude, disruptive or non-compliant. The young person’s learning and thinking style and symptoms of ASD may also make it more difficult to cope at school where skills are needed to manage stressful situations, be well organised, cope with change, and limit or “turn off” special interests or preoccupations. The risk of being bullied or teased or socially manipulated continues and may even escalate at this time. It is a priority to ensure the safety of the adolescent at school. Protection from bullying and teasing is of primary importance. All of these situations and demands contribute to making going to secondary school and coping with school harder for adolescents with HFA and AD.
School- wide approaches to supporting students with an ASD
What happens in a school is usually determined by what happens at the top. The attitude of the school principal and senior staff is critical in setting the overall tone and attitude of the whole school. A positive, accepting attitude on the part of the whole school community is essential for the successful inclusion of students with special needs, including those with an ASD. The complex needs of students with an ASD and those teaching them can be met if a multi-person, multifaceted, multidisciplinary approach supported by the availability of appropriately trained support personnel such as ASD coaches and special education consultants work together. The basic education principles for making inclusion work are:
• providing individualized supports and services for students and families
• comprehensive and structured learning environments
• specialized curriculum content
• a functional approach to difficult behaviours
• family involvement
• attitudinal and social support
• coordinated team commitment
• recurrent evaluation of inclusion procedures (Iovannone, Dunlap, Huber and Kinkaid, 2003)
What can teachers and parents do to improve outcomes for adolescents with an ASD attending mainstream secondary schools?
1. Have written protocols in place to ensure that everyone understands and is aware of the student’s needs. (One page summary sheets are helpful that include information about what this young person does well, struggles with, what sorts of things might make them anxious or upset. See example below).
2. Have regular lines of communication and contact with parents who know their child better than anyone. Daily contact may be necessary at times. (It has been shown that in schools where strong, positive relationships between parents and school staff are established that students with an ASD do better socially and academically).
3. Give students an opportunity to talk with adults in a non-threatening environment. In the absence of an opportunity for adolescents with an ASD to talk to peers, it can be helpful for them to talk to parents and teachers who have “been there” and know about adolescence, have life experience and the maturity that comes with age.
4. Monitor mental health and report at regular parent teacher meetings. In particular, monitor anxiety, discuss issues and refer on to mental health professionals as appropriate.
5. Support staff can help to plan functional behaviour support programmes (including social skills training) for individual students. A new approach to motivating students with an ASD is the use of interactive technology (personal tablets, iPads, autism apps) to increase their interest level and provide a strong motivator for participation. Tablets can be used to draw social situations, make videos or observations to assist in identifying triggers for specific behaviours. Additionally, interactive technology methods may assist in teaching replacement behaviours through methods such as interactive stories and prompt cards. see
An effective way to inform school staff about each student with an ASD is through a student snapshot. It should be available to all staff who have responsibility for and contact with that student. The snapshot provides a useful one page summary of important information that can make it easier for all staff members to communicate with and respond to the student with an ASD. The snapshot should be reviewed and updated at each Student Support Group meeting. Information may include a clear and recent photograph and details about the staff who know the student well. Also include:
• Medical needs
• Communication and social skills
• Use of visual communication system
• Need for structure and routine
• Stress and anxiety: triggers and responses
• Motivation and favourite activities
The questions below might be helpful as a checklist for parents, teachers & support staff when they meet:
Are there school wide protocols in place to ensure that there is effective
|• assessment that informs teaching and individual learning plans? YES/NO |
|• collaboration and mentoring with other professionals? YES/NO |
|• communication within the school? YES/NO |
|• communication with parents? YES/NO |
|• professional development available to school staff? YES/NO |
References and relevant further reading
Hay, I., and Winn, S. (2005). Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in an inclusive secondary school environment: Teachers’, Parents’ and Students’ Perspectives Australasian Journal of Special Education, 2005, 29, 2, 140-154
Hay, I and Winn, S. (2012). High functioning autism spectrum disorder: A challenge to secondary school educators and the students with the condition, Proceedings of the 2012 Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, 2-6 December 2012, University of Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-12. ISSN 1324-9320 (2012) [Refereed Conference Paper]
Iovannone, R., Dunlap, G., Huber, H., and Kinkaid, D. (2003). Effective educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18(3), 150-168
Lounds Taylor J, Dove D, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Sathe NA, McPheeters ML, Jerome RN, Warren Z. Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 65. (Prepared by the Vanderbilt Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10065-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 12-EHC063-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. August 2012. effectivehealthcare.reports/final.cfm.
Saggers, Beth, Hwang, Yoon-Suk, & Mercer, Louise (2011) Your voice counts: Listening to the voice of high school students with autism spectrum disorder. Australasian Journal of Special Education. (In Press) QUT Digital Repository:
Wray J, Williams K. The prevalence of autism in Australia. Report commissioned by the Australian Advisory Board on Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2007.
Autism Speaks is working with the National Center for Learning Disabilities, PACER’s National Bullying Centre and Ability Path in partnership with the new documentary film BULLY to raise awareness about how bullying affects children with special needs. For more information see: Autism Speaks: Combating Bullying
Thoughts on educating adolescents with autism. Dave Nelson, Director, The Community School, Decatur, GA
There are a number of factsheets about ASD at the DEECD Autism Friendly Learning website Resources page. These cover topics relating to young children as well as adolescents with ASD
British Columbia “Teaching students with ASD”
*Technology: e.g. personal tablet devices have become common place in many peoples’ lives. This website has been developed in response to the many parents, teachers and individuals who have approached the Autism Association of Western Australia asking for ideas about how to effectively use technology, specifically an iPad or tablet device.
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