Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Cognitive Development: the ways in which thinking and reasoning grow and change.

| |Name of Stage |Approximate Age | |

|Stage One |Sensorimotor | | |

| | |Birth – |At this young age knowledge is tied to movements and |

| | |~2 years |objects in the environment (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing) |

| | | | |

| | | |in the beginning lacks Object permanence: awareness that objects continue to be when not perceived, hidden, will search for |

| | | |hidden objects |

|Stage Two |Preoperational | | |

| | | |At this point logical thought is still lacking; limited ability to see things from more than one perspective (egocentric); |

| | | |acquire language and the ability to use symbols. |

| | | | |

| | |2-6 years |Lacks Reversibility: the ability to work backwards through mental processes, undo |

| | | | |

| | | |Lack Conservation: the principle that a quantity remains the same despite changes in shape |

|Stage Three |Concrete operational | | |

| | | |In this stage the child understands arithmetic, conservation, reversability |

| | |7-11 years | |

|Stage Four |Formal operational | | |

| | | |At this stage the ability to deal with abstract concepts, understand imagined realities and symbolism, solving hypothetical |

| | |12-adulthood |propositions |

Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development

This theory is based on people’s reasoning behind their decisions and can be broken down into 3 primary categories.

Level Ages Description

|Preconventional |0-6 | |

|Level | |Obey to either avoid punishment or to receive rewards. Reward could be something tangible or doing something that feel |

| | |good or right (altruistic). The reference group is the self ultimately. |

|Conventional |7-12 |The ability to take other’s perspective and to uphold laws and rules because of the fact that they are laws and rules shape|

|Level | |this stage. Actions may be motivated by social approval or to maintain social order. |

|Postconventional |13+ | |

|Level | |Will parallel formal operational abstract thinking. This stage allows someone to affirm agreed upon rights and ethical |

| | |priciples, even in the case that these principles go against the law. Some may never reach this stage. (This stage has |

| | |not been found to be universal in all cultures and all genders so is controversial.) |

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

| |Ages | | | |What issues concern the child at this stage? |

|Stage |associated with stage | | | | |

| | |Trust |versus |Mistrust |If needs are met, child develops a sense of trust |

|Stage One |Infancy- | | | | |

| |1 year | | | | |

|Stage Two | |Autonomy |versus |Shame |Develops a need to do things for themselves or will doubt their abilities |

| |1-2 years | | | | |

|Stage Three | |Initiative |versus |Guilt |Initiate and carry out tasks or feel guilty for not being independent (potty training?) |

| |3-5 years | | | | |

|Stage Four | |Industry |versus |Inferiority |Gain pleasure form applying themselves or feel inferior (Do I have worth?) |

| |6 to adolescence |(Competence) | | | |

|Stage Five | |Identiy |versus |Identity Confusion |Testing roles and integrating to form a single identity or will be confused about self |

| |Adolescence | | | | |

| |Teens-20s | | | | |

|Stage Six | |Intimacy |versus |Isolation |Forming close, intimate relationships or feel socially isolated |

| |Young adult | | | | |

| |20s-early 40s | | | | |

|Stage Seven | |Generativity |versus |Stagnation |Develop of sense of contribution to the world or feel lack of purpose |

| |Middle adult | | | | |

| |40s-60s | | | | |

|Stage Eight | |Ego Integrity |versus |Ego Despair |Have I lived a full life? Satisfaction or failure? |

| |Late adult | | | | |

| |60+ | | | | |

FREUD’S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT

The development of id, ego, and superego. The road to healthy sexuality.

|Stage |Age |Description |

| | |Infant’s “please seeking” is focused on the mouth. Freud ties all of these stages to underlying erotic pleasure seeking behavior. In a more |

|Oral |Infancy- ~18 mo |general sense, oral stimulation at this stage is satisfying and soothing. |

| | | |

| | |Infant’s “pleasure seeking” is focused on processes of elimination (going to the bathroom). Child is learning to curb freedom and learn social |

|Anal |~18 mo- 3 years |control through toilet training |

| | |Children start obtaining pleasure from their genital area. They become very aware of differences between boys and girls. This is a stage ridden |

|Phallic |3-6 years |with conflict according to Freud as children begin competing for the affections of the opposite sex parent. (Oedipus and Electra Complex) They |

| | |beginning identifying with the same sex parent and taking on those characteristics. |

| | | |

| | | |

| | |Sexual desires are suppressed, and children begin to explore their world and learn new things, especially socially. Process of sublimation: |

|Latency |~6 – puberty |redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks. |

| | | |

| | |Sexual desires are renewed; individual seeks relationships with others. Giving pleasure is often as rewarding as receiving it. Freud believes |

|Genital |Adolescence |that personality development is complete at the onset of this stage. |

| | | |

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