FACC MYP YEAR 2 - Home

  • Docx File 27.19KByte



Chapter 9 Food, Soil, and Pest ManagementStudy Guide for TestHow to use this guide: For the assessments at the end of each chapter section, check your answers and add corrections to the work in your notebook.For the review on pp. 316-317, try to answer it before checking this guide to see if you got it right. In most cases, you probably did. Perhaps you left out a part of an answer, so make sure you review the entire answer. 9.1 Assessment1. Recall What are three health consequences of malnutrition?vulnerability to diseases, hindrance of physical and mental development, and vitamin and mineraldeficiencies2. Compare and Contrast How do you think your food sources compare to the breakdownshown in Figure 9-3?Sample answer: Unlike the diets described, I eat a fair amount of dairy, fruits, and vegetablesand don’t drink soda. Like the diets described, I do mainly eat grain-based foods.3. Explain How does grain used for meat production and biofuel contribute to food insecurity?Grain used for meat production and biofuels is diverted and not used as food for people.4. Draw Conclusions Do you think the challenges society faces with regard to feeding the world’s growing population is an example of the concept of ecological carrying capacity? Why or why not?Sample answer: Yes. Carrying capacity is the maximum population of a given species that aparticular habitat can sustain indefinitely. If we cannot grow enough food on Earth to sustain our population, then we have reached the ecological carrying capacity.5. Cause and Effect How could political, environmental, and economic issues impact foodsecurity?Political issues such as war, corruption, or political upheaval could lead to food shortages or lack of access to food. Environmental issues such as extreme weather or contamination of soil and water could make it more difficult to grow food. Economic issues, such as rising prices, could make food unaffordable.9.2 Assessment1. Compare and Contrast What are some similarities and differences between monocultureand polyculture agriculture?Both are methods used to grow crops. Monoculture involves growing a single crop and requires large inputs of energy as well as synthetic fertilizer and pesticides. Polyculture involves growing several crops on the same plot simultaneously and relies on solar energy and natural fertilizers.2. Explain What are GMOs and how are they produced?GMOs are genetically modified organisms. They are produced when scientists add, delete, orchange segments of an organism’s DNA and thus alter its genetic material.3. Infer How does biodiversity in food species contribute to food security?Biodiversity in food species helps prevent the reliance on only a few species for food. If anyone species is deeply affected by disease or environmental conditions, it could threatenour food security. Higher biodiversity of food species protects against the threat of losingfood supplies to disease or a sudden change in environmental conditions.4. Energy and Matter Recall from Chapter 3 how energy transfers between trophic levels. Why is more energy required to produce meat and fish products than to produce grains, vegetables, and other plant crops?Animals and fish occupy higher trophic levels of the food chain than grains, vegetables, and other plant crops.9.3 Assessment1. Synthesize Name one way that each of the three food production systems (crops, meat, and fish/shellfish) can result in environmental problems.Sample answer: Industrialized agriculture can lead to topsoil erosion and soil salinization. Meat production can lead to high levels of nutrients in runoff and algal blooms. Fish and shellfish production can lead to overfishing and depleted fisheries.2. List What are two ways that pollution impacts food security?Air pollution can lead to climate change, which can threaten crop production and food security. Contamination of soil by industrial pollutants can create harmful conditions for growing crops.3. Classify What is the difference between the environmental impacts of particles, such as dust and smoke, released from livestock production and greenhouse gases released from livestock production?Dust and other particulates degrade air quality and can cause respiratory problems in humans. Applying fertilizer and pesticides can spread harmful chemicals into the air. Ammonia from livestock can lead to acid rain and can alter the pH of water- and land-based ecosystems. The release of greenhouse gases results in atmospheric warming and climate change.4. Systems Describe two ways the industrialized meat production system interacts with Earth’s hydropshere.Feedlots and CAFOs use large amounts of water to irrigate feed crops for livestock and wash away animal wastes. Livestock production facilities may also pollute water supplies with animal wastes, hormones and antibiotics, and synthetic pesticides and fertilizers.9.4 Assessment1. Explain How is integrated pest management a more sustainable way to manage agricultural pests than using synthetic pesticides?A well-designed IPM program can cut synthetic pesticide use and pest control costs by at leasthalf, without reducing crop yields and food quality. IPM can also reduce inputs of fertilizerand irrigation water and slow the development of genetic resistance. Pests are treated lessoften and with lower doses of pesticides. IPM poses fewer risks to the environment, wildlife,and human health compared with the use of synthetic pesticides.2. Apply Imagine you have planted a garden and caterpillars are eating your plants. What stepswould you take to manage the issue? Explain your answer.Sample answer: I would use ladybugs, a natural predator of the caterpillars, as a biological control.9.5 Assessment1. Recall What are the barriers to cleaning up soil that has been polluted from salinization?Soil salinization cleanup methods are costly and time-consuming. They may require land to betaken out of production for a number of years, which farmers cannot always afford to do.2. Contrast What is the difference between aquaponics and polyaquaculture?Polyaquaculture operations raise fish or shrimp along with algae, seaweeds, and shellfish incoastal lagoons, ponds, and tanks. The wastes of the fish and shrimp feed the other species.In aquaponics, fish waste provides fertilizer for food crops that are grown in water. Theplants purify the water and provide oxygen and nutrients that support the fish.3. Apply What, if any, programs exist that allow your community to purchase local food products?Examples of programs that exist in the community are farmers markets, CSAs, or grocery stores that feature local foods.4. Infer How has the availability of natural resources, such as clean water and fertile soil, and natural hazards, such as drought and erosion, driven more sustainable food production processes?People have had to rethink food production to limit its impact on natural resources andto make it more resilient to environmental changes.Answers to questions on p. 316Review Key Terms1. food security2. topsoil3. industrialized agriculture4. food insecurity5. subsidy6. aquaculture7. desertification8. soil salinization9. agrobiodiversityReview Key Concepts10. Food security is having access to enough safe, nutritious foods for a healthy and activelifestyle. Food insecurity is the lack of access to nutritious food.11. grain production from croplands; meat production from rangelands, pastures, and feedlots; fish and shellfish production12. a form of traditional agriculture that produces only enough food for a farm family’ssurvival, with little left over to sell or store 13. Crossbreeding through artificial selection develops genetically improved crops andlivestock that combine specific desirable traits from species that are genetically similar.Genetic engineering is achieved through gene splicing, in which segments of an organism’s DNA can be combined with any other organism’s DNA to produce desirable traits or eliminate undesirable ones.14. CAFOs produce harmful health and environmental effects. The disadvantages of CAFOs are the use of growth hormones and antibiotics, the latter of which increases resistance of microbes, and overcrowding of animals, which leads to excessive runoff of wastes that pollutes the air and water.15. Compost contributes to the sustainability of food production by improving topsoil structure, adding nitrogen, and stimulating the growth of beneficial soil bacteria and fungi.16. Soil is a mixture of eroded rock, mineral nutrients, decaying organic matter, water, air,and organisms, most of which are microscopic decomposers. Soil formation begins when bedrock is slowly broken down into fragments and particles by physical, chemical, and biological processes called weathering. The layers are the O horizon (leaf litter), A horizon (topsoil), B horizon (subsoil), and C horizon (parent material).17. Desertification leads to the productive potential of topsoil falling by 10% or more. Themost extreme cases result in desert conditions and water scarcity.18. GMOs can take half as long to develop and cost less than traditional crossbreeding. Thepotential exists to develop new GMO varieties of crops that grow faster, can survive with littleor no irrigation and less fertilizer and pesticides, and are resistant to heat, cold, drought, insect pests, parasites, viral diseases, and salty or acidic soil. However, some producers of GMOs could control most of the world’s food production and food prices. GMOs can also increase use of herbicides, and pollination of GMOs can cross over to organic crops and render them unable to be labeled organic.19. Biodiversity is threatened when forests are cleared and when croplands replace grasslandsto produce food and biofuels. Agrobiodiversity has also decreased.20. More generous subsidies are paid to farmers for raising corn in order to feed the ethanol business of making fuel for vehicles. Corn removes nitrogen from the soil and reduces the ability of soil to remove and store carbon from the atmosphere. To increase farmland, farmers grow corn on retired erodible land that reduces the amount of topsoil.21. Sample answer: Individuals can “vote with their forks” by purchasing foods that are loweron the food chain, are produced organically, are in season or grown locally, or are producedusing other sustainable practices. Individuals can ask questions of the grocer, butcher, fishseller, and other salespeople about where the food came from and how it was produced.When dining out, the same questions can be asked. Individuals can educate themselvesabout sustainable food production and take action accordingly.23. Sample answers should include some of the following information: GMOs produce morefood at lower cost to consumers and take half as long as creating natural hybrid organisms.GMOs are being developed to grow in difficult conditions such as heat, cold, drought, and saltyand acidic soil and to be resistant to parasites, viruses, and herbicides. Opposition includes thepossibility of monopolies by seed companies (that can control food prices) and increased useof herbicides. The support for organic perennial polyculture is strong because it reduces harmful environmental and health effects, improves topsoil, reduces air and water pollution, and perennial plants grow in the same plots year after year. Using solar energy reduces the amount of fossil fuels used in agriculture and makes greater use of wind, flowing water, and biofuels produced from farm wastes. The opposition cites the amount of time it will take to convert to this system.24. Sample answer: An increase in the cost of fossil fuels would increase the cost of foodbecause fossil fuels are used in large quantities to transport food, run farm machinery andfishing vessels, pump irrigation water for crops, and produce synthetic pesticides and syntheticinorganic fertilizers. I might be less able to afford nutritious foods. The next generation will pay higher food costs than the current generation, and there even could be food shortages. To deal with these changes, individuals can put pressure on governments to stop subsidizing industrial farming, demand more sustainable farming methods, grow their own food, or purchase only organic food.25. Answers should mention: Use synthetic pesticides, create habitat for pestenemies, use pheromones and hormones, and reduce breeding grounds such as standing water. ................
................

In order to avoid copyright disputes, this page is only a partial summary.

Google Online Preview   Download