Liberty Union High School District / Overview

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FRQ Practice - Guidance to help you “ATP” (Answer the Prompt)This assignment has you answer many small questions that are useful to think about when answering the actual question College Board gives you. In black font is the language from College Board.In blue font are the questions I want you to answer.In purple are tips and instructions from AP Bio teachers.In red is the actual scoring keyUnit 1 Practice FRQA student conducted an experiment to determine the molar concentration of solutes in chicken eggs. Eggs were soaked in vinegar to remove the shells. The eggs were then placed in sucrose solutions of different concentrations. The data are shown in the table below.Explain why there is a difference in percent of mass change of the eggs in the different sucrose solutions.?Make sense of the experiment above by describing it in your own words - what actually happened in this experiment?What was the independent variable in this experiment? Dependent variable?Look at the data table and describe what you notice about the relationship between sucrose concentration and change in mass. Hint: as the sucrose concentration goes up, what happens to the change in mass?This question reminds me of the Diffusion & Osmosis Lab. Connect what you know about water potential to why the relationship you described in #3 makes sense.Now, look at the actual question: “Explain why there is a difference in percent mass change of the eggs in the different sucrose solutions.” -> highlight above where you answered that question.KEY – How many points did you get? (2 points)1 point— Egg gains mass if solute concentration is lower outside of egg (hypotonic) causing water to move into egg?1 point— Egg loses mass if solute concentration is higher outside of egg (hypertonic) causing water to move out of egg?1 point— Water moves from low solute/high water concentration to high solute/low water concentrationUnit 2 Practice FRQBased on the experimental results, estimate the optimal pH of the enzyme. Explain your estimate by connecting the experimental results to the structure and function of proteins.Make sense of the experiment above by describing it in your own words - what actually happened in this experiment?What was the independent variable in this experiment? Dependent variable?What does “change in A389” mean?What does “change in A389” have to do with the enzyme?What do you know about pH and enzymes?What relationship do you see in this data between pH and the enzyme?At what pH does the enzyme work the best?Why did you pick this pH?Connect what you know about pH and how this affects the structure of enzymes to your answer above.Now, look at the actual question: “Based on the experimental results, estimate the optimal pH of the enzyme. Explain your estimate by connecting the experimental results to the structure and function of proteins.” KEY – How many points did you get? (3 points)Estimate: 1 point? Optimal pH of enzyme is 7 OR greater than 5 and less than 9?Explain: 1 pointReaction at the optimal pH value has the highest absorbance/amount of product produced?Other pH values had lower absorbance/produce less product?? 1 pointA change in pH…alters the structure of the enzyme’s active site and reduces its activity?alters the charge of R-groups and reduces the enzyme’s activity?disrupts substrate binding and/or catalytic mechanism and reduces its activity?denatures the enzyme and reduces its activityUnit 3 Practice FRQWhat is a vocab term for the small, light grey molecule that is going toward the large, medium grey molecule in the plasma membrane?? Does that small, light grey molecule enter the cell?What is the medium grey molecule embedded in the plasma membrane?What would we call step 1 in this process?During step 2, those are a variety of intermediate molecules.? What is occurring during step 2?There’s several outcomes that can happen in a signal transduction pathway.? What is the name for the outcome in step 3?What will ultimately happen and be produced in step 3?? What are the stages of this process?? Be sure to explain fully.Now, look at the actual question above “Briefly explain the role of each numbered step in regulating target gene expression.” -> highlight above where you answered that question.Key – How many points did you get? Last, but not least look up the key to this question. (Hint: it’s from the 2013 exam and if you type the words from the question in Google it should be pretty easy to find. Since this one is from an exam, I’m not supposed to post it, but I am sure you can find it.)Unit 4 Practice FRQBased on the data in Table 1, describe why the dominant alleles for body color and wing shape are the alleles that produce a gray body and long wings, respectively. Based on the data, describe why the two genes are most likely on different chromosomes or why they are most likely on the same chromosome. Make sense of both parts of the experiment above by describing it in your own words.There are a number of traits being described in this experiment. List them out for yourself.Make yourself a little flowchart to help yourself keep track of the P, F1, and F2 generations of the two separate experiments. For example, you can start like this: Experiment 1: P= true-breeding ebony + vestigial wings X true-breeding gray + long wings → F1 = Look at the numbers in Table 1, what’s your gut instinct about which traits are dominant?Explain your answer to #4…Figure out what the phenotypic ratio is for the data in Table 1. → Can’t remember how to do this? Step One: add up all the numbers. Step Two: divide each number by that total. Step Three: multiply by 16 - why 16? because it’s 2 traits, so a 16-box Punnett Square. Does this ratio look familiar? If so, what does it remind you of?What would the results in Table 1 look like if the genes for body color and wing type were on the same chromosome?Is this what the results look like?Now, look at the actual question: “Based on the data in Table 1, describe why the dominant alleles for body color and wing shape are the alleles that produce a gray body and long wings, respectively. Based on the data, describe why the two genes are most likely on different chromosomes or why they are most likely on the same chromosome. ” KEY - How many points did you get? 2 points1 point— The response indicates that flies in the largest fraction of the F2 generation have these two traits, suggesting that the alleles for these traits are dominant.1 point— The response indicates that the ratio of phenotypes is 9:3:3:1, which is characteristic of a dihybrid cross with two genes that are on separate chromosomes.Unit 5 Practice FRQCell signaling in eukaryotes is often dependent on receptor proteins located in the plasma membrane. During the production of the mature mRNA molecules coding for these receptors, pre-mRNA molecules are processed to remove introns and to connect exons together. The exons contain the sequences that code for proteins. In certain instances, different mature mRNA molecules can be formed from the same pre-mRNA by alternative splicing, which results in different protein sequences in the resulting polypeptides. Figure 1 represents the expression of a gene with 5 exons that can be alternatively spliced to produce receptor protein A and receptor protein B.Explain how ligand A and ligand B can cause identical cellular responses in a cell.Start by reviewing some vocab for yourself. Define the following terms in your own words (don’t force yourself to make a perfect definition, just braindump about the word): introns, exons, splicing, polypeptide, ligandWhen it shows DNA -> mRNA what processes is that arrow representing?When it shows mRNA -> protein what process is that arrow representing?When it has arrows pointing to 2nd Messenger - describe what those arrows are representing.Describe what is similar about the ligand A & B parts of the image. Be specific.Now, look at the actual question: “Explain how ligand A and ligand B can cause identical cellular responses in a cell.” KEY – How many points did you get? 2 pointsNOTE: there has been a change to the AP exam since this question was written, now 1 bolded word = 1 point, so this question would either only be worth 1 point or they would have added a second bolded word to the question.Protein A and Protein B have the same intracellular domain/section 5 is the same. Protein A and Protein B activate the same signal transduction pathway/second messengerUnit 6 Practice FRQPigeon lice (Columbicola columbae) are small parasites that feed on the feathers of the rock pigeon (Columba livia). The lice are host-specific, and transmission of lice between pigeons requires direct contact. Pigeons remove the lice with their beaks as they clean their feathers. Figure 1 shows the black and white phenotypes for pigeon color and the dark and light phenotypes for louse color.Researchers designed an experiment to test the hypothesis that the evolution of coloration in lice is driven by birds. Researchers transferred 25 lice from a random sample of lice obtained from wild?caught rock pigeons to each individual in groups of black pigeons and white pigeons. Half of the pigeons from each color group were fitted with a harmless mouthpiece that stopped the beaks from entirely closing. The mouthpiece prevented pigeons from removing lice but did not affect the pigeons’ ability to feed. Each pigeon was isolated and kept in identical environmental conditions for temperature, humidity, and amount of light. The lice have a generation time of 24 days. The researchers observed the phenotypes of the lice over a period of four years.Describe the importance of phenotypic variation in louse body color among individuals in a population of lice. Justify the decision of the researchers to hold lighting conditions constant in their experiment. Predict the most likely effect of the pigeons cleaning their feathers on the phenotypes of the lice after four years. Provide reasoning to support your prediction.Make sense of both parts of the experiment above by describing it in your own words.Make a guess about what the relationship is between the terms louse and lice (what do they mean? are they related somehow?)This reminds of the peppered moth case study. If you remember the peppered moth case study, explain how it is similar to this. If you don’t know what I’m talking about - does this remind you of anything else we’ve learned about?Why are there different colors of lice (light and dark)? (What produces this variety and why does it matter?)It describes that the pigeons were “kept in identical environmental conditions for temperature, humidity, and amount of light.” Why does any of this matter? Make sure to specifically tell me about why the light matters.What do you think will happen at the end of 4 years? ExplainNow, look at the actual question above “Describe the importance of phenotypic variation in louse body color among individuals in a population of lice. Justify the decision of the researchers to hold lighting conditions constant in their experiment. Predict the most likely effect of the pigeons cleaning their feathers on the phenotypes of the lice after four years. Provide reasoning to support your prediction.” -> highlight above where you answered that question.KEY – How many points did you get? (4 points)Describe (1 point): increased variation increases the probability that some members of population will survive (and reproduce\Justify (1 point): since pigeons clean their feathers by sight, variable light conditions would affect the effectiveness of this behavior.Predict (1 point): The response includes one of the following predictions: Louse phenotypes that blended with their host’s feather color would increase in frequency. Louse phenotypes that contrasted with their host’s feather color would decrease in frequencyReasoning (1 point): lice with a contrasting coloration to the host feathers were removed before they could reproduce while lice with a similar coloration to the host feathers survived to reproduce. ................
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