Four Views of Learning

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Synthesis Web Research Assignment

on Four Theories

Complete the Web Research assignment below by doing the following:

1. Download 3-5 articles on the WWW that provide information for each of the four theories.

2. Complete your part of the Presentation for the one theory you have been assigned to present (see the assignment below for this Presentation).

3. For the other three theories (besides your power point theory) read the articles you have downloaded and highlight (w/highlighter pen) the main points that provide the information of this chart.

4. Add your notes to the appropriate chart for each theory below as you read. These charts are in a table format so they will expand according to your input.

5. Submit only your highlighted articles and the corresponding chart for each theory at the appropriate time according to the syllabus. Group responses in the charts are acceptable. However, each student needs to submit their own articles.

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NOTE: This first yellow chart is the master chart for all four theories to provide an overview. Do not write in this chart. Use the individual charts following this chart for each theory to provide more writing space.

Add to this chart as you study the theories and hear the presentations.

This is your study guide for the final and part of the Comprehensive Exam.

Make your notes succinct but full of information.

Comparative Chart of all Four Views of Learning (FYI)

Behavioral, Information Processing, Constructivist, and Social Learning

(Chart adapted by R. Timmons from H. Marshall, 1992 as cited in Woolfolk, 2004)

| |

|Theory/ |

|Family of Models |

|Complete the Following Chart for Each Theory |

|Theory Traits |Behavioral Theory Facts/Ideas |Personal Evaluation |

| | |Provide your personal evaluation and experience for each category applicable. Discuss Pros/Cons. |

| | |Explain what works and what does not. Include how this theory looks in school setting (etc.) . |

|Theoretical Basis |Behavioral |Weaknesses |

| | | |

| |Theory of learning based on the belief that behaviors are acquired through conditioning |One-dimensional approach |

| |(Behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed). |Neglects the individuals perspectives |

| |Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment (our responses to |Does not account for other types of learning |

| |environmental stimuli shape our behaviors). The two types are classical and operant. |People adapt their behavior when new information is taught even if a previous pattern has been |

| |Classical= naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. |established through reinforcement. |

| |Operant=learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. | |

| |Main assumption: the only things that are real (or at least worth studying) are things we | |

| |can see and observe. | |

| |Animal trainers, teachers, and parents make use of basic behavioral principles to help |While I completed my student teaching, I relied heavily on operant conditioning. |

| |teach new behaviors and discourage wanted ones. |Clip chart (for misbehavior) |

| | |Stickers |

| |Cognitive/Psychological |Candy |

| |(Thinking/Self-Talk, Metacognition) |Table points |

| | |Pizza Parties/ Lunch with teacher |

| |Cognitive theories of psychology are focused on internal states, such as motivation, |Lego Time |

| |problem solving, decision-making, thinking, and attention. |Extra Recess/ Early dismissal |

| |Studies how people perceive, remember, and learn. | |

| |Unlike behaviorism, which focuses only on observable behaviors, cognitive psychology is | |

| |concerned with internal mental states. |The rewards and punishments worked, but I had to make sure I did not over use them. If the students |

| | |expected to receive these on a daily basis, there would be no satisfaction or learning (all they did |

| | |is learn what to do to get your attention). |

|Theorists and relevant |Skinner | |

|dates of contributions | | |

| |He was inspired by the works of Watson and Pavlov. |All of these theorists and contributions have been taught in my education and psychology classes. |

| |Believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and| |

| |its consequences (operant conditioning). |Pavlov’s response to stimuli (conditional reflex) is used in schools everyday: |

| |He invented the “Skinner Box,” in which a rat learns to obtain food by pressing a lever. |Morning bell- freeze |

| |Teachers frequently use operant conditioning (reinforcement and punishment) to shape |Class timer- time is up/stop whatever you are doing |

| |behavior in the classroom. |Class Class- give teacher attention/ stop talking |

| | | |

| |Watson | |

| | | |

| |According to Watson, psychology should be the science of observable behavior. | |

| |His most famous and controversial experiment was “Little Albert”- where he conditioned a | |

| |small child to fear a white rat using frightening noises. | |

| |Watson set the stage for behaviorism (Modern Behaviorist Theory launched during the lecture| |

| |in 1913). | |

| | | |

| | | |

| |Pavlov | |

| | | |

| |Primary interests were the study of physiology and natural sciences. | |

| |In a series of well-known experiments, he presented a variety of stimuli before the | |

| |presentation of food, eventually finding that, after repeated association, a dog would | |

| |salivate to the presence of a stimulus other than | |

| |His research also demonstrated techniques of studying food (conditional reflex) reactions | |

| |to the environment in an objective, scientific method. | |

| |Edward Thorndike | |

| | | |

| |Best known for the law of effect, animal research, and trial-and-error theory of learning. |Law of Effect |

| |Often called the father of modern educational psychology. |One day one of my troubled students really impressed me with his participation. To encourage him to |

| |Just like the others, he published several books. |continue that behavior, I sent a good note home. The rest of the week he made an effort to participate |

| |Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses |in class work/discussion. This is an example of Law of Effect because responses followed by |

| | |satisfaction are more than likely to reoccur in the future. |

| |Clark Hull | |

| | | |

| |According to Hull’s drive reduction theory, biological deprivation creates needs. These | |

| |needs activate drives which then motivate behavior. The resulting behavior is | |

| |goal-directed, since achieving these goals aids in survival of the organism. | |

| |Influenced by Darwin. | |

| |Researched hypnosis. | |

|View of Knowledge |New behaviors are learned |How does this look in school setting? |

| |Based on the thought processes behind the behavior (cognitivists). | |

| |Errors= not enough conditioning | |

| |Fixed body of knowledge to acquire, | |

| |Attention |In a classroom, I will act as a guide for my students. In mathematics, being proficient requires being |

| |Reception |able to use prior knowledge from one situation and to apply it in another. In open-ended story |

| |Perception |problems, students must have the ability to know which math function (addition, subtraction, etc.) to |

| |Short-term memory |use and how to apply a strategy to solve the problem. I often facilitate and support the internal |

| |Rehearsing |processes of the various learners in my classroom. |

| |Encoding | |

| |Long-term memory | |

| |Prior knowledge and experience | |

| | | |

| |Stimulated from outside | |

| | |In science, it is my job to acknowledge the misconceptions and design tasks that reformulate knowledge.|

| |Attracting student attention |They should include: |

| |Setting expectation |Hands on activities |

| |Assisting learners to acquire prior knowledge |Sharing of outcomes |

| |Identifying learning outcomes | |

| |Facilitating and supporting cognitive processes | |

| |Help learners perform self-assessment | |

| |Metacognition | |

|Belief about Learning |Acquisition of facts, skills, concepts | |

| | | |

| |Learning takes place when knowledge is separated into smaller bits. |When deciding which strategies to utilize, it is crucial to consider the level of knowledge of the |

| |Learning involves repetition and association and is highly mechanical. |learners and the cognitive processing demands. The nature of the learning task and proficiency level of|

| |Students are rewarded for successful answers. |the learners should both be considered when incorporating strategies. |

| | | |

| |Occurs through drill and guided practice | |

| | | |

| |Without repetition and proper conditioning, students will make mistakes. | |

|Teaching: How is teaching |Transmission, | |

|done? | |Positive reinforcement can be effective for both the teacher and student. |

| |Presentation (Telling), Demonstration | |

| | | |

| |Direct instruction (focuses on conditioning the learner's behavior.) | |

| |Reinforcing efforts | |

| |Homework and Practice | |

|Role of Teacher |Manager, supervisor | |

| |Guide students through each process (prompting the correct response) | |

| |Provide stimulus material |The teacher’s role in the classroom is to provide management and discipline in an effective way that |

| |Provide reinforcement/feedback |enables/supports academic success. Not only is it their job to teach students new information, it is |

| |Teach skills needed |important that the children feel safe. Teaching is not an easy job. |

| |Teach group norms/provide roles | |

| |Maintain classroom management and discipline | |

| | | |

| |Correct wrong answers | |

|Role of Peers |Not usually considered. | |

| | |Peers are not always considered in theories or lessons, but their behavior can affect learning- |

| |Depending on the lesson type or model, the role of peers is not really a factor. The only |Distractions can prevent others from learning the material. |

| |time peers have importance is during group work. | |

|Role of student |Passive reception of information | |

| |Willing to learn new information | |

| |Be open minded- consider and respect all values/opinions/beliefs |Students always have a role in the classroom. Whether it is participating in the discussion/lesson, |

| | |following classroom rules/procedures, or fulfilling a job title (pencil sharpener, line leader, duster,|

| |Active listener, direction-follower |passing out paper, etc.), they are all expected procedures. |

| |Follow teachers cues | |

| |Follow group norms | |

| |Use the tools provided | |

| |Do what is told- assignment or task | |

|3-5 Big ideas in theory |List several Big Ideas that inform your instructional planning you have developed based on |Explain Big Ideas and how you applied them. |

|concerning teaching and |this theory. | |

|learning that you will | | |

|apply in your professional|The close contiguity of events increases the likelihood that learners with associate |When students make connections and associate experiences with other topics, they increase understanding|

|practice. |experiences with one another. |and build on prior knowledge. If transitions are not smooth throughout the day (or close in |

| | |contiguity), all meaning/learning is lost. |

| |Students’ future learning and performance are influenced by the consequences that follow. | |

| | |The behavior of students effects learning and performance. The more effort students put into academics,|

| |Hints about how to think or behave often facilitate performance. |the more they will learn and succeed. Distractions and misbehavior will prevent growth. |

| | | |

| | |Subtle hints and reminders like, I like the way Josh is working, will facilitate performance of the |

| | |entire class. All students will follow josh’s lead so they get noticed. |

|Lesson Plan you |Describe the focus/use/intent of this lesson model and how it met the learning objective of| |

|developed/used rooted in |your students | |

|this theoretical view of | |The direct instruction model is included in the behavioral theory because it is used to teach behaviors|

|learning. |I used the direct instruction model to teach vocabulary words to third graders. Not only |and procedures (basically providing the students with new information or details). |

| |did I pronounce the word, I gave the students its definition, and then used them in a | |

| |sentence. It met the learning objective of the students because they were able to list and | |

| |define (orally and in writing) the terms of the textbook. | |

|List and briefly describe |Direct Instruction | |

|2-5 other lesson models | |Direct Instruction is primarily used to teach student’s new material (more of a lecture) .I have used |

|that fit this theory. |Often used for teaching behaviors and classroom procedures. |this method several times in the classroom. |

| |Role of teacher- guide students through each process, provide reinforcement, and eventually| |

| |uses extinction to wean students off reinforcement. | |

| |Role of the students- follow the teachers cues. | |

| |Fast and efficient. |The Cooperative Learning Model allows more student participation. In other words, it lets them be hands|

| | |on with the material. Younger students can benefit from this the most. |

| |Cooperative Learning Model | |

| | | |

| |Students participate in activities during the learning process. | |

| |Role of teacher- teach skills needed, provide specific roles, and teach group norms. |The Inquiry model allows students to research deeper meanings and understandings. There is little to |

| |Role of a student- follow group norms. |know instruction. |

| | | |

| |Inquiry Model | |

| | | |

| |Process oriented model that uses the steps to research a question. | |

| |Role of teacher- teach the students to follow the steps order and guide students for using | |

| |research tools. | |

| |Role of the student- use the tools provided. | |

|Assessment Type |Explain the type of assessment that is most appropriate for each theoretical view of | |

| |learning | |

| | |Assessment measures the impact and effectiveness of instruction. Teachers need to constantly assess to |

| |Behavior Charts |ensure student academic success. All of the assessment tools mentioned support the behavioral theory. |

| |Scoreboard/Team points | |

| |Whiteboards, hand signals (for direct instruction) | |

|Personal Application |How do/could you apply this theory for teaching learning? |

| | |

|(Provide 3 or more |To apply this theory, I could: |

|examples) |Focus on reinforcement schedules |

| |Focus on desired behaviors |

| |Utilize computer assisted instruction |

| |Provide constant feedback |

| |Incorporate new technology (spread sheets, word processing software, and interactive web-based programs) |

|Add web links for | |

|articles. | |

| | |

| | |

| | |

| | |

| | |

| | |Personal Evaluation |

|Theory |Information Processing |Provide your personal evaluation and experience for each category. Pros/Cons Explain what works and what|

|Traits | |does not. Include how this theory looks in school setting. |

|Theoretical Basis |Information Processing | |

| | | |

| |Uses a computer model to describe human learning- Information comes in, it gets processed, and| |

| |then gets stored and retrieved. |Implications for instruction: |

| |Consists of three main components: sensory memory, working memory, and long term memory. |Memory stores are extremely limited in both sensory and working memory. |

| |Sensory= processes incoming sensory information for very brief periods of time (1-3 seconds). |Relevant prior knowledge facilitates encoding and retrieval processes |

| |Its main purpose is to screen incoming stimuli and process only those that are most relevant |Automated information processing increases cognitive efficiency by reducing information processing |

| |at the present time. |demands. |

| |Working= refers to multi-component temporary memory system in which information is assigned |Learning strategies improve information processing because learners are more efficient and process |

| |meaning, linked to other information, and essential mental operations are performed |information at a deeper level. |

| |(inferences). | |

| |Long term= not constrained by capacity or duration of time limits. The role is to provide an | |

| |unlimited repository for all facts and knowledge in memory. | |

| |Throughout= Executive functioning is at work. It is responsible for maintaining attention, | |

| |planning ahead, organization of thoughts, task completion, adaption to unexpected changes or | |

| |obstacles, and emotion regulation.. | |

|Theorists |Bruner | |

| |3 Modes of representation- when faced with new material, it is important to follow symbolic |Ausubels organizers are used in schools every day- to outline concepts and essays. They are also known |

| |representation (enactive, iconic, and symbolic) |as concept maps. |

| |Spiral curriculum- teaches subjects to understand how they mold together | |

| |Children can learn any material as long as instruction is organized appropriately | |

| |Ausubel |I have used Craik and Lockharts’ levels -of-processing theory in the classroom before. With every |

| |Comparative organizers- designed to activate existing schemas. They also act as reminders to |language arts story, I give meaning to its vocabulary words through images and personal examples. I also|

| |bring into the working memory of what you may not realize are relevant. |link them to previous knowledge and content (math, science, history, etc.) |

| |Expository Organizers- provide new knowledge that students will need to understand upcoming | |

| |information. | |

| | | |

| |Craik and Lockhart | |

| |Levels-of-Processing- describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental | |

| |processing | |

| |Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger memory traces | |

| |than shallow levels of analysis. | |

| |Ways we process(Shallow)- involves repetition and leads to fairly short-term retention of | |

| |information. | |

| |Ways we process (Deep)- involves elaborate rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis| |

| | | |

| | | |

| |Taba | |

| |3 levels of knowledge- facts (Memorized), basic ideas and principles (selected based on what | |

| |information children are able to learn), and concepts (involves students using knowledge) | |

| |After Taba's death, her students used her ideas to create four thinking strategies known as | |

| |the Taba approach.- concept development, interpretation of data, application of | |

| |generalizations, interpretations of feelings, attitudes, and values. | |

| |Goal is to facilitate students in thinking more efficiently | |

| |Gagne | |

| |Well known for his synthesis of research on learning and the identification of internal and | |

| |external conditions of learning. | |

| |Sensory Memory- If we attend to the information in our sensory registers while it is there we | |

| |can transfer some of that information into our short-term memory thus preventing it from being| |

| |loss or forgotten. | |

|View of Knowledge |Fixed body of knowledge to acquire, |How does this look in school setting? |

| |Knowledge is processed and stored in three stages | |

| |Stimulated from outside, |Sensory- incorporated into the anticipatory set. Not only does it get the students attention through |

| |Sensory- the environment makes available a variety of sources of information, but the brain |senses, it provides little prior knowledge. |

| |only understands electrical energy. The stimulus has to be interesting and somehow activates a|Short-term memory- involves organizing and repeating concepts learned. |

| |known pattern. |Long- term memory- where analysis and assessment takes place in the lesson |

| | | |

| |Prior knowledge influences how information is processed | |

| |Declarative Memory- refers to the information we can talk about | |

| |Semantic memory- facts and generalized information (concepts, principles, rules, problem | |

| |solving strategies, learning strategies, etc.) | |

| |Procedural Memory- how to (ride a bike, drive a car, etc.) | |

|Learning |Acquisition of facts, skills, concepts, and strategies occurs through the effective | |

| |application of strategies |When deciding which strategies to utilize, it is crucial to consider the level of knowledge of the |

| |Retaining information is done through organization: component, sequential, relevance, and |learners and the cognitive processing demands. The nature of the learning task and proficiency level of |

| |transitional. |the learners should both be considered when incorporating strategies. |

| |Chunking- grouping pieces if data into units | |

| |Repetition or rote rehearsal- content should not be repeated immediately (wait a few minutes) | |

| |Elaboration- imaging, method of loci, peg word, rhyming, and initial letter | |

|Teaching |Transmission, | |

| | | |

| |Focusing skills |While I was student teaching, I used several methods to guide students towards more “accurate” and |

| |Involve the determination of a situation and the establishment of the appropriate ways to |complete knowledge. They include: KWL charts (attaching new information to prior knowledge to facilitate|

| |address it |its commitment to long-term memory) and mnemonic devices (PEMDAS- Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally). |

| |Information gathering skills | |

| |Collect information around the situation and the formulation of questions that will clarify it| |

| |Remembering skills | |

| |Encoding and recalling (directly related to mnemonics) | |

| |Organizing skills | |

| |Comparisons, categorization, sequencing and visual, verbal or symbolic representations | |

| | | |

| |Guide students toward more “accurate” and complete knowledge | |

|Role of Teacher |Teach and model effective strategies | |

| | | |

| |Gain the students attention | |

| |Use cues to signal when you are ready to begin |The role of the teacher is to provide students with new information, but it is also their job to get |

| |Move around the room and use voice inflections |them to remember. When I interact with kids, I bring concepts to life through sensory and creativity. |

| | |For example, when my cousin was younger I helped her remember her phone number by turning it into a |

| |Bring to mind relevant prior learning |song. Students need ideas like this to spark interest. |

| |Review previous days lesson | |

| |Have a discussion about previously covered content | |

| | | |

| |Point out important information | |

| |Provide handouts | |

| |Write on the board | |

| | | |

| |Present information in an organized manner | |

| |Show a logical sequence to concept and skills | |

| |Go from simple to complex when presenting new material | |

| | | |

| |Show students how to categorize (chunk) related information | |

| |Present information in categories | |

| |Teach inductive reasoning | |

| | | |

| |Provide opportunities for students to elaborate on new information | |

| |Connect new information with old | |

| |Look for similarities and differences among concepts | |

| | | |

| |Show students how to use coding when memorizing lists | |

| |Make up a silly song | |

| |Use mental imagery techniques | |

| | | |

| |Provide for repetition of learning | |

| |State principles several times in different ways | |

| |Schedule periodic reviews | |

| | | |

| |Provide opportunities for overlearning of fundamental concepts and skills | |

| |Use daily drills for arithmetic facts | |

| |Play form of trivial pursuit with content related to class | |

| | | |

| |Correct misconceptions | |

|Role of Peers |Not necessary but can influence information processing | |

| |Peers can be involved in the way a student learns or stores information |Students can present information differently that the teacher. For example, one child might remember a |

| |They can also affect what is kept in each memory- distractions, misbehavior, etc. |concept through hand motions or a song that they created. Sharing these ideas with the class might |

| | |increase memory and learning. |

|Role of student |Active processor of information , Strategy user | |

| |,Organizer and reorganizer of information , Rememberer | |

| | |In the classroom, students need to find out what skills will be important to help you understand later |

| |Organize the information presented |information. They need to practice these skills until they become second nature. |

| |Participate in class discussions |Students also need to become active in the learning process. This means: underline, draw diagrams, and |

| |Monitor their own thinking processes |outline important ideas when they study. |

| |Focus on only a few things at a time | |

| |When you learn something new that resembles something you already know, focus your attention | |

| |briefly on both the aspects that are similar and the aspects that are different. Be sure you | |

| |can tell them apart. | |

| |Try to make sure you understand the information clearly and correctly before you practice it | |

|3-5 Big ideas in |List several Big Ideas that inform your instructional planning you have developed based on |Explain Big Ideas and how you applied them. |

|theory concerning |this theory. | |

|teaching and learning| |Our environment takes a major role in what we see, hear, and do. Through a series of systems, we can |

|that you will apply |The information provided by our environment is constantly processed by a complex series of |establish what information is important and what can be forgotten. |

|in your professional|systems. |With the information received, it will either be placed into short-term, long-term, or working memory. |

|practice. |The processing systems modify the information we gather in “systematic” ways. | |

| |The primary goal of research tasks that delve into information processing is to determine | |

| |which processes and brain structures are behind cognitive performance. | |

|Assessment Type |Explain the type of assessment that is most appropriate for each theoretical view of learning | |

| | |Assessment enables teachers to know what methods are working and what methods aren’t. Instruction can |

| |Memory quizzes |differentiated. |

| |Woodcock Johnson Tests | |

| |Children’s memory scale | |

| |KWL charts | |

|Personal Application |How do/could you apply this theory for teaching learning? | |

| | | |

|(Provide 3 or more |Know your students strengths and weaknesses |This theory is based on sensory and prior knowledge. Students will remember information on the way it |

|examples) |Repeat lessons and have students mentally rehearse information |was presented. As a teacher, I will have to support memory through repetition, visuals, and audio. |

| |Chunk or break information constantly | |

| |Teach relevant lessons so that the students can better relate with prior knowledge | |

| |Use visual aids to support learning | |

| |Use auditory aids to support learning | |

|Web links for | | |

|articles | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

|Theory |Constructivist/ |Constructivist/Social Situated |Personal Evaluation |

|Traits |Individual | |Provide your personal evaluation and experience for each category. Pros/Cons |

| | | |Explain what works and what does not. Include how this theory looks in school |

| | | |setting. |

|Theoretical Basis |Psychological Individual |Social Situated | |

| | | | |

| |Cognitive/Psychological Constructivist |Social/Constructivist | |

| |(Concerned with Individual Cognitive Development) |(Includes: Beliefs, Self Perceptions,Expectations of Society) | |

|Theorists |Piaget, Dewey |Vygotsky, Dewey | |

| |Suchman, Bruner, Sternberg, Slavin |Suchman, Bruner, Sternberg, Slavin | |

| |Johnson – Cooperative Lerning |Johnson – Cooperative Lerning | |

| | | | |

|Knowledge |Changing body of |Socially constructed knowledge | |

| |knowledge, | | |

| | |Built on what participants contribute, construct together | |

| |Individually | | |

| |constructed in | | |

| |social world, | | |

| | | | |

| |Built on what learner | | |

| |brings | | |

|Learning |Active construction, Restructuring prior knowledge |Collaborative construction of socially defined knowledge and | |

| | |values | |

| |Occurs through multiple opportunities and diverse |Occurs through socially constructed opportunities | |

| |processes to connect to what is already known | | |

|Teaching |Challenge, |Participant | |

| | | | |

| |Guide thinking toward more complete understanding |Co-construct knowledge with students | |

|Role of Teacher |Facilitator, guide |Facilitator, Guide, Co-participant | |

| | | | |

| | |Co-construct different interpretation of knowledge; | |

| |Listen for student’s current conceptions, ideas, |Listen to socially constructed conceptions | |

| |thinking | | |

|Role of Peers |Not necessary but can stimulate thinking, raise |Ordinary part of process of knowledge construction | |

| |questions | | |

|Role of student |Active construction (within mind) |Active co-construction with others and self, | |

| | | | |

| |Active thinker, explainer, interpreter, questioner |Active thinker, explainer, | |

| | | | |

| | |Interpreter, | |

| | | | |

| | |Questioner, | |

| | |Active social participator | |

|3-5 Big ideas in theory |List several Big Ideas that inform your | |Explain Big Ideas and how you applied them. |

|concerning teaching and |instructional planning you have developed based on | | |

|learning that you will |this theory. | | |

|apply in your | | | |

|professional practice. | | | |

|Assessment Type |Explain the type of assessment that is most | | |

| |appropriate for each theoretical view of learning | | |

|Personal Application |How do/could you apply this theory for teaching | | |

| |learning? | | |

|(Provide 3 or more | | | |

|examples) | | | |

|Add web links for your | | | |

|articles. | | | |

|Theory |Social Learning |Personal Evaluation |

| | |Provide your personal evaluation and experience for each category. Pros/Cons Explain what works |

| | |and what does not. Include how this theory looks in school setting. |

|Theoretical Basis |Social Learning | |

| | | |

| |Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction |Pros: |

| |between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. |Students can learn from their peers (just not their teacher) |

| |People learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling |Allows students to work together |

| |The component processes underlying observational learning are: attention, retention, motor |Gives learning a visual representation |

| |reproduction, and motivation. | |

| |Often called the bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it |Cons: |

| |encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. |Students can model or imitate inappropriate behavior |

| | |Social aspects of collaboration enable students to get off task easily |

| |Cognitive/intellectual development linked with skill in social process |What’s happening in the environment can have a negative effect on learning |

|Theorists |Bandura | |

| |Believes that humans are active information processors and think about the relationship between | |

| |their behavior and its consequences. Observational learning could not occur unless cognitive |Instances like the Bobo Doll Experiment happen all the time. The other day my niece picked up a |

| |processes were at work. |toy phone and imitated her mom’s conversation/hand gestures. |

| |Bobo doll experiment- study that investigated if social behaviors can be acquired by observation | |

| |and imitation. | |

| |Believes in “reciprocal determinism.” | |

| | | |

| |Dewey | |

| |Active learners use teachers as a guide |As far as collaboration is concerned, I have participated in several group projects this semester |

| |Studied groups of students who were organized to solve problems using the scientific method of |(all relying on the social aspect of learning). |

| |inquiry | |

| |No more rote/memorization learning- knowledge emerges when learners draw it out from meaningful | |

| |experiences | |

| | | |

| |Johnson and Johnson | |

| |Cooperative learning- encourages students to work in groups and teams | |

| |Elements of cooperative learning include: individual accountability, positive interdependence, | |

| |face-to-face promotive interaction, group processing, and interpersonal/small group skills | |

| | | |

| |Slavin | |

| | | |

| |Cooperative learning is a great tool for handicapped and disabled students | |

| |When these students work in mainstream and heterogeneous environments, they learn in a more | |

| |productive and skillful manner | |

| |Success for All foundation | |

| | | |

| |Shlomo Sharan | |

| | | |

| |Author who addresses advances in cooperative learning | |

| |The central concern of the book is how a set of particular instruction methods affects people in | |

| |classrooms | |

|Knowledge |Knowledge constructed and continuously reconstructed by individuals/ groups | |

| | | |

| |Gained through observation and imitation |The teacher or elements of a lesson can make learning memorable. For instance, I learned about the|

| | |water cycle through a song/video that my teacher showed the class. Now every time I have a |

| |Students operate on experience to produce knowledge |question related to this topic, I sing the words and act out the specific parts. You could say |

| | |that I can effectively imitate the process. I essentially learned through observation (watching |

| |Knowledge has a personal quality and is unique for each individual |the video). |

|Learning |Cooperative vs competitive, | |

| |Synergistic, | |

| | |Student learning will vary depending on home life. Some parents value school and work ethics, |

| |Attention-factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. Includes distinctiveness, |discipline, and structure more than others. |

| |affective valence, prevalence, complexity, and functional value. Characteristics that affect | |

| |attention include: sensory capabilities, perceptual set, and past reinforcement. | |

| |Retention- remembering what you paid attention to. Uses symbolic coding (mental images, cognitive| |

| |organization, symbolic rehearsal, and motor rehearsal) | |

| |Reproduction- reproducing the image (physical capabilities and self-observation) | |

| |Motivation- having a good reason to imitate | |

| | | |

| |Cognition as well as social complexity key to increased learning | |

| |Learning from observation of others in a more advanced stage of development or skill level, | |

| |Experienced based learning | |

|Teaching |Modeling, Observation is important | |

| |Model democratic processes, Experience-based learning, Inquiry and knowledge are central |What works: |

| | |Constant feedback |

| |Assist learning through scaffolding and adaption |Appropriate modeling |

| |Regulate difficulty (Zone of Proximal development- ZPD) |Differentiation of instruction |

| |Utilize reciprocal teaching |Grouping |

| |Incorporate collaboration | |

| | |What doesn’t: |

| | |Lack of monitoring |

| | |Direct instruction |

|Role of Teacher |Facilitator, Encouraging , flexible supervisor, Co-participant, | |

| |Requires high level of interpersonal and instructional skill |Since teachers spend most of the day with these children, they need to be positive/professional |

| |Responsive to student needs/Student centered |role models. That means: |

| | |Showing respect |

| |Be appropriate role models |Being patient |

| |Equip students to self-regulate, self-monitor, self-correct, and properly self-monitor. |Not raising your voice |

| |Give verbal instruction |Dressing appropriately |

| |Monitor and provide constant feedback | |

|Role of Peers |Peers /role models are primary part of process of knowledge construction. | |

| | |When I was student teaching, I had a student that would bang his head against his desk when things|

| |Portray appropriate behavior in the classroom |did not go his way. Of course, he got a reaction out of my master teacher and I so he would |

| | |constantly do it. Eventually, other boys of the class started doing the same thing. This was |

| | |unacceptable behavior, but the boys learned how to do this through observation |

| | | |

| | |As a teacher, it is our job to monitor all students to prevent instances like this from happening.|

| | | |

|Role of student |Participation is of primary importance, | |

| | | |

| |Witness and buy into appropriate/ desired behavior and/or desired reinforcements |Students need to be a team player. When they do, they will learn so much more. |

| |Seek the reduction of tension, the gain of financial rewards, or the gain of the praise of | |

| |others, or build self-esteem. | |

| |Active co-construction of knowledge with self and others | |

| |Co-generator and co-constructor | |

| |Active thinker, explainer, interpreter, and social participator | |

| | | |

| |Cooperation with peers in a democratic learning environment is necessary | |

|3-5 Big ideas in theory |List several Big Ideas that inform your instructional planning you have developed based on this |Explain Big Ideas and how you applied them. |

|concerning teaching and |theory. | |

|learning that you will |Learning is not purely behavioral; rather, it is a cognitive process that takes place in a social| |

|apply in your |context. |Learning is a visual process. Students see the behavior or information needed to be absorbed and |

|professional practice. |Learning can occur by observing a behavior and by observing the consequences of the behavior |imitate the learning. This is the same process as tying a shoe. I will use this theory in my |

| |(vicarious reinforcement). |classroom on a regular basis. It will get the students involved and excited to learn. |

| |Learning involves observation, extraction of information from those observations, and making | |

| |decisions about the performance of the behavior (observational learning or modeling). Thus, | |

| |learning can occur without an observable change in behavior. | |

| |Reinforcement plays a role in learning but is not entirely responsible for learning. | |

| |The learner is not a passive recipient of information. Cognition, environment, and behavior all | |

| |mutually influence each other (reciprocal determinism). | |

|Assessment Type |Explain the type of assessment that is most appropriate for each theoretical view of learning | |

| | |Students should be involved in the entire process: criteria, method, marking, and feedback |

| |Reflective journals/portfolios | |

| |Group-based projects | |

| |Presentations | |

| |Debates | |

| |Role playing | |

| |Mind maps | |

| |Group Tests | |

|Personal Application |How do/could you apply this theory for teaching learning? | |

| | | |

|(Provide 3 or more |Know your students strengths and weaknesses |With the new common core standards, social learning and collaboration will be more prevalent in |

|examples) |Use grouping where students can collaborate |the classroom. |

| |Use visual aids to support learning | |

| |Use auditory aids to support learning | |

| |Model what is expected of the students | |

|Web links for articles | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

| | | |

EDU 542-Research Synthesis Theory Presentation Rubric

(Behavioral, Information Processing, Constructivist, and Social Family)

Presenter Name (s)_____________________________________________________

Technology: You are assigned to one of the 4 theories studied in this class to present as a group member. Complete your part of the presentation as noted below. Your presentation should demonstrate your ability to use latest types of technology. It will likely include Video, web links, shared www space such as Voice Thread, WIKI, Google docs, or Live Text which has shared space capability. Feel free to go beyond the ideas I have supplied below. Deep learning is the key. Let technology support our presentation in a very engaging manner.

Purpose: This presentation, using technological recourses, will be the main source of information shared in class concerning this theory. Therefore it is very important that it is complete and that the information is correct. This saves all of you doing the assignment for yourselves. The presentation will be shared on Blackboard so that all students will have access to it for study purposes. I have divided the assignment into major parts to accommodate group participation. Feel free to go beyond this assignment for adding information and for deeper learning.

Presentation Skills: DO not just read the presentation notes…rather talk to your colleagues using your e-format/tools to enhance the presentation and deepen the learning. Always face the audience.

This presentation should be appropriate for your faculty in-service meetings or team meetings. It should be informative and practical providing useful information and samples for the participants. Keep in mind that the participants will include K-12 teachers as well as administrators. Speaking skills will be noted. Appropriate understanding and use of vocabulary related to presentation topic is important.

NOTES:

• Prepare a presentation of about 35-45 minutes using current technological tools. If there are interactive demonstrations it is acceptable to use a longer time period.

• This will be a group project so divide the tasks in an appropriate manner so that all members participate equally.

• Each group member will submit the whole presentation (or their part) with clear indications of their exact contribution to the presentation.

• Note other resources used that would indicate your participation.

Part 1- Knowledge/Comprehension of Theory (Theorists, Key Points, and Vocabulary)

1. Use the chart above and provide an overview of the theoretical basis for the theory and address each chart category in your presentation. Divide the task fairly among our group members. Use notes below as well as the charts for guidance.

2. Explain the major ideas of the theory in more depth than in chart.

3. List key vocabulary (approx. 7 -10 words) associated with the theory with complete definitions (Do not read words as these power points will be posted for review purposes so others can read for themselves as needed)

Part 2: Analysis of Theory

Include the most important information in a succinct manner. Include the best web resources on the

topic and pertinent links to additional resources.

Present the following information:

a. Big Ideas / What makes this theory unique/different from the others?

b. Implications/ applications to the school curriculum. Note curriculum uses of the theory/family (e.g., content areas, age groups, or specific kinds of knowledge this theory supports)

c. Describe curriculum currently in use in your schools that makes use of each theoretical family.

d. Describe possible abuses/weaknesses of the theory.

e. Describe possible strengths of the theory.

f. Describe types of students (learners) who might benefit (a) most and (b) least from this family of models.

g. Motivation source: Intrinsic or extrinsic? Describe implications for motivation involved with this theory. Why is this theory more or less motivating when applied to learning?

Part 3: Application/Evaluation of Lesson Models from the text chapters assigned with the theory. (Keep in mind you are the experts on this theory and application of lesson models)

Provide examples, models of lessons in that theoretical family. Go beyond the text and include information for a variety of ages, content, and types of lessons. Feel free to include parts of your own lesson plans (creative uses, differentiation strategies, and web resources - other). Focus on the Big Idea Theme and P21 Standards in your applications,

• Identify, describe, and quickly model one/more lesson models found within this theoretical framework that are in the text book. Include how these models help students get to Deeper Learning.

• Provide brief /key points form text chapters assigned with this theory

o Take class through book walk of ideas to highlight

o Explain how these lessons could be applied to your current curriculum/standards.

o Explain when/why you would likely use this model of teaching?

• Mention how this theory works for all types of learners (gifted – learning disabled)

• Include behavior management issues that may or may not be best served with this theory.

• Note how lesson models help meet CCSS/P21 Standards? Provide useful examples.

All Group Members: Be prepared to share a lesson model used to support your presentation. Explain what worked well and what you would change to make improvements. This will be a small group activity. You are accountable for the information in the text chapters of your lesson models.

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