THE 100 MOST INFLUENTIAL PHILOSOPHERS OF ALL TIME

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 Published in 2010 by Britannica Educational Publishing (a trademark of Encyclop?dia Britannica, Inc.) in association with Rosen Educational Services, LLC 29 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010.

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First Edition

Britannica Educational Publishing Michael I. Levy: Executive Editor Marilyn L. Barton: Senior Coordinator, Production Control Steven Bosco: Director, Editorial Technologies Lisa S. Braucher: Senior Producer and Data Editor Yvette Charboneau: Senior Copy Editor Kathy Nakamura: Manager, Media Acquisition Brian Duignan: Senior Editor, Religion and Philosophy

Rosen Educational Services Jeanne Nagle: Senior Editor Nelson Sa: Art Director Nicole Russo: Designer Introduction by Stephanie Watson

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

The 100 most influential philosophers of all time / edited by Brian Duignan.--1st ed. p. cm.--(The Britannica guide to the world's most influential people)

"In association with Britannica Educational Publishing, Rosen Educational Services." Includes Index. ISBN 978-1-61530-057-0 (eBook) 1. Philosophy. 2. Philosophers. I. Duignan, Brian. II. Title: One hundred most influential philosophers of all time. B72.A15 2010 109.2--dc22

2009029773

Cover credit: Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, Spain/The Bridgeman Art Library/Getty Images

CONTENTS

Introduction

9

Pythagoras

17

Confucius

19

Heracleitus

25

Parmenides

26

Zeno of Elea

27

Socrates

28

Democritus

35

Plato

37

Aristotle

47

Mencius

54

Zhuangzi

55

Pyrrhon of Elis

57

Epicurus

57

Zeno of Citium

60

Philo Judaeus

62

Epictetus

65

Marcus Aurelius

66

Nagarjuna

69

Plotinus

71

Sextus Empiricus

72

Saint Augustine

74

Hypatia

79

Anicius Manlius Severinus

Boethius

80

an. kara

83

Yaqb ibn Ish. q as. -S. abh.

al-Kind

85

Al-Frb

86

Avicenna

89

Rmnuja

92

Ibn Gabirol

95

Saint Anselm of Canterbury

96

al-Ghazl

98

Peter Abelard

100

Averro?s

103

Zhu Xi

105

Moses Maimonides

108

Ibn al-`Arab

112

30

76 102

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