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ERWC with Integrated ELDJuvenile Justice Developed by Roberta J. Ching MODULE: STUDENT VERSIONModule TextsC. R. “Furious.” “Out of Juvenile Corrections, Poems of Fury, Loss—and Lingering Beauty,” by Colin Dwyer, All Things Considered, National Public Radio, 28 May 2016, 2016/05/28/479722459/out-of-juvenile-corrections-poems-of-fury-loss-and-lingering-beautyDobbs, David. “Beautiful Brains.” National Geographic, Oct. 2011, magazine/2011/10/beautiful-brains/. Holloway, Phillip. “Should 11-Year Olds Be Charged with Adult Crimes?” CNN, Updated 14 Oct. 2015. Human Impact Partners. Juvenile InJustice: Charging Youth as Adults Is Ineffective, Biased, and Harmful – Executive Summary. Human Impact Partners, 2 Feb. 2017, wp-content/uploads/HIP_JuvenileInjustice_ExecutiveSumm_ 2017.02.pdf. Jenkins, Jennifer Bishop. “On Punishment and Teen Killers.” Juvenile Justice Information Exchange, 2 Aug. 2011, jennifer-bishop-jenkins-on-punishment-teen-killers/19184. Accessed 11 June 2012.Audio TextC. R. “Furious.” “Out of Juvenile Corrections, Poems of Fury, Loss—and Lingering Beauty,” by Colin Dwyer, All Things Considered, National Public Radio, 28 May 2016, 2016/05/28/479722459/out-of-juvenile-corrections-poems-of-fury-loss-and-lingering-beauty. [Click “? Listen” button to listen to C. R. read “Furious.”]Video TextPadowitz, Kenneth. “‘Wrestling Defense’ Murder Trial of 12-Year-Old Lionel Tate.” YouTube, uploaded by Kenneth Padowitz, 2 Sept. 2015, watch?v=1VZRmKdAa8I.Reading Rhetorically Preparing to ReadVideo Text 1 – Padowitz, “Wrestling Defense: Murder Trial of 12-Year-Old Lionel Tate”Activity 1: Getting Ready to Read – The Nathan Tate Video “Wrestling Defense: Murder Trial of 12-Year-Old Lionel Tate” Should Lionel Tate be Found Guilty of Murder? Record the arguments made in the video below:Not Guilty VerdictGuilty VerdictQuickwrite: Based on what you saw in the video, do you think Lionel Tate should have been sentenced to prison for life as an adult? Explain why or why not.Activity 4: Exploring Key ConceptsDiscuss the following questions in your group. Who is a juvenile? What are some synonyms for “juvenile”? What are the differences between an adult and a juvenile? Brainstorm a list of qualities that characterize juveniles but not adults.When do you become an adult in your culture? How do you know? What is illegal for young people but legal for adults in your culture?When young people commit serious crimes in your country, what happens to them? Is it the same as what happens to adults or different?Reading PurposefullyActivity 5: Reading for Understanding – Charting Multiple TextsThis graphic organizer (Appendix A) will help you keep track of the key information from each text (beginning with the video “Wrestling Defense”), the relationships among them, and your own responses to them. You can use the chart to make the best use of the text when you do the writing assignment at the end of the module. As you look down the side of the chart, you will see that it asks you for information about the different texts you will be reading in this assignment: Title Author Genre (a type of writing)The title and author are self-explanatory. For this first text, you would put “news video” as the genre. Across the top of the chart are the ideas you will be tracking as you read the texts in this module. They are presented in the form of questions: What is the text’s big issue? What is the issue the video is reporting about?Here you will identify the “main idea” of the text. “The Wrestling Defense” is informational, but it is still making a contribution to the conversation about juvenile justice. Document that contribution in your chart because you may wish to refer to it when you write your final writing assignment for this module.What claim does the text make? Does “Wrestling Defense” take a position on sentencing Lionel Tate to adult prison?This asks you to identify the video’s perspective on the issue. What are examples or quotes from the text? This is where you would put examples. Be sure to identify where you found the quotation or idea and note who is speaking. You can’t give page numbers, but it will be important to indicate the name of the video and who is speaking.What do you think about the text’s claim? In this box, you will explain your response to the text’s claim. What are your examples?In this column, give your reaction and examples from your experience that help explains your response to the text’s claim. Your experience may simply be your observations about young people, or you may know about teens who have committed crimes.How does this text connect to other texts?Does this text support or disagree with the ideas in the other texts you have read? Consider texts (including pictures, videos, or websites) you have read not only in this module in other classes and out of school). This is the first text in the module, so you will need to leave this box blank until you have read the other texts for this module. Then be sure to go back and make connections with the video and those texts.Preparing to Read Text 1 – Holloway, “Should 11-Year Olds Be Charged with Adult Crimes?Activity 6: Surveying the Text; Making Predictions and Asking Questions When you are done surveying the text, talk to your partner about the following questions:What do you think is the purpose of this text? What enabled you to predict this?Who do you think is the intended audience for this piece? How do you know? Who is Phillip Holloway? How knowledgeable do you expect he will be on this topic? How do you know?Activity 7: Understanding Key Vocabulary Several juvenile justice terms come in pairs of words with opposite meanings. In your group, fill out the blanks in this chart by supplying the word, it’s opposite, or the definitions. If no one in the group is sure about how to fill in a blank, use your online dictionary.Juvenile Justice Word OppositesWord: to prosecuteDefinition: to try someone for a crimeOpposite: to defendDefinition: to argue that someone is innocentWord:Definition:Opposite: accidentalDefinition:Word: guiltyDefinition:Opposite:Definition: did not commit a crimeWord:Definition:Opposite:Definition: the lightest punishmentWord: adultDefinition:Opposite:Definition:Word: adult jailDefinition:Opposite:Definition: where juvenile criminals are sentWord:Definition: lock up in jailOpposite: to releaseDefinition:Word:Definition:Opposite: rehabilitationDefinition: helping someone who has committed a crime become a productive member of societyActivity 8: Creating Personal Learning Goals As you consider what you want to learn by participating in this module, you may want to think about some of the following questions:What strategies will I want to use to understand and evaluate the texts that I am going to read? What strategies will I use when I encounter difficulties with texts that I am reading? How can I take part in class discussions, so I get the most out of them?How can I get the most out of work that I do with my peers?What other goals do I have that have that will help me get the most out of this module?Choose two or three goals that are important to you. In your notebook, explain what they are and why you have chosen them. Keep your goals in mind as you continue with the Juvenile Justice module so that when you are finished, you can reflect on how well you accomplished them.Homework: Independently read “Should 11-Year Olds Be Charged with Adult Crimes?” by Phillip Holloway. As you are reading, think about how the writer answers the question raised by CNN: “How old is ‘old enough’ to be an adult criminal?”Reading PurposefullyActivity 10: Annotating and Questioning the Text As you reread “Should 11-Year Olds Be Charged with Adult Crimes?” by Phillip Holloway, make marginal notations. In the left margin, label what the author is saying as follows: The introduction The issue or problem the author is writing about The author’s main arguments The author’s examples The author’s conclusion In the right margin, write your reactions to what the author is saying. You can ask questions, express surprise, disagree, elaborate, and note any moments of confusion. Now share your annotations with your partner and talk about what you chose to mark and how you reacted to the text. Did you agree on what the main idea was? Did you mark the same arguments and examples? Did you agree with the conclusion?Activity 12: Examining the Structure of the Text Map the organization of “Should 11-Year Olds Be Charged with Adult Crimes?” by taking the following steps: Draw a line across the page where the introduction ends. Is it after the first paragraph, or are there several introductory paragraphs? Is it in the middle of a paragraph? How do you know that the text has moved on from the introduction? Draw a line across the page where the conclusion begins. Is it the last paragraph, or are there several concluding paragraphs? How do you know that the text has reached the conclusion? Discuss in your group why you drew the lines where you did. Now draw lines between the other parts of the text. Look for shifts where the writer moves from making one part of his argument to making another. Discuss in your group and come to an agreement about where the lines belong. Number each chunk of the text. Collaborate in your groups to write Says/Does statements on a separate sheet of paper using the numbers that correspond to the chunks. Assign one person to read the chunk out loud, the second person to write the “Says” statement, and the third person to write the “Does” statement. Everyone in the group needs to come to an agreement. Be as precise as possible as you describe what the text actually is saying and doing. At the end of the text, describe the overall content and purpose of the text. Preparing to ReadText 2 – Dobbs, “Beautiful Brains”Activity 15: Surveying the TextWith your partner, read the title and subheading of “Beautiful Brains” and respond to the following questions and note your answers.“Beautiful Brains. Moody. Impulsive. Maddening. Why do teenagers act the way they do? Viewed through the eyes of evolution, their most exasperating traits may be the key to success as adults.”Whose brains are we talking about? Why are they beautiful?How does the writer say teenagers behave? Use different adjectives (paraphrase)What does it mean to view behavior “through the eyes of evolution?”What does Dobbs’ claim are teens’ most exasperating traits (behaviors)? (Look back at the sentences you previewed to answer).Why does he say that these traits may be the key to success as adults?Homework: Now that you have reviewed the article, read Dobbs’ “Beautiful Brains,” as homework. Highlight important ideas and note key phrases, so you can share some of them the next day. As you read, look for answers to the following question:How does the latest research about teenage brains contribute to your view about how juveniles who commit serious crimes should be dealt with in the criminal justice system?Reading “Beautiful Brains,” which is a longer text, is a chance to build up your reading stamina in preparation for college or work where you will find that you need to read many texts that are 10 pages long or longer. Questioning the TextActivity 17: Thinking CriticallyIn your group, select one person to be a reporter. The reporter will share out the answers that you as a group agree upon. Refer to the readings as you are answering.What changes take place in human brains? What behaviors do these changes cause?According to Dobbs, what purpose do the changes in the teenage brain serve? Why are they “adaptive” (useful for humans as a species)? Why should parents be hopeful about their teenager’s behavior? What can they do for their teens?What does the brain research tell us about why juveniles may commit crimes? What does it mean for deciding how to punish them?Does Dobbs’ description of what happens to the teenage brain and why it is both positive and negative make sense to you? What objections or questions do you have?Reading PurposefullyText 3 – Jenkins, “On Punishment and Teen Killers”Homework: Do the following quickwrite:What is your reaction to Jenkins’ arguments? Draw on your personal experience as well as what you have learned so far during this module.Activity 21: Examining the Structure of the TextMap the organization of “On Punishment and Teen Killers” by taking the following steps: Draw a line across the page where the introduction ends. Is it after the first paragraph, or are there several introductory paragraphs? Is it in the middle of a paragraph? How do you know that the text has moved on from the introduction? Draw a line across the page where the conclusion begins. Is it the last paragraph, or are there several concluding paragraphs? How do you know that the text has reached the conclusion? Discuss in your group why you drew the lines where you did. Now draw lines between the other parts of the text. Look for shifts where the writer moves from making one part of his argument to making another. Discuss in your group and come to an agreement about where the lines belong. Number each chunk of the text. Write Says/Does statements on a separate sheet of paper using the numbers that correspond to the chunks. Be as precise as possible as you describe what the text actually is saying and doing.At the end of the text, describe the overall content and purpose of the text. When you are finished, compare your descriptive outline with a partner and revise what you have written if you wish.Activity 22: Considering the Rhetorical SituationDiscuss the following questions with a partner:Why did Jenkins write her open letter?What rhetorical strategies does she use to persuade us?How effective is the evidence that she offers? Jenkins concludes by saying “Restorative Justice offers us a way out.” Look up Restorative Justice online. How effective is this conclusion to her argument?Homework: Make an entry for Jenkins’s “On Punishment and Teen Killers,” on your Charting Multiple Texts chart (Appendix A). Fill it out as they you with the other articles you have read and the video you watched. When you reach the entry for “How does this text connect to other texts?” briefly describe the ways in which Jenkins contributes to the debate about juvenile incarceration.Preparing to ReadText 5 – Human Impact Partners, Juvenile Injustice: Charging Youth as Adults Is Ineffective, Biased, and Harmful – Executive SummaryActivity 23: Making Predictions/Asking QuestionsQuickwrite: Look at the picture and title. What argument are the writers making? What is your opinion about their argument?An Executive Summary briefly presents the main points of a long document, so readers know what it will be about before they read the entire document. You are about to read the Executive Summary of policy report entitled Juvenile Injustice: Charging Youth as Adults is Ineffective, Biased, and Harmful, but before you do, read to the following description about how the document was written taken from pages 1-2 of the report. Excerpt from Full Juvenile Injustice ReportThis report aims to centralize the experiences of incarcerated youth of color, formerly incarcerated individuals, and their family members. Much has been written about juvenile system reform in general and juvenile transfer laws in particular. All too often, the voices of system-involved youth and their families—the people most impacted by these policies—are absent from these accounts and analyses. By contrast, the content of this report is grounded in the personal narratives of focus group participants, the expertise of community organizations that work with system involved families on a daily basis, and public health research. We employed the following methods:Eight focus groups held in three California cities (Oakland, Stockton, and Los Angeles) with 43 individuals directly affected by the juvenile court system and/or direct file. Focus group participants ranged from 14 to 66 years old. See Appendix A for a more detailed summary of demographic data. 11 individuals who were tried in adult court when they were juveniles 21 family members of youth tried as adults 4 individuals who were tried in both juvenile and adult courts 5 youth currently on probation 2 community organizers who work closely with direct filed youth and families Interviews (6) with professionals who have detailed knowledge of California’s juvenile court system, including two public defenders, a former probation officer, a former chief probation officer, an adolescent mental health specialist, and a probation camp literacy educator. An extensive review of peer-reviewed and non-peer reviewed literature. For a review of research concerning juvenile transfer laws, see UCLA School of Law 2010.Now read the headings and subheadings in the Executive Summary. Then discuss the following questions with your partner:What do you predict about the report now that you have read who contributed to its content?What does the quotation from Malachi suggest about what the text will be about?What are some of the points that it will make about the juvenile justice system?What does the section marked References tell you about the text you are going to read?How is this report going to be different from the other texts you have read? Reading PurposefullyAnnotating and Questioning the TextHomework: Read and annotate the entire Executive Summary. Think about arguments you have seen in the other texts. What new arguments does this text contribute to the conversation about how the criminal justice system can best deal with juveniles who commit serious crimes? What kind of evidence supports the arguments? Annotate the arguments the text makes and the evidence for them.Activity 25 Considering the Rhetorical SituationSelect a recorder and collaborate to answer the following questions about the rhetorical choices that the author of Juvenile Injustice has made. Be prepared to report on the group’s answers.Why did the writers include an Executive Summary? What will the effect be on the intended audience?What design features (the way the text is set up on the page) appeal to the intended audience? What kind of evidence did the writers provide? How did they let readers know that their evidence was based on research, not opinion? Give some examples. What effect will this have on the intended audience?Why did the writers tell their readers that “This report aims to centralize the experiences of incarcerated youth of color, formerly incarcerated individuals, and their family members?” in the About This Report section at the beginning? Why did they include the quotation from Malachi right below the title? What is the effect?Have the writers appealed to their readers’ emotions? Why or why not? If they have, give some examples.Questioning the TextActivity 27: Reflecting on Your Reading ProcessYou have read the following texts during this module:“Should 11-Year Olds Be Charged with Adult Crimes?” by Phillip Holloway“Beautiful Brains” by David Dobbs“On Punishment and Teen Killers” by Jennifer Bishop Jenkins. Juvenile Injustice: Charging Youth as Adults is Ineffective, Biased, and Harmful – Executive SummaryReflection: Think about the process you used to read short argumentative opinion pieces like Holloway and Jenkins compared to a longer, informational text like Dobbs and the difference between reading argumentative texts compared to the executive summary of a research report. Then respond to some or all of the questions below.How was your reading process different and how it was the same? What have you learned from the experience of reading them that will help you in the future? What have you learned from reading texts collaboratively? What have you learned from pausing in your reading to unpack long, dense sentences?Preparing to RespondDiscovering What You Think Activity 28: Considering Your Task and Your Rhetorical SituationRead the writing assignment for this module and make notes in response to the questions that follow.In California since 2016, a judge can charge juveniles as adults for certain violent crimes. The judge must consider criteria including the seriousness of the crime and its impact on the victim or the victim’s family, the suspect’s criminal history, and their past attempts at rehabilitation. This is a compromise between charging all juveniles who commit these violent crimes as adults and never charging juveniles as adults regardless of the type of crime they commit.Considering all the arguments that you have read and discussed during this module, write a thoughtful and well-documented open letter to be published on a website for those interested in the issue of juvenile crime, particularly state policymakers. In your open letter, explain your viewpoint about sentencing juveniles who commit serious crimes and provide evidence that supports your position. Respond to the arguments of those who disagree with your position.You are required to respond to all the different major arguments that you have read. Make clear whose ideas or words you are using by including author’s names and titles, but an open letter does not require in-text citations (page numbers) or a reference list.To prepare to write, take notes on your responses to the following questions.Now that you have read all the texts for this module, what is your position about whether juveniles should be charged as adults when they commit serious crimes?What will your purpose be in writing your own open letter?You are writing your open letter for publication on a website. Who do you imagine will be the readers of that website? How will you take into account their knowledge, values, and assumptions?How will you develop your own credibility (ethos) as someone knowledgeable on the subject of juvenile justice?Homework: Finish reviewing and annotating the Charting Multiple Texts chart (Appendix A), the annotated copies of the texts, and the quickwrites.Writing RhetoricallyComposing a DraftActivity 30: Making Choices about Learning GoalsAs you consider what you want to learn as you write and revise your open letter, respond to some of the following questions or to priorities of your own:What strategies will I want to use to plan and complete my open letter? What will I do when I encounter difficulties with writing my open letter?How can I make the best use of the feedback I get from my peers and my teacher?How can I apply what I’ve learned about creating an argument that is convincing for a specific audience?Choose two or three of these goals or create others that are important to you. In your notebook, add them to your earlier goals. Explain what they are and why you have chosen them. Keep your goals in mind as you write and revise your proposal so that when you are finished, you can reflect on how well you accomplished them.Activity 31: Making Choices as You Write – Evaluating Thesis StatementsUsing the guidelines below for developing effective thesis statements, evaluate Holloway’s thesis statement. Then evaluate the thesis statements taken from student essays below. Label them “very effective,” “OK,” or “not effective,” and briefly explain each of your decisions.Guidelines for Developing Thesis StatementsA thesis reflects the writer’s position on a question that has more than one side. After reading the thesis, the reader should be able to explain what the issue is and what side of the argument the writer is on.Develop a thesis statement that makes the topic and your opinion or position on the topic clear to your reader.Choose one side of the issue if your topic requires it, but you may qualify your position.If the topic asks “to what extent” you agree or disagree with a statement, be sure to explain how strongly you agree or disagree. You may include a “because” statement, but you do not need to list all the reasons for your position.Neither a factual statement nor a question makes an effective thesis because they do not reflect the writer’s position on the issue.Holloway’s ThesisI suggest that except for extraordinary circumstances, no child under the age of at least 17 should be sentenced to lengthy incarceration in adult jails.Student Thesis StatementsJuvenile offenders are young people under the age of 18 who commit crimes. Sentencing juveniles to mandatory life in prison is necessary because it keeps them from committing more crimes. Also, it’s what the families of victims want, and it holds the teen murderers accountable for what they did.Juveniles must be held accountable for their crimes, but they must be treated differently than adults.Sentencing juveniles to life in prison is both good and bad.Young people’s crimes should not be brushed off, but it is not right to throw children who don’t even understand the enormity of the crime that they have committed into an adult prison for life.With a growing number of young adults being tried and sentenced as adults for violent crimes, the question arises, “Why did they commit these crimes?”Now write a working thesis for your open letter. You can later revise it once you have written your open letter—that is why it is called a working thesis. Make sure it fits the guidelines for an effective thesis.My working thesis:Revising RhetoricallyActivity 33: Analyzing Your Draft Rhetorically – Incorporating and Elaborating on QuotationsRead the paragraph below adapted from a student essay. Then discuss the questions that follow with your group.Adapted from a student essay:The main reason why children should not be convicted as adults for a crime such as murder or rape comes down to pure factual evidence. Kids’ brains are not as fully developed as adults. As Paul Thompson states in his article, “Startling Finds on Teenage Brains,” “these frontal lobes, which inhibit our violent passions, rash actions, and regulate our emotions, are vastly immature throughout the teenage years” (6). Marjie Lundstrom, author of “Kids Are Kids-Until They Commit Crimes,” similarly stated, “kids are different. Their reasoning is not fully developed” (14). This support leads back to the scientific facts about how different the adolescent’s brain is from the adult’s brain. If teenagers do not have the same capability as adults do to understand the enormity of their actions then it doesn’t make sense to say that they should be sentenced just as an adult would. Even though it is obviously wrong for any person, adolescent or adult, to commit a heinous crime such as murder, it is very important to remember that children’s brain structures are different from their parents, and they ultimately do not have the same logic or reasoning as adults do.Underline or highlight the quotations that the writer used. What point do the quotations make?Do you know the sources for the quotations?How has the writer elaborated on these quotations? What does the writer want us to understand about them?What verbs or verb phrases could the writer have used instead of repeating “stated” twice?Look at your draft open letter and make any needed changes. Have I given the name of the writer and the title of the text the first time I quote from it?Have I used precise and varied verbs to introduce my quotations?Have I punctuated my quotations with a comma before the quotation and quotation marks at the beginning and end?Have I elaborated on my quotations so that my readers know what I want them to understand about them? (You may write additional elaboration on a separate page and add it to your next draft.)Are there other quotations that would make my point better? Are there other quotations that I would like to add to make my argument stronger?Activity 35: Gathering and Responding to Feedback – Peer FeedbackRead your open letter out loud to your partner. Then listen and take notes on your draft as your partner responds to the following questions about your open letter. Restate the position the writer is taking. Is his or her position on the topic of juvenile sentencing clear? If you have trouble restating the writer’s position, discuss how revision of the thesis statement could make it more effective.Is the letter structured, so it is easy to follow the writer’s argument? What suggestions do you have for improving the structure of the letter?Has the writer used well-chosen evidence to support his or her position? Do you know the source of the evidence? Do you know what the writer wants us to understand about the ideas or quotations that they have used as evidence? What suggestions do you have?What other suggestions do you have for your partner?When you are done receiving feedback from your partner, follow the same process to give him or her feedback.Homework: Revise your open letter, using the feedback you have received from your teacher and peers. Remember to read the notes that you have taken on your draft to guide you.Activity 36: Editing a Sample Student Essay Read the following student essay on the topic of sentencing juveniles to life in prison. Combine clauses with coordinating words, subordinating words, and transitions. Circle the connecting words (Appendix D) that you use to combine independent clauses, and check that you have punctuated your sentences correctly. Garinger has the belief that violent children are able to “grow out of crime.” There is a child in prison facing a life sentence. He killed his abusive parents. He can sit there. He can take steps towards improvement. Scott Anderson told the story of Greg Ousley, who killed both his parents. He was in prison. He worked to improve himself. Ousley was able to get an education. He made sense of what he did. It took many sessions of psychological counseling. He was determined to understand why he committed his crime. That is someone who does not want to continue going into the pits of darkness. There are not many young offenders who are willing to work for years to find peace. Greg Ousley put in that kind of effort. His reward should be eligibility for parole. Everyone must be punished for committing crimes. Those who work to improve themselves should be given another chance to live a better life. Some troubled teenagers cannot be saved. There are others who can turn into adults who can help children like themselves. They can help in ways that no one else could.Editing Focus Select two language features in addition to combining short sentences that you want to focus on as you edit. List them, and then one at a time, look for them in your essay and make edits. 1. Combining sentences using coordination, subordination, and transitions.2. 3. Homework: Complete a polished final draft of your open letter using the feedback from your teacher and peers and the editing that you did in class.Activity 38: Reflecting on Your Learning GoalsGo back to your notebook and read what you wrote about each goal that you chose. Then write a reflectionHow well did you achieve each goal? What evidence do you have of your progress? Give specific examples. You may wish to quote from writing that you did, describe discussions that you took part in, or discuss what you learned as you participated with your peers. What goals do you want to continue working on during the next module or what new goals do you now have?What have you learned during this module that has helped you become more ready for college or for a career? ................
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