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UNIT V AP WORLD TEST (1750-1900)Set 1: Questions 1-3 refer to the graphic below:1.Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the data in the graphic?(A)The force of nationalism in both Germany and Austria-Hungary acted as an agent of unification.(B)Nationalism brought cohesiveness to Austria-Hungary but divisiveness to Germany in this time period.(C)Nationalist sentiment had very different outcomes for central European empires in the 19th century.(D)Trade and economic expansion were impacted by the nationalist experiences in Germany and Austria-Hungary.2.Based on the graphic, nationalism is an example of which of the following?(A)State-building(B)Expansion of Economic Systems(C)Cultural Development(D)Development of Social Structures3.Based on your knowledge of history, the magnet in Map A was most likely strengthened or supported by what force(s) in 19th century Germany?(A)Economic interdependency(B)Strong government leadership(C)Cultural diffusion(D)Colonialism“As the public mood darkened, a meeting of The Assembly of Notables (the clergy, aristocrats and magistrates) failed to sort out the financial crisis, prompting King Louis XVI to convene the Estates General, an elected national assembly, for the first time in 150 years. The meeting at Versailles degenerated into confusion, however, prompting the king to sack his financial minister, Jacques Necker, and call out the army. Ultimately, it was at the Cafe du Foy, on the afternoon of July 12, 1789, that a young lawyer named Camille Desmoulins set the French Revolution in motion. Crowds had gathered in the nearby gardens of the Palais Royal, and tensions rose as the news of Necker’s dismissal spread, since he was the only government official trusted by the people. Revolutionaries stoked fears that the army would soon descend to massacre the crowd. Desmoulins leaped onto a table outside the cafe, brandishing a pistol and shouting “To arms, citizens! To arms!” His cry was taken up, and Paris quickly descended into chaos; the Bastille was stormed by an angry mob two days later.”Source: A History of the World in 6 Glasses, Tom Standage, 20054. Historians studying political revolutions would find similarities in the role played by coffee houses in the French Revolution andThe role the steam engine played in the Industrial RevolutionThe role played by Facebook during the Arab Spring of 2011The role played by samurai in the Meiji RestorationThe role played by paper in the Yellow Turban Uprising 5. The French Revolution is most similar to which other political revolution, in that they were set in motion by the bottom strata of the society?American RevolutionLatin American Revolution(s)Haitian RevolutionIndustrial RevolutionAmerican Revolution“The position of Prussia in Germany will not be determined by its liberalism but by its power… Prussia must concentrate its strength and hold it for the favourable moment, which has already come and gone several times. Since the treaties of Vienna, our frontiers have been ill-designed for a healthy body politic. Not through speeches and majority decisions will the great questions of the day be decided - that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849 - but by iron and blood.”Otto Von Bismark - Iron & Blood speech 1862“The countries of the people's, defined by the vote of free men, will arise upon the ruins of the countries of kings and privileged castes, and between these countries harmony and fraternity will exist. And the common work of Humanity … will be wrought out in peaceful and progressive development and advance. Then may each one of you, fortified by the power and affection of many millions, all speaking the same language, gifted with the same tendencies, and educated by the same historical tradition, hope even by your own single efforts to be able to benefit all Humanity. O, my brothers, love your Country! Our country is our Home, a house God has given us, placing therein a numerous family that loves us, and whom we love; a family with whom we sympathize more readily and whom we understand more quickly than we do others...”Joseph Mazzini -- An Essay On the Duties of Man Addressed to WorkingmenCHAPTER V. DUTIES TOWARDS YOUR COUNTRY. 1858. The philosophy that is articulated in both of the texts above is best described as: ExceptionalismImperialismNationalismSocialism7. “I know that my race must change. We cannot hold our own with the white men as we are. We only ask an even chance to live as other men live. We ask to be recognized as men. We ask that the same law shall work alike on all men. If an Indian breaks the law, punish him by the law. If a white man breaks the law, punish him also.”??? ???Chief Joseph of the Nez Percé, “Lincoln Hall Speech,” 1879Which of the following groups was Chief Joseph most trying to influence with this statement?(A)The Nez Percé(B) The United States Government(C) Native American Nations(D) The British Empire“It is better to begin abolishing serfdom from above than to wait for it to begin abolishing itself from below.”Czar Alexander II, r. 1855-81“I shall be an autocrat, that’s my trade; and the good lord will forgive me, that’s his.”Czarina Catherine the Great, r. 1762-968. In looking back through part of Russian history, an apparent trend in the rule of leaders isa strong desire to maintain authoritarian rule in spite of social/philosophical changes that occurred between 1750-1914the push for more democratic forms of government to enhance mass public opiniona strong desire to acquire overseas colonies to make up for a lack of raw materials at homethe push to work with the Ottoman Empire in order to allow self-determination in central Asia9. Latin American revolutions were initially triggered by[A] increased tax money flowing back to Europe.[B] suppression of the church in Latin America.[C] confiscation of all colonial lands.[D] Napoleon’s invasions of Spain and Portugal.[E] a desire by the indigenous peoples to reclaim their independence.??? 10. Many revolutions begin with “preliminary unrest” when conditions exist in a civilization which people find intolerable. The primary source above shows that preliminary unrest happened in the American colonies whenA) economic controls on trade were being imposed by the British government.B) social tensions between the rich and poor grew within the colonies.C) population pressures on the land and growing food shortages led to starvation.D) the Atlantic slave trade was ?increasingly found to be morally wrong11. The Stamp Act of 1765 required that colonists pay a tax ona. ?everything printed on paper.b. ?all correspondence and mail.c. ?newspapers and pamphlets.d. ?official transactions, such as selling land.e. ?goods brought into Boston Harbor, including tea.12. A significant difference in Japan’s implementation of 19th century ideas and Britain’s implementation of 19th century ideas is the fact thatA) ?Japan refused to industrialize, following the lead of ChinaB) ?Britain was able to prevent diffusion of its industrial and ideological ideas, forcing Japan to generate its own unique ideasC) ?The Japanese government (Meiji) was heavily involved in the modernization of the countryD) ?The Japanese people were resistant to technological advances, decreasing the likelihood of industrial successE) ??The Japanese were able to use their abundant natural resources to move quickly through the states of industrialism13. Which of the following would have had the LEAST influence on the writing of this document?A) The EnlightenmentB) AbolitionismC) Social DarwinismD) Feminism14. Compared with the historian’s conclusion, the Proclamation of Prince Shah(A) agrees with the argument that the revolt of 1857 was caused by cultural factors.(B) argues that he was opposed to British rule primarily for political reasons.(C) shows agreement that social caste divisions are the best explanation for the rebellion.(D) demonstrates that economic factors were the primary cause of the revolt.“Spirits of Moctezuma, Cuauhtémoc and other Aztec heroes, as once you celebrated that feast before being slaughtered by the treacherous sword of the Spanish conquistadors, so now celebrate this happy moment in which your sons have united to avenge the crimes and outrages committed against you, and to free themselves from the claws of [Spanish] tyranny and fanaticism. To the 12th of August 1521—the day that the chains of our serfdom were fastened—there now succeeds the 14th of September 1813—when these chains are broken forever.” José María Morelos, Mexican revolutionary, speech, 1813 15. Judging from the excerpt above, which of the following was the main purpose of Morelos’ speech? (A) To outline a plan for the long-term development of the new Mexican state (B) To oppose the claims of Mexican Creoles seeking to play a leading role in the new state (C) To offer a vision of Mexican history that could be used as a basis for nation building (D) To suggest that the establishment of the Mexican nation-state was proof of the superiority of the Aztecs The following two questions are based on the excerpt below: Kingston, Jamaica, September 6, 1815 My dear Sir:… The hatred that the Iberian Peninsula has inspired in us is greater than the ocean between us. It would be easier to have the two continents meet than to reconcile the spirits of the two countries. There is nothing we have not suffered at the hands of that unnatural Spanish stepmother- The veil has been torn asunder. We have already seen the light, and it is not our desire to be thrust back into darkness... How different is our situation! We have been harassed by a conduct which has not only deprived us of our rights but has kept us in a sort of permanent infancy with regard to public affairs. We were never viceroys or governors, save in the rarest of instances; seldom archbishops and bishops; diplomats never; as military men, only subordinates; as nobles, without royal privileges. In brief, we were neither magistrates nor financiers and seldom merchants--all in flagrant contradiction to our institutions… More than anyone, I desire to see America fashioned into the greatest nation in the world, greatest not so much by virtue of her area and wealth as by her freedom and glory… From the foregoing, we can draw these conclusions: The American provinces are fighting for their freedom, and they will ultimately succeed. Some provinces as a matter of course will form federal and some central republics; the larger areas will inevitably establish monarchies, some of which will fare so badly that they will disintegrate in either present or future revolutions…16. The writer of this letter is most interested in achieving what major theme of the modern age?ImperialismIndustrialismRevolutionLiberalism17. Based on the content of the letter, who do you think is most responsible for writing it?Simon BolivarToussaint L’OuvertureRobespierreGeorge WashingtonBase your answer to the question on the speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of social studies.Speaker A: “All power derives from God to his earthly representative, the king.”Speaker B: ?“Governments are instituted by people to protect life, liberty, and property. People have the right to replace a government that fails to protect their rights.”Speaker C: ?“History is a struggle between the?‘haves and the have-nots.’ Workers of the world will overthrow the bourgeoisie and create a classless society.”Speaker D: “Self-interest drives people to action. Government should allow each individual to pursue his or her own goals.”18. Which speaker expresses ideas similar to those of Karl Marx?(A) A (B) B (C) C (D) D19. The above description of the Tata family of India suggests that Western education most affected South Asian civilization because education in colonial schoolsA) strengthened confidence in Hinduism and traditional practices.B) created a local well-educated elite capable of modernizing India.C) provoked a complete rejection of Western civilization.D) resulted in Europeans treating Indians as equal to whites.20. Which of the following sources would provide the most effective counter-argument to the point of view in this article?A) a report by the British Raj to the Queen of England extolling the social stability of the colony.B) data from the Development Ministry charting growing domestic production and employment.C) enrollment records from an English missionary in charge of admissions to the college.D) testimony of the lower castes documenting their inability to get in to Western schools.21. What impact did the instability of the wars for independence have on subsequent developments in Latin America?A. Agricultural regions devastated by modern warfare were slow to recover, leading to widespread famineB. Female veterans of military service refused subordinate roles in the homeC. Military leaders remained influential and intervened frequently in political affairsD. Mestizo, slave, and indigenous populations formed guerrilla units and launched armed struggle for CommunismE. The grip of the Catholic Church was weakened and various strains of Protestantism became the dominant form of Christianity.The Hamburg Cholera Epidemic of 1892??? Annual Income inGerman Marks (Dollars)Number of People% of Infected% who Died800-1,00028,64711.46.21,000-2,00032,84810.05.52,000-3,50014,5444.72.73,500-5,0006,1254.02.25,000-10,0005,6493.11.610,000-25,0003,3281.81.025,000-50,0001,1821.71.150,000+834.6.5??? ??? ??? ??? Source: Richard Evans, Death in Hamburg, Oxford Press, 198722. A historian analyzing the above data would reach which conclusion below?Cholera was less of a threat in the nineteenth century than the eighteenth centuryThe Hamburg cholera outbreak was more severe than outbreaks in Paris or New YorkThe lower classes had a higher likelihood of catching cholera and dyingCholera death rates were evenly spread across the social spectrum, showing that the disease killed indiscriminately without regard to class, gender, or ethnicity23. “Liberty and justice consist of restoring all that belongs to others; thus, the only limits on the exercise of the natural rights of women are perpetuated male tyranny; these limits are to be reformed by the laws of nature and reason.”-Olympe de Gouges, French feminist, Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, 1791.The passage above is an example of which of the following processes occurring in the 18th Century?The emergence of nationalismThe formation of separatist movementsThe application of Enlightenment ideasThe growth of empirical science.Article IV. The colored Creoles request that the Declaration of the Rights of Man . . . be applied to them, as it is to the Whites.Article V. Humiliating distinctions have been made until now between White men and men of color . . . bring an end to these distinctions . . .Article VI. The National Assembly shall be asked to declare: That Negroes and colored Creoles shall be admitted, along with Whites, to all ranks, positions, responsibilities, dignities and honors . . .24. The above petition was most likely made:(A) By Native Americans during the French Revolution(B) By citizens of New Orleans to Napoleon(C) By Haitians during the French Revolution(D) By West Africans during the “Scramble for Africa”. . . . every individual necessarily labours to render the annual revenue of the society as great as he can. He generally, indeed, neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it. By . . . directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value, he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention . . . By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it.25. The quote above is taken from:(A) Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations(B) Rudyard Kipling’s The White Man’s Burden(C) Andrew Carnegie’s The Gospel of Wealth(D) Karl Marx’s Capital26. The trends illustrated by the map above are best explained by:(A) The expansion of global empires(B) Overpopulation and problems in the sending countries(C) The replacement of slave labor(D) All of the above“It is blood-curdling to see them [the soldier] returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit.” ??????- Source: Excerpt of letter written by American Missionary, taken from E. D. Morel, The Black Man’s Burden, National Labor Press, 1920, pp. 121-12227. Where is the rubber trade occurring?A. BelgiumB. TanzaniaC. Belgian CongoD. South Africa 28. Why did the American Missionary feel that there would be a “fearful balance” to the credit of the Africans?The whites had left the Africans with so much money when they colonizedThe Africans were very poor and owed many of the colonists moneyThe Belgian Congo trade was gruesome and many Africans were massacredNo such balance was thought to exist during this timeWhy did the Belgians allow this violence to happen to the Africans?The Belgians were more interested in making money from the rubber tradeThe Africans revolted all the time and harsh punishment was necessaryThe Belgians intended to wipe out the entire race of AfricansThe Africans’ hands were very valuable to the Belgian people“If we follow the moderates’ way of thinking, public welfare will be sacrificed to a mistaken love of humanity. They use the excuse of not limiting freedom of thought to leave enemies of the Revolution the means to provoke conflict. They use the excuse of not cramping individual freedom to leave them free to disrupt the State.” --Jean-Paul Marat, 179230. In the excerpt above, Marat is arguing for:(A) Restraint towards opponents of the French Revolution(B) Liberty for the working people of France(C) Executing the king(D) Action against “enemies of the Revolution”31. To which historical event does the cartoon above refer?(A) The Russo-Japanese War(B) The Boxer Rebellion(C) The Taiping Rebellion(D) Rivalry for spheres of influence in China"There are three major races that historically have developed on earth: the Mongoloid, the Caucasian, and the Negroid. After careful research, it has been determined that the average brain size of the Caucasian is significantly larger than that of the Negroid." 32. The statement above most directly reflects the 19th century philosophy of Social Darwinism Marxism Scientific racism Positivism33. The North and South American independence movements of the late 18th century and early 19th century shared which of the following?A. Revolutionary demands based on Enlightenment political ideasB. Reliance on Christian teachings to define revolutionary demandsC. Industrial economies that permitted both areas to break free of European controlD. Political instability caused by constant warfare among the new states 34. After examining the map above, pick the best answer below based on your knowledge of how various states established empires in Asia and the Pacific from 1750 to c. 1900.Modern day Thailand was formed from the empire-building aspirations of the French in Indochina.Siam was used as a buffer zone as various European states expanded their respective empires. ?To survive as an independent state, Siam had to cede territory to the French and British.The end of the Franco-Siamese War in 1893 resulted in the handing over of Laos to France.35. What colony-imperial power combination is shown by the political cartoon?A. Indonesia – NetherlandsB. India – Great BritainC. Congo – BelgiumD. Australia – Great Britain36. Which of the following was a major change that took place in the colonization efforts of European imperialist powers in the late nineteenth century? (A) Most imperialist powers sought to tie their efforts more closely to religion. (B) Most imperialist powers began to portray their colonization efforts as merely temporary interventions. (C) Most imperialist powers began to seek direct control of large inland areas. (D) Most imperialist powers attempted to establish industries in their colonies to supply the controlling country with cheap manufactured goods37. The cartoon above emphasizes:(A) International support for the French Revolution(B) The fear the French Revolution inspired in traditional monarchs(C) The Enlightenment ideals behind the French Revolution(D) The Terror’s execution of ordinary peopleThe following excerpt from Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations written in 1776 I have seen a small manufactory [factory] of this kind where ten men only were employed, and where some of them performed two or three distinct operations……They could….make among them…upwards of 48,000 pins in a day…But if they had all wrought [worked] separately and independently…they certainly could not each of them have made twenty….in a day.38. Which of the following would disagree with Smith that this process was progress?Henry Fordan 1800s factory ownera Ludditea child worker39. What conclusion can be drawn from the chart above?(A) Opium was China’s most important export(B) Manufactured goods were China’s most important import(C) Chinese efforts to limit the opium trade had been effective(D) Opium was Britain’s most valuable product in China40. The above primary source demonstrates that the model of colonial society and politics preferred by the Netherlands in Java was to:(A) encourage democratic urban societies with a civil society & nationalist ideology.(B) keep traditional rural societies that retained cooperative local rulers.(C) create modern industrial societies ruled over by Dutch appointed kings.(D) design Christian societies that embodied the ideals of social equality and justice.Questions 41-43 refer to the texts below.“The great revolution that has been effected here by the success of the English arms, and the vast advantages gained to the Company (British East India Company) … much more may yet be done, if the Company will exert themselves in the manner the importance of their present possessions and future prospects deserves. I have represented to them in the strongest terms the expedience of sending out and keeping up constantly such a force as will enable them to embrace the first opportunity of further aggrandizing themselves.”Letter from Robert Clive to Sir William Pitt regarding India - 1773“But after a long period of commercial intercourse, there appear among the crowd of barbarians both good persons and bad, unevenly. Consequently there are those who smuggle opium to seduce the Chinese people and so cause the spread of the poison to all provinces. Such persons who only care to profit themselves, and disregard their harm to others, are not tolerated by the laws of heaven and are unanimously hated by human beings. His Majesty the Emperor, upon hearing of this, is in a towering rage. He has especially sent me, his commissioner, to come to Kwangtung, and together with the governor-general and governor jointly to investigate and settle this matter. All those people in China who sell opium or smoke opium should receive the death penalty.”Lin Zexu (Lin Tse-Hsu), Letter of Advice to Queen Victoria (1839)The interactions between Europeans and Asians in both sources above best demonstrate which of the following concepts? Diplomatic reconciliationCultural misconceptionEconomic imperialismMilitary interventionWhich of the following statements best explains what Robert Clive is advocating in the text above? Naval support by the British government for the British East East India company.The annihilation of economic competition by other European powers in India.The establishment of India as a colony of the British crown.The establishment of India as a colony of the British East India Company. Base your answer to the following question on your knowledge of World history and the source above. What was the English response to Lin Zexu’s letter to Queen Victoria? A series of three wars in China resulting in European spheres of influenceA significant increase in trade between China and Japan at the expense of European “barbarian” traders.Diplomacy resulting in China agreeing to European spheres of influenceIsolationism increased in both China and England resulting in economic losses for both.44. In the 19th century, what provided the greatest realization to Japan, China, the Ottomans, and the Russians that they desperately needed to reform?A. their inability to build large empires B. their humiliations in the face of industrial military powerC. the rapid colonization by European powersD. the economic power of BritainImperial Rescript: The Great Principles of Education, 1879 [Official Document]"The essence of education, our traditional national aim, and a watchword for all men, is to make clear the ways of benevolence, justice, loyalty, and filial piety, and to master knowledge and skill and through these to pursue the Way of Man. In recent days, people have been going to extremes. They take unto themselves a foreign civilization whose only values are fact-gathering and technique, thus violating the rules of good manners and bringing harm to our customary ways. Although we set out to take in the best features of the West and bring in new things in order to achieve the high aims of the Meiji Restoration—abandonment of the undesirable practices of the past and learning from the outside world—this procedure had a serious defect: It reduced benevolence, justice, loyalty, and filial piety to a secondary position.........For morality, the study of Confucius the best guide. People should cultivate sincerity and moral conduct, and after that they should turn to the cultivation of the various subjects of learning in accordance with their ability. In this way, morality and technical knowledge will fall into their proper places."45. Based on the passage and your prior knowledge of Meiji Japan, which of the following statements best explains the concerns about reforming education in Japan?a. Confucianist teachings would not allow people to consider new, Western ideas about technology and moralityb. Increasing things like benevolence, justice, loyalty and filial piety would harm society's overall valuesc. Learning technical knowledge from the outside world may bring more unwanted foreigners into the countryd. Striking a balance between gaining the best features of the west while retaining Japanese culture could be difficultOlaudah Equiano, a former slave, The Case Against the Slave Trade 1789.A commercial intercourse with Africa opens an inexhaustible source of wealth to the manufacturing interest of Great Britain, and to all which the slave trade is an objection. If I am not misinformed, the manufacturing interest is equal, if not superior to the landed interests, as to the value, for reasons, which will soon appear. The abolition of slavery will give a most rapid extension of manufacturers, which is totally and diametrically opposite to what some interested people assert. Population, the bowels and surface of Africa, abound in valuable and useful returns; the hidden treasures of centuries will be brought to light and into circulation. Industry, enterprise, and mining will have their full scope, proportional as they civilize. In a word, it lays open an endless field of commerce to the British manufacturers and merchant adventurer. The manufacturing interest 46. A historian would most likely use the above passage as support for which of the following arguments?A) Britain eventually abolished slavery for moral and religious reasons.B) Britain eventually abolished slavery because it offered an economic opportunity.C) Britain eventually abolished slavery because of the popularity of Enlightenment ideas.D) Britain eventually abolished slavery because of political pressure from anti-slavery groups.47. It can be inferred in late 18th century England, there was growing political power amongA) Freed slavesB) WomenC) Factory workers and laborersD) Factory owners and industrialists48. Why was the Sepoy Rebellion a turning point in the history of India?A) ?The Sepoys successfully pushed the British out of Bengal.B) ?The British were finally rebuffed and withdrew from India.C) ?It allowed the Indians to create a self-governing state within the larger British province.D) ?India came to be ruled directly by the British government.49. The rise in population growth from 1750-1900 is best explained by which historical process?(A) Industrial revolution(B) Atlantic revolutions(C) European imperialism(D) Columbian exchangeImage 1 Barrio Chino, a Chinatown neighborhood in Mexico City, Mexico.50. The neighborhood shown in Image 1 best illustrates which of the cultural processes in the period circa 1750 to 1900?The establishment of settler colonies by EuropeansThe creation of ethnic enclaves by migrants to transplant their cultureThe government promotion of state-sponsored industrializationThe intensification of silk production using peasant laborKey1. C16. C31. D46. B2. A17. A32. C47. D3. B18. C33. A48. D4. B19. B34. B49. A5. B20. D35. D50. B6. C21. C36. C7. B22. C37. B8. A23. C38. C9. D24. C39. D10. A25. A40. B11. A26. D41. C12. C27. C42. D13. C28. C43. A14. B29. A44. B15. C30. D45. D ................
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