013368718X_CH32_499-512.indd

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32.1 The Skeletal System

The Skeleton

1. Complete the concept map that summarizes the parts of the human skeleton.

For Questions 2–3, refer to the Visual Analogy comparing the skeleton to the wooden frame of a house.

2. What would happen to a house if its upright beams were not strong and sturdy? Compare that to what would happen in the human body if upright bones were not strong and sturdy.

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3. Suggest another possible analogy for the structure and function of the skeleton.

4. List five functions of the skeletal system.

Joints

The place where two or more bones meet is a joint. There are three major types of joints: immovable, slightly movable, and freely movable. The four most common types of freely movable joints are ball-and-socket joints, hinge joints, pivot joints, and saddle joints. These freely movable joints are named for how they work.

Use the words in the box to fill in the table. One has been done for you.

|Joint Type |Kind of Movement |Example |

|immovable |none |joints between bones in the skull |

| |restricted |joints between the two bones of the lower legs |

| |one bone sliding in two directions |joints connecting the thumb to the palm |

| |back-and-forth motion |joints in the knees |

| |one bone rotating around another |joints in the elbows |

| |movement in many directions |joints in the shoulders |

Use the table to answer the questions. Circle the correct answer.

1. Which type of joint allows the least movement?

hinge immovable slightly movable

2. Which type of joint allows the greatest range of movement?

ball-and-socket hinge saddle

28.2 Types of Skeletons

1. What are the three main kinds of skeletal systems?

2. What does a cnidarian’s hydrostatic skeleton consist of?

3. What is chitin?

4. Which invertebrates have endoskeletons?

Match the organism with its skeleton. A skeleton type may be used more than once.

Organism Skeleton Type

5. cow A. hydrostatic skeleton

6. grasshopper B. exoskeleton

7. jellyfish C. endoskeleton

8. hawk

9. sea star

10. crab

11. earthworm

12. ant

13. dog

For Questions 14–16, write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left.

14. What is the process by which an arthropod breaks out of an exoskeleton it has outgrown?

A. molting C. shedding

B. excreting D. metamorphosing

15. The pieces of an exoskeleton move against each other along

A. chitin. C. tendons.

B. joints. D. cavities.

16. What type of structure connects one bone to another in a vertebrate skeleton?

A. a muscle C. a ligament

B. a tendon D. a tube foot

32.2 The Muscular System

Complete the table that compares and contrasts the three types of muscle tissue.

|Types of Muscle Tissue |

|Type of Muscle |Striated/Not Striated |Type of Control |

| |Striated | |

| | |Involuntary |

|Cardiac | | |

Complete the linear concept maps as you read about types of muscle tissue. Some parts have been done for you.

Inquiry Into Scientific Thinking

What Do Tendons Do? Tendons are a vital part of the muscular system. They are one link in a chain that makes motion possible. You can think of a chain of events as several cause-and-effect pairs. Each effect becomes the cause of the next pair.

Complete the chart below to show the cause-and-effect pairs that result in motion.

Analyze and Conclude

1. How are the events in the chart related?

2. What would happen to our ability to move if we did not have tendons?

3. How would this chart change if we wanted to show relaxation?

28.2

20. Complete the Venn diagram comparing arthropod movement with vertebrate movement.

For Questions 21–27, complete each statement by writing the correct word or words.

21. Specialized tissues that produce physical force by contracting, or getting shorter, when they are stimulated are called .

22. When they are not being stimulated, muscles .

23. In many animals, muscles work in on opposites sides of a joint.

24. Muscles are attached to bones around the joints by tough connective tissue called .

25. When muscles contract, tendons pull on .

26. Arthropod muscles are attached to the inside of the .

27. Paleontologists can reconstruct how an extinct mammal moved by looking at the shape of its .

28. Hypothesize how a bird’s skeleton might be different from reptile and mammal skeletons in order to help the bird fly.

Integumentary System Functions

The largest organ in your body is your skin. Your skin has several functions that help you stay healthy.

Use the clues to help you complete the word web with the phrases in the box. Write your answers in the circles.

1. Your skin blocks out radiation from the sun. It is a barrier against infection and injury.

2. Your skin keeps in just enough heat. It releases excess heat from your body.

3. Sweat glands in your skin release waste products.

4. Your skin senses pressure, heat, cold, and pain.

5. Your skin uses sunlight to help make an important vitamin.

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Integumentary System Structures

Epidermis and Dermis Human skin has three layers: the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. The epidermis is the outer layer. The dermis is the middle layer. It contains blood vessels, nerve endings, muscles, hair follicles, and other structures. The hypodermis is a layer of fat and connective tissue. The diagram below shows the structures and layers.

Follow the directions.

1. Color the epidermis red.

2. Color the dermis orange.

3. Color the hypodermis yellow.

Use the diagram to help answer the questions. Circle the correct answer.

4. In which layer are sweat glands found?

dermis epidermis hypodermis

5. Which layer provides a tough, flexible covering for the body?

dermis epidermis hypodermis

6. Which layer of skin do you usually see?

dermis epidermis hypodermis

7. Which layer helps insulate the body?

dermis epidermis hypodermis

Other Integumentary System Adaptations

Feathers –

1. What types of organisms have feathers?

2. What different functions do you think feathers provide to these organisms?

3. Some organisms that have feathers spend large amounts of time in the water. Based on what you saw in Chapter 32.3, what has to be different about these feathers to make them waterproof?

Scales –

1. What types of organisms have scales?

2. What different functions do you think scales provide to these organisms?

3. Look at the cladogram on page 758. Using the idea of parsimony, where do you think scales were gained or lost by the different groups of organisms? (You can describe more than one spot)

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The Human Skeleton

Skull

Arms/legs

which contains

which contains

is divided into

VISUAL ANALOGY

ball-and-socket pivot slightly movable

hinge saddle immovable

Actin

myofibrils.

muscle fibers.

Muscle fibers

bone

and

make up

fill

are connected to

by

Cause

Thick and thin filaments slide past each other.

Muscle contracts.

Tendon pulls on bone.

Effect

Muscle fibers shorten.

Muscle contracts.

Tendon pulls on bone.

Arthropod

Movement

Vertebrate

Movement

Both

Apply the Big idea

body temperature regulation excretion information gathering

protection vitamin D production

1.

5.

2.

4.

3.

Skin

Functions

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