Women's Rights: 1600 to Present
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42125903885565Mrudula Chitti, Sam Smith, Jacob Aguilar, and Leslie Gallo00Mrudula Chitti, Sam Smith, Jacob Aguilar, and Leslie Gallocentercentera.p.u.s.h.Women's Rights: 1600 to Present900000a.p.u.s.h.Women's Rights: 1600 to PresentWomen, since early times in human history, were considered to be inferior to men. With their relatively wide hips and small heads, they were automatically presumed to be designed for childbearing and a lifestyle free of thought: or, in other words, confined to managing the family in roles as housewives. Life in the 1600s was not did not stray far from these traditions, and allotted practically all power in its era to its men. The men received the social rights to full educations, to property, and to vote, and the women were seen as, essentially, second-class citizens, relying on their husbands or fathers for near everything. Accordingly, the 1600s woman was provided with only a minimal education, whether this be at home or at an elementary school; the luckier, upper-class women were sometimes gifted with private tutors, considered a luxury at the time and, thus, suitable to their considerably carefree lifestyles. (In addition, these upper-class women, such as those of the Tudors, would often employ many housewives to help maintain their estates- while women were still expected to do housework, wealthy women were somewhat exempt by virtue of their prosperity.) However, to say that no females pursued a life outside the home would be a complete overstatement. Although low in numbers, there were women who pursued careers in the literary (such as Charlotte Gordon, who wrote Mistress Bradsheet: The Untold Life of America's First Pet) or textile fields, or who ran business accounts. Still, there were those few who spoke outwardly in manners that were generally reserved for men in the time period- such as Anne Hutchinson, who was excommunicated from the Puritan church for questioning its beliefs in 1638. The Puritan ideology was an important facet of 17th century life, in which many women served in the roles of "Goodwives," where they essentially maintained the economy of the household and ran the house itself. They were often married, and, like the rest of society in this time period, served as secondary when placed adjacent to men. Women who were unmarried or widowed were commonly looked upon as outcasts, as visualized in the 1692 Salem Witch Trials- a series of cases in which numerous civilians were tried under suspicion of being witches. Many females were brought to the stand as untrustworthy often based on the mere fact that they did not have a living husband, only serving to emphasize the unbreakable ties between a woman and family life in the 1600s. The 1700s did not differ very much from the 1600s. Although this time period was characteristically marked by the American Revolution and the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution in 1776 and 1787, respectively, women were not very involved in either aspect. In the words of Sir William Blackstone in 1753, "legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or is at least incorporated and consolidated in the will of the husband," and, unfortunately, not much about that ideology had altered by 1776. Despite the fact that various women had served as nurses, cooks, or laundresses as they followed their husbands in the army during the battle, it appeared that a female's only place in politics was in the policy of Republican motherhood, or the concept that it was a mother's job to raise her children with values representing the new form of government- therefore, the Constitution and Declaration of Independence's provisions for civil rights focused their attention on men, driving forth some annoyance by the feminist population. While it was by no means a popular or accepted viewpoint to promote women's rights, these advocates certainly existed. A classic example of one would be Abigail Adams, wife of 2nd U.S. president John Adams, who often advised him with the government and frequently proposed women's rights. Regardless, a women's place in American society stayed roughly constant from 1600-1800. They were still primarily a class of mothers and housewives, and the U.S. was not yet ready to regularly view them as anything more.By the early 1800s, women were branching out from their family homes and starting different associations, such as charities and women's refuges. Since they would be the caretakers of America's future statesmen and the like, many people thought it was a good idea to give women proper educations: and, thus, women began to start teaching and even managing some institutions. Because of later pushes for equality, women would also start pushing alongside abolitionists, for equality of sexes and people of color. As industrialization began to gain momentum,?the amount of women working would increase, as would the number in labor unions which pushed for better pay and safety regulations in the workplace. Regardless of these developments, however, the majority of women were continued to be expected to remain largely within household activities. Society was still very patriarchic, and women were, primarily, still confined by social standards to family life. During the time period of?1851?to?1900, women were still oppressed and expected to stay home with the children. They were the nurturers and care givers of the family while men worked and were paid. However, there are some notable women who lived during this time as well.?Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton?became active in the?Women's New York State Temperance Society in 1852. This society worked to decrease the flow of alcohol and was?pro-prohibition. This year also was home to the publishing of?Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin." This novel described the horrors a slave experienced throughout his life and ended up affecting many people in the North with?anti-slavery?sentiments. In?1869, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony?once again arrived on the scene and created the?National Woman Suffrage Association. The association was created to try and gain women the right to vote in presidential elections. Subsequently, in?1872, Susan B. Anthony?was arrested for attempting to vote in the presidential election.?Alice Freeman Palmer, in?1881, became president of?Wellesley College, the first ever women college president in America.?1881?was also when?Clara Barton, who had been a nurse during the?Civil War?on the side of the North, founded the?Red Cross. In?1885, sharpshooter Annie Oakley?started touring with?Buffalo Bill?in their?Wild West Show; she was one of the best shots in the country. Then, in?1887, Helen Keller, blind and deaf, begins to be taught by?Anne Sullivan. She eventually went to college and graduated as well. A mere two years later (1889),?Hull House?is opened by?Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr in Chicago, created to help those unfortunate and from other countries looking for a place to find friends and comfort. In?1899, however, the?militant prohibitionist?Carrie Nation?begins her crusades and her group of women to on riots in a strong fit of anti-alcohol violence.In 1906, Susan B. Anthony died. 1920s, a sexual revolution began and women wanted a part; the flappers and vamps were borne unto the world. Also, 1920 the women's right to vote is granted; the 14th Amendment! In 1921, Amelia Earhart took her first flying lesson and Margaret Sanger founds the American Birth Control League. 1923, Bessie Smith began her rise to fame and Edna St. Vincent Millay is the first woman to win the Pulitzer prize for poetry. This was also the year the Equal Rights Amendment appeared in Congress. 1929, the first three Nancy Drew novels are contracted by Mildred Wirt. 1932, Amelia Earhart's solo Atlantic flight! France Perkins becomes the first female cabinet member as Secretary of Labor in 1933. 1935, Eleanor Roosevelt starts her newspaper column "My Day." World War Two hits! Women flood the workplace, though many still remained at home, and Rosie the Riveter becomes a national icon.?Throughout the time period from the 1950s to present time women finally were able to get the rights they deserve. Women’s lifestyle changed throughout this time period. In the 1950s, most women were still stay at home wives and just cooked, cleaned and took care of the children. Some women were trying to start a career and make their own money. As the years progressed, women were able to get the same jobs that men had. Also more women were getting accepted into college and getting a degree. Since 1982 women have earned more university degrees than men. In politics women were seen as second class citizens. They had the right to vote but as of 1960 only 234 of 7700 state legislators and no governors were women, but that soon changed. More and more women started to be into politics. Just a few years ago we had a woman run for president. As you can see today women seem to have more power than they did back then. The most important that has changed is that women went from depending on men, to becoming independent and not having to rely on men. Now women make their own money and can take care of themselves. Women just seem to be getting stronger as the years go by.Terms:Charlotte GordonSalem Witch TrialsDeclaration of IndependenceConstitutionAmerican RevolutionTudorsRepublican motherhoodSecond-class citizensMinimal educationAbigail AdamsJohn AdamsPuritan ChurchPuritan IdeologyElizabeth Cady StantonSusan B. AnthonyWomen's New York State Temperance Society (1852)- a society that advocated for the female vote, the right to divorce drunkard husbands, and temperance.Temperance- social movement urging reduced or prohibited use of alcoholic beveragesSlave- a person in bondage to another person forced to do labor and such for themAnti-slavery- people against slaveryHarriet Beecher StoweUncle Tom's Cabin- a book detailing the horrible life of a slave. It caused anti-slavery sentiments to stir.National Women's Suffrage Association- an association dedicated to gaining the women's right to vote.Suffrage- the right to vote legallyAlice Freeman PalmerWellesley CollegeClara BartonCivil WarRed Cross- an organisation dedicated to the betterment of people through health and charityAnnie OakleyBuffalo BillWild West ShowHelen KellerAnne SullivanHull House- a home opened as a refuge to immigrants and the poorJane AddamsEllen Gates StarrChicagoMilitant Prohibitionist- people against alcohol to strongly they would stage protests, boycotts, riots, etcCarrie NationSusan B. AnthonyFlappers- teases who wanted to experience freedom in the 20s and would smoke, wear short dresses, drink, and party.Vamps- sexual women who were racy during the 20s. They were like flappers but more intense.Women's Suffrage- the right to vote as a female14th Amendment- the right to vote no matter what race, gender, sexual orientationAmelia EarhartMargaret SangerAmerican Birth Control League- a league dedicated to gaining women's contraception so that unplanned pregnancy would be less of an issueBessie SmithEdna St. Vincent MillayPulitzer Prize- a prize awarded in the categories of literature, musical composition, and journalism, and newspaperEqual Rights Amendment- the amendment passed guaranteeing equal pay and treatment in the workplaceCongressNancy Drew novelsMildred WiltAmelia EarhartFrances PerkinsSecretary of Labor- The United States Secretary of Labor is the head of the U.S. Department of Labor who exercises control over the department and enforces and suggests laws involving unions, the workplace, and all other issues involving any form of business-person controversies.Eleanor RooseveltWorld War TwoRosie the Riveter ................
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